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ID: 300010957

 

Record Type: concept
bronze (metal) (copper alloy, <copper and copper alloy>, ... Materials (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
 
Terms:
bronze (metal) (preferred,C,U,LC,English-P,D,U,N)
bronze (metal) (French-P,D,U,N)
copper-tin alloy (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
青銅 (金屬) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
qīng tóng (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
qing tong (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ch'ing t'ung (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
brons (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
bronce (metal) (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of inorganic material
................ inorganic material (G)
Hierarchy of metal
.................... metal (G)
Hierarchy of <metal by composition or origin>
........................ <metal by composition or origin> (G)
Hierarchy of nonferrous metal
............................ nonferrous metal (G)
Hierarchy of <copper and copper alloy>
................................ <copper and copper alloy> (G)
Hierarchy of copper alloy
.................................... copper alloy (G)
Hierarchy of bronze (metal)
........................................ bronze (metal) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 意指各種銅的合金,尤指任何非含鐵的銅、錫以及鋅和其他微量金屬的合金。青銅的製成可追溯到西元前三千年之前,最早可能出現於西元前一萬年前,雖然青銅普遍用於各式工具和裝飾性物品,但只有透過後期的手工藝品才能確認其年代。銅和錫的使用比例差異甚大,現存的古老手工藝品中,銅的含量從百分之七十到九十五不等。因為以銅為基底,青銅可能會非常具有延展性且和容易精工細做。到了中古世紀的歐洲,一般公認使用一定比例的各類金屬,可以產生出特定的屬性。部分現代青銅的成分完全不含錫,而是以鋁、鎂,甚或是鋅等的其他金屬來取代。就歷史意義而言,此一詞彙是可以和「黃銅薄片」(latten)交互使用的。美國標準的青銅是由百分之九十的銅、百分之七的錫,以及百分之三的鋅所組合而成。古代的青銅合金有時候含有高達百分之十四的錫。  
Dutch ..... Koperlegering die als belangrijkste legeringselement niet nikkel of zink heeft. 
Spanish ..... Aleación de cobre con un elemento principal de la aleación que sea un metal, excepto níquel o zinc.  

Related concepts:
meaning/usage overlaps with ....  latten
..................................................  (brass (alloy), copper alloy, ... Materials (hierarchy name)) [300198675]

Sources and Contributors:
青銅 (金屬)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.................  國家教育研究院-雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網 March 13, 2012
.................  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 March 13, 2012
.................  大英視覺藝術百科全書 Vol. 9, 173
.................  故宮後設資料需求規格書 19
.................  智慧藏百科全書網 March 13, 2012
.................  藝術名詞與技法辭典 61
bronce (metal)............  [CDBP-DIBAM Preferred]
.............................  Ching, Diccionario Visual de Arquitectura (1997) 213
.............................  Malgorn, Diccionario Técnico (1996) 92
brons............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
..............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
..............  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
bronze (metal)............  [CHIN Preferred, GCI Preferred, VP Preferred]
.............................  AATA database (2002-) 121260 checked 26 January 2012
.............................  Avery Index (1963-) (source AAT) - subhead.
.............................  Brady and Clauser, Materials Handbook (1977) 112
.............................  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-)
.............................  CHIN database (1988-)
.............................  Hornbostel, Construction Materials (1978) 139
.............................  Museum Prototype Project, Medium of Objects Frequency Report (1985)
.............................  National Museum of American Art, Media Thesaurus (1980s)
.............................  RIBA, Architectural Keywords (1982)
.............................  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990)
.............................  Scott, Metallography and Microstructure (1991) GLOS
.............................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
ch'ing t'ung............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica
copper-tin alloy............  [VP]
.............................  Personal Communication Tom Chase, Conservator, Freer Gallery of Art, 1/93.
qing tong............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  AS-Academia Sinica
qīng tóng............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  AS-Academia Sinica
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-DIBAM, CHIN, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 121260 checked 26 January 2012
............  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) copper-tin alloys
............  CHIN database (1988-)
............  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 23 August 2007
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-) accessed 1 December 2007
.......... Scott, Metallography and Microstructure (1991)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-DIBAM]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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