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ID: 300265726
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300265726

 

Record Type: concept
bi (ceremonial disk) (funerary sculpture, <sculpture by function>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Neolithic Chinese objects in the form of a flat disk with a hole in the center. The term bi is applied to wide disks with proportionately small central holes, made from jade or other stone, and found at burial sites. There is much speculation on the function of these objects, though they are generally thought to represent the heavens or the sun. Bi have continued to be used as a form of regalia and as decorative objects well into the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They are often seen as related to the "cong (ceremonial vessel)," which represented the earth.
 
Terms:
bi (ceremonial disk) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,L,PN)
bi (ceremonial disk) (Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)-P,D,U,PN)
pi disk (C,U,English,UF,U,SN)
bi disks (ceremonial disk) (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
bi discs (ceremonial disk) (C,U,English,UF,U,SN)
jade disc (ceremonial disk) (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
pi (ceremonial disk) (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
pi (ceremonial disk) (Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles),UF,U,N)
(C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,N)
bi-schijven (ceremoniële objecten) (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
bi-schijf (C,U,Dutch,AD,U,U)
disque pi (C,U,French-P,AD,U,MSN)
Bi-Scheiben (C,U,German,D,PN)
Bi-Scheibe (C,U,German-P,AD,SN)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.VC

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)
.... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Visual Works (hierarchy name)
........ Visual Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of visual works (works)
............ visual works (works) (G)
Hierarchy of <visual works by material or technique>
................ <visual works by material or technique> (G)
Hierarchy of sculpture (visual works)
.................... sculpture (visual works) (G)
Hierarchy of <sculpture by function>
........................ <sculpture by function> (G)
Hierarchy of funerary sculpture
............................ funerary sculpture (G)
Hierarchy of bi (ceremonial disk)
................................ bi (ceremonial disk) (G)

Additional Notes:
Dutch ..... Neolithisch Chinees ceremonieel voorwerp in de vorm van een schijf met een gat in het midden. Meestal gemaakt van jade en aangetroffen op grafplaatsen. Er wordt volop gespeculeerd over de functie van deze voorwerpen, maar de algemene gedachte is dat ze de hemel of de zon symboliseren. 
German ..... Chinesisches Zeremonialobjekt aus dem Neolithikum in Form einer Scheibe mit zentralem Loch, meistens aus Jade gefertigt und an Begräbnisplätzen gefunden. Die Diskussion um die Funktion dieser Objekte ist noch nicht abgeschlossen, jedoch werden Sie üblicherweise als Repräsentationen des Himmels oder der Sonne verstanden.  

Related concepts:
related to ....  cong (ceremonial vessel)
..................  (vessels (containers), <containers by form>, ... Furnishings and Equipment (hierarchy name)) [300265725]

Sources and Contributors:
璧............  [VP]
........  Personal Communication, Julia Grimes, Getty Research Institute (2014)
bi (ceremonial disk)............  [VP Preferred]
...................................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 2 March 2006
...................................  Freer Gallery and Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian [online] (2003-) accessed 2 March 2006
...................................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) accessed 2 March 2006
...................................  National Gallery of Art, Washington online (2001-)
...................................  Thorp and Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture (2001)
bi discs (ceremonial disk)............  [VP]
...............................................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008)
bi disks (ceremonial disk)............  [VP]
...............................................  Grove Art Online (2008-)
Bi-Scheibe............  [IfM-SMB-PK Preferred, VP]
.......................  Hain, SAETI (2013) 191
.......................  Kausch , China (2012) 445
.......................  Strauss, Lexikon der Kunst (1987-2004) 1:526
Bi-Scheiben............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......................  AAT-Deutsch (2012-)
bi-schijf............  [RKD, AAT-Ned]
....................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
bi-schijven (ceremoniële objecten)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
...........................................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
disque pi............  [AASLH, CHIN / RCIP]
....................  AASLH data (2016-)
....................  CHIN / RCIP translation (2016-)
....................  Nomenclature database (2018-) http://nomenclature.info/nom/13002; scheme: Nomenclature-Objects
....................  Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging / Nomenclature pour le catalogage translation project (2016-) 13002
jade disc (ceremonial disk)............  [VP]
...............................................  British Museum [online] (1999-) "Jade disc, or bi;" accessed 7 April 2014
pi (ceremonial disk)............  [VP]
...................................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) "bi," accessed 10 July 2008
pi disk............  [AASLH Preferred, CHIN / RCIP Preferred, VP]
.................  AASLH data (2016-)
.................  CHIN / RCIP translation (2016-)
.................  Nomenclature database (2018-) http://nomenclature.info/nom/13002; scheme: Nomenclature-Objects
.................  Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging / Nomenclature pour le catalogage translation project (2016-) 13002
 
Subject: .....  [AASLH, CHIN / RCIP, IfM-SMB-PK, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AASLH data (2016-)
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
............  CHIN / RCIP translation (2016-)
............  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
............  Grove Art Online (2003-2008)
............  National Gallery of Australia, online (2005)
............  Nomenclature database (2018-) http://nomenclature.info/nom/13002; scheme: Nomenclature-Objects
............  Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging / Nomenclature pour le catalogage translation project (2016-)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
.......... National Gallery of Art, Washington online (2001-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
German .......... [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......... IfM Berlin

 

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