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ID: 300019297
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300019297

 

Record Type: concept
Gravettian (<Western European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to a stage of Upper Paleolithic stone tool making found in France, Italy, and Russia. It was formerly thought to be a late stage of Aurignacian culture, but is now held to overlap with Upper Perigordian. It may be linked to Cro-Magnon peoples and is characterized by the hunting of horses in the west and mammoths in the east, the use of red ochre as pigment, and the creation of "Venus" figures, jewelry, and various tools. The Gravettian industry differs from the Aurignacian in its use of "backed blades," which are tools created with a retouching technique that results in one blunt edge. Gravettian industry in Russia is often called East Gravettian.
 
Terms:
Gravettian (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,A)
格拉維特時期 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
格拉韋特文化 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
gé lā wéi tè shí qǐ (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
ge la wei te shi qi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ko la wei t'e shih ch'i (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
Gravettien (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
Gravetiense (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  F.FL

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Styles and Periods Facet
Styles and Periods Facet
Hierarchy of Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)
.... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <styles, periods, and cultures by region>
........ <styles, periods, and cultures by region> (G)
Hierarchy of Early Western World
............ Early Western World (G)
Hierarchy of <ancient European styles and periods>
................ <ancient European styles and periods> (G)
Hierarchy of <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>
.................... <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods> (G)
Hierarchy of <Western European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>
........................ <Western European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods> (G)
Hierarchy of Gravettian
............................ Gravettian (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 指稱在法國、義大利,以及俄羅斯出土的舊石器時代晚期石器製造的一個階段。它早先被認為是歐里納克文化的一個晚期階段,但是現在人們卻相信它與佩里戈文化晚期(Upper Perigordian)重疊。此時期或許和克魯麥農(Cro-Magnon)人族群有關,其特徵為在西部從事狩獵馬匹、在東部則狩獵毛象,此時除了使用紅赭土做為顏料,也創作小型的「維納斯」塑像、珠寶,以及各式各樣的工具。格拉維特時期的石器工業與歐里納克文化的不同之處在於其使用「有刀背的刀器」,此種刀器是以再擊製的技法所製造出來的工具,常會形成單邊鈍邊。俄羅斯境內的格拉維特石器工業,則常被稱為東格拉維特文化(East Gravettian)。 
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar een fase in de hoog-paleolithische vervaardiging van stenen gereedschap, die wordt aangetroffen in Italië, Frankrijk en Rusland. Aanvankelijk werd aangenomen dat het een late fase van de Aurignacien-cultuur betrof, maar tegenwoordig wordt het Gravettien beschouwd als gedeeltelijk samenvallend met het hoog-Perigordien. Het kan in verband worden gebracht met de Cro-Magnonmens en wordt gekenmerkt door de paardenjacht in het westen en de mammoetjacht in het oosten, het gebruik van rode oker als kleurstof en de vervaardiging van Venusfiguren, sierraden en verschillende werktuigen. De Gravettien-nijverheid verschilt van die van het Aurignacien in het gebruik van zogenaamde pijlbladen: werktuigen die zijn vervaardigd met een afwerktechniek waardoor er één botte kant ontstaat. De Gravettien-nijverheid in Rusland wordt vaak aangeduid als Oost-Gravettien. 
Spanish ..... Se refiere a una fase de una cultura de fabricación de herramientas de piedra Paleolítica Superior encontrada en Francia, Italia, y Rusia. Se pensaba anteriormente que era una fase tardía de la cultura Auriñacense, pero ahora se cree que se superpone con la Perigordiense Superior. Puede vincularse a los pueblos Cro-Magnon y puede caracterizarse por la caza de caballos en el oeste y de mamut en el este, el uso de ocre rojo como pigmento, la creación de figuras de "Venus", joyería, y varias herramientas. La industria Gravetiense difiere de la Auriñacense en su uso de "hojas de cuchillo con dorso” qué son herramientas creadas con una técnica de retocado que produce un borde romo. La industria Gravetiense es a menudo llamada Gravetiense Oriental en Rusia. 

Related concepts:
coexisted with ....  East Gravettian
..........................  (<Eastern European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300019298]
coexisted with ....  Pavlovian
..........................  (<Eastern European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300019299]
coexisted with ....  Upper Perigordian
..........................  (Perigordian, <Western European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300019296]
distinguished from ....  Aurignacian
..................................  (<Western European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, <European Upper Paleolithic styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300019292]
preceded ....  Epi-gravettian
................  (<European Mesolithic styles and periods>, <ancient European styles and periods>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300019300]

Sources and Contributors:
格拉維特時期............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.................  智慧藏百科全書網 February 6, 2012
.................  法國考古遺址研究資料彙編 122
格拉韋特文化............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 February 6, 2012
gé lā wéi tè shí qǐ............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  TELDAP database (2009-)
ge la wei te shi qi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  TELDAP database (2009-)
Gravetiense............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred]
.......................  Alcina Franch, Diccionario de Arqueología (1998) 543
Gravettian............  [GCI Preferred, VP Preferred]
.......................  AATA database (2002-) 124359 checked 26 January 2012
.......................  Bandi, Art of the Stone Age (1961) GLOS
.......................  Champion et al., Prehistoric Europe (1984) 354
.......................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) "Cro-Magnons:Toolmaking." Accessed 01/21/99.
.......................  Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1986) 25
.......................  Sandars, Prehistoric Art in Europe (1985) 497
.......................  Schutz, Prehistory of Germanic Europe (1983) 409
Gravettien............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
.......................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......................  Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
ko la wei t'e shih ch'i............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.........................................  TELDAP database (2009-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 124359 checked 26 January 2012
............  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) Gravettian ...
............  Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Legacy AAT data
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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