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ID: 300343598
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300343598

 

Record Type: concept
pietra dura (visual works) (opus sectile (visual works), <visual works by material or technique>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Inlaid works in which pieces of hard, polished stone have been set into marble or another hard surface; a Florentine specialty often used for decorative table tops and small wall panels. The singular form, "pietra dura," is used within Italy to refer to works incorporating a single type of stone; but outside Italy it refers to works using combinations of stones. Pietra dura works were carved in classical Rome, and the techniques for cutting such hard stones were revived in 16th-century Florence, where a workshop established under the patronage of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici produced decorative panels; the workshop was refounded in 1588 as the Opificio delle Pietre Dure. The hardstones used are semi-precious stones, typically agate, chalcedony, jasper and lapis lazuli, but do not include marble or precious stones. Stones of the requisite hardness for such work generally fall between 6 and 10 on Mohs' scale of hardness, i.e. between orthoclase and diamond (lapis lazuli being the notable exception).
 
Terms:
pietra dura (visual works) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,U)
pietra dura (beeldmateriaal) (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
pietre dure (visual works) (C,U,English,AD,U,U)
pietre dure (visual works) (Italian-P,D,U,U)
pietre dure (visual works) (Spanish-P,D,U,U)
Florentine mosaics (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
硬石鑲嵌 (視覺作品) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
大理石鑲嵌工藝 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
yìng shí xiāng qiān (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
ying shi xiang qian (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ying shih hsiang ch'ien (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
Florentiner Mosaiken (C,U,German,D,PN)
Pietra dura (C,U,German-P,AD,SN)
Florentiner Mosaik (C,U,German,UF,SN)
Pietre dure (C,U,German,UF,PN)
mosaicos florentinos (C,U,Spanish,UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.VC

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)
.... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Visual Works (hierarchy name)
........ Visual Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of visual works (works)
............ visual works (works) (G)
Hierarchy of <visual works by material or technique>
................ <visual works by material or technique> (G)
Hierarchy of opus sectile (visual works)
.................... opus sectile (visual works) (G)
Hierarchy of pietra dura (visual works)
........................ pietra dura (visual works) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 將堅硬、拋光的碎石置入大理石或其他堅硬表面的鑲嵌作品,乃創始於佛羅倫斯的一種專業技能,通常用於桌面與牆板裝飾。以「pietra dura」此單數名詞出現時,在義大利境內是指使用單一石材者,但在義大利以外則是指使用多種石頭之作品。此工藝在古典羅馬時代便已出現:十六世紀時,在科西莫‧梅迪奇大公(Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici)的贊助下,佛羅倫斯的工作坊開始生產裝飾性鑲板,此後硬石切割的技術便再次流行;此工作坊在1588年以佛羅倫斯考古修復博物館(Opificio delle Pietre Dure)之名重新揭牌,其所採用者皆為半寶石,通常為瑪瑙、玉髓、碧玉和青金等類的硬石,但不包含大理石與寶石。一般而言,在莫氏硬度表6至10級,大約介於正長石與鑽石之間的石頭硬度者方合乎此工藝之石種要求,但青金石為其中特例。 
Dutch ..... Inlegwerk waarbij men harde en gepolijste steentjes in marmer of een ander hard materiaal heeft gezet. Een Florentijnse specialiteit, vaak gebruikt voor decoratieve tafelbladen en kleine wandpanelen. Het enkelvoud ���pietra dura' verwijst in Italië naar inlegwerk met één enkele steensoort, maar buiten Italië gebruikt men de term ook wanneer er sprake is van meerdere steensoorten. Dit soort inlegwerk maakte men al in het klassieke Rome, en de gebruikte technieken voor het snijden van de harde steensoorten werden in de zestiende eeuw opnieuw toegepast in Florence. Daar creëerde men onder de bescherming van groothertog Cosimo I de' Medici een werkplaats waar decoratieve panelen werden gemaakt. In 1588 kreeg dit atelier de naam Opificio delle Pietre Dure. De harde stenen die men gebruikte waren halfedelstenen als agaat, chalcedon, jaspis en lazuursteen. Men gebruikte geen marmer of edelstenen. Over het algemeen hebben de stenen een hardheid tussen 6 en 10 op de hardheidsschaal van Mohs, dat wil zeggen: een hardheid tussen die van orthoklaas en diamant in (lazuursteen is een uitzondering).  
German ..... Intarsie, bei der Stücke von hartem, poliertem Stein in Marmor oder eine andere harte Oberfläche eingesetzt wurden; eine Florentiner Besonderheit, oft für dekorative Tischplatten und kleine Wandtafeln verwendet. Die Singularform "Pietra dura" wird in Italien in Bezug auf Arbeiten verwendet, in die eine einzelne Art von Stein eingearbeitet sind; aber außerhalb von Italien bezieht sie sich auf Arbeiten, die Kombinationen von Steinen verwenden. Pietra-dura-Arbeiten wurden im klassischen Rom geschnitten und die Techniken des Schneidens von solch harten Steinen wurden im Florenz des 16. Jahrhuderts wiederbelebt, wo eine Werkstatt, die mit der Unterstützung des Großhezogs Cosimo I. de' Medici eingerichtet wurde, Zierplatten herstellte; die Werkstatt wurde 1588 als das Opificio delle Pietre Dure wiedergegründet. Die verwendeten harten Steine waren Halbedelsteine, üblicherweise Achat, Chalcedon, Jaspis und Lapislazuli, aber beziehen nicht Marmor oder Edelsteine ein. Steine mit der für diese Arbeiten erforderlichen Härte fallen allgemein zwischen 6 und 10 auf Mohs' Härteskala, das heißt zwischen Orthoklas und Diamant (Lapislazuli ist die bemerkenswerte Ausnahme). 
Spanish ..... Trabajo de incrustación en que piezas de piedra dura y pulida son puestas en mármol u otra superficie dura. 

Related concepts:
created by ....  pietra dura artists
..................  (<artists by medium or work type>, artists (visual artists), ... People (hierarchy name)) [300386320]
distinguished from ....  intarsia (process)
..................................  (marquetry (process or technique), <surface covering processes and techniques>, ... Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name)) [300053852]
meaning/usage overlaps with ....  commessi (visual works)
..................................................  (opus sectile (visual works), <visual works by material or technique>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)) [300265241]

Sources and Contributors:
硬石鑲嵌 (視覺作品)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.......................  藝術名詞與技法辭典 342
大理石鑲嵌工藝............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Florentine mosaics............  [VP]
...................................  Grove Art Online (2008-)
Florentiner Mosaik............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
...................................  GND - Gemeinsame Normdatei http://d-nb.info/gnd/4404034-9
Florentiner Mosaiken............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
...................................  AAT-Deutsch (2012-)
mosaicos florentinos............  [VP]
...................................  TAA database (2000-)
pietra dura (visual works)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
...............................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
...............................................  Grove Art Online (2008-) accessed 14 October 2010
...............................................  Rogers, Islamic Art & Design, 1500-1700 (1983) glossary
...............................................  Schneider, Guide to Inventorying Ethnological Collections (1970)
Pietra dura............  [IfM-SMB-PK Preferred]
.......................  Duden [online] (2011-) http://www.duden.de/node/686750/revisions/1268828/view
.......................  GND - Gemeinsame Normdatei http://d-nb.info/gnd/4404034-9
.......................  Jahn, Wörterbuch der Kunst (1979) 392
pietre dure (visual works)............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, ICCD Preferred, VP]
...............................................  ICCD database (1988-)
...............................................  Lucie-Smith, Diccionario de Términos de Arte (1997)
...............................................  Lucie-Smith, Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Art Terms (1986) singular form should strictly be kept for mosaic work containing stones of one type.
...............................................  Oxford Companion to Art (1984) 871, term applies to a partic. kind of mosaic work in colored stone are used to imitate painting.
...............................................  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990)
Pietre dure............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......................  AAT-Deutsch (2012-)
ying shih hsiang ch'ien............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.........................................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
ying shi xiang qian............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
yìng shí xiāng qiān............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, ICCD, IfM-SMB-PK, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990) precoor.; Byzantine pietre dure
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Grove Art Online (2008-)
.......... Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1969)
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
.......... Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
German .......... [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......... IfM Berlin
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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