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ID: 300264837
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300264837

 

Record Type: concept
literati (painters) (<artists by subject or style of work>, artists (visual artists), ... People (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to artists working in China beginning around 1100, and in Korea and Japan in later periods. They are characterized by being primarily scholars and gentlemen, which they held made them distinct from, and superior to, professional painters and craftsmen. They believed that an art work revealed the character of the person who painted it and that quality in art was dependent upon the moral rectitude and intellect of the artist. They typically integrated poetry, calligraphy, and simple monochromatic painting into a single work. Their works often had a learned literary content. They preferred calligraphic expressionism over realistic and detailed depictions, often making allusions to antique styles and using deliberately primitive or naive techniques. Motifs such as bamboo, plum, or flowers were used to showcase brushwork.
 
Terms:
literati (painters) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,PN)
literati (painters) (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
literati (pintor) (Spanish-P,D,U,SN)
literati painters (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
scholar-painters (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
painters, literati (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
文人學士 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
文人畫家 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
wén rén xué shì (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
wen ren xue shi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
wen jen hsüeh shih (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  H.HG

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Agents Facet
Agents Facet
Hierarchy of People (hierarchy name)
.... People (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of people (agents)
........ people (agents) (G)
Hierarchy of <people by occupation>
............ <people by occupation> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the humanities>
................ <people in the humanities> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the arts and related occupations>
.................... <people in the arts and related occupations> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the arts>
........................ <people in the arts> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the visual arts and related occupations>
............................ <people in the visual arts and related occupations> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the visual arts>
................................ <people in the visual arts> (G)
Hierarchy of artists (visual artists)
.................................... artists (visual artists) (G)
Hierarchy of <artists by subject or style of work>
........................................ <artists by subject or style of work> (G)
Hierarchy of literati (painters)
............................................ literati (painters) (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Agents Facet
Agents Facet
Hierarchy of People (hierarchy name)
.... People (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of people (agents)
........ people (agents) (G)
Hierarchy of <people by occupation>
............ <people by occupation> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the humanities>
................ <people in the humanities> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the arts and related occupations>
.................... <people in the arts and related occupations> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the arts>
........................ <people in the arts> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the visual arts and related occupations>
............................ <people in the visual arts and related occupations> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the visual arts>
................................ <people in the visual arts> (G)
Hierarchy of artists (visual artists)
.................................... artists (visual artists) (G)
Hierarchy of <artists by medium or work type>
........................................ <artists by medium or work type> (G)
Hierarchy of painters (artists)
............................................ painters (artists) (G)
Hierarchy of <painters by subject of work>
................................................ <painters by subject of work> (G)
Hierarchy of literati (painters)
.................................................... literati (painters) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 約1100年時首見於中國的美術創作家,而後亦於韓國及日本等地出現。文人學士主要以學者及雅儒之士為特色,因而有別於(或在社會地位上優於)專業畫家及工匠。文人學士相信作品會反映繪製者性格,並且藝術品質優劣取決於美術創作者本身品行是否端正以及其才智高下。一般而言,文人學士會將詩詞、書法及簡單的單色繪圖融入單一作品中,而作品經常帶有文藝薰陶的氣息。文人學士崇尚書畫表現方式更甚於詳實的敘事方法,並且經常沿用古風及刻意使用古典或素樸技法。竹林、李果或花卉等題材常見於書畫作品中。 
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar kunstenaars die vanaf circa 1100 in China werkten, en later in Korea in Japan. Kenmerkend voor de literati is dat het vooral geleerden en edellieden betrof, waardoor ze zich onderscheidden van, en superieur achtten aan beroepsschilders en ambachtslieden. Zij waren van mening dat het karakter van de schilder zichtbaar is in zijn kunstwerken, en dat de kwaliteit van een kunstwerk bepaald wordt door de deugdzaamheid en het intellectuele niveau van de kunstenaar. Meestal combineerden ze gedichten, kalligrafie en eenvoudige monochromatische schilderingen binnen één werk. Hun werk bezat vaak een erudiet, literair gehalte. Ze prefereerden kalligrafisch expressionisme boven realistische, gedetailleerde afbeeldingen, en verwezen vaak subtiel naar antieke stijlen door opzettelijk primitieve of naïeve technieken te gebruiken. Ze spreidden hun virtuoze penseelvoering graag ten toon door te kiezen voor motieven als bamboe, pruimen of bloemen. 
Spanish ..... Se refiere a los artistas que trabajaban en China a comienzos del año 1100, así como en Corea y Japón en periodos posteriores. Ellos se caracterizan por ser principalmente eruditos y caballeros que eran considerados distintos y superiores a los pintores profesionales y artesanos. Ellos consideraban que una obra de arte revelaba el carácter de la persona que lo pintaba y que la calidad del arte dependía de la rectitud moral e intelectual del artista. Ellos usualmente integraban poesía, caligrafía y simple pintura monocromática dentro de una misma obra. Sus obras tenían frecuentemente un contenido literario aprendido. Ellos preferían el expresionismo caligráfico sobre lo realista y representaciones detalladas, muchas veces haciendo alusión a estilos antiguos y empleando deliberadamente técnicas primitivas e ingenuas. El repertorio de sus pinceladas comprendían motivos como el bambú, ciruelas o flores. 

Sources and Contributors:
文人學士............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  智慧藏百科全書網 December 20, 2011
...........  朗文當代大辭典 p. 1020
文人畫家............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  大英視覺藝術百科全書 Vol. 9,pp. 190
literati (painters)............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
...................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
...................................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "China: Painters and Institutions." accessed 13 October 2003.
...................................  Hearn, Splendors of Imperial China (1996)
...................................  TAA database (2000-)
...................................  Tregear, Chinese Art (1997) 51
literati painters............  [VP]
................................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "Literati." accessed 13 October 2003
painters, literati............  [VP]
...................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
scholar-painters............  [VP]
.............................  Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1996) 511
.............................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "China: Painting." Accessed 13 October 2003
wen jen hsüeh shih............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  TELDAP database (2009-)
wen ren xue shi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  TELDAP database (2009-)
wén rén xué shì............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  TELDAP database (2009-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1996) 508 ff.
.......... Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "Literati." accessed 13 October 2003
.......... Hearn, Splendors of Imperial China (1996)
.......... Tregear, Chinese Art (1997) 50 ff.
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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