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ID: 300012941
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300012941

 

Record Type: concept
rubber (material) (<gum resin by product>, <gum resin and gum resin by product>, ... Materials (hierarchy name))

 

Note: A natural hydrocarbon polymer formed from the resinous latex of trees of the Hevea and Parthenium genera. To prepare natural rubber, the latex is collected from a cut in the bark, precipitated with acid, then washed and dried. Rubber is very elastic and was used for bowls, shoe soles, adhesives, and bouncy balls. However, when cooled, rubber becomes brittle and when warmed it becomes sweaty and tacky. Prior to the development of synthetic resins, unvulcanized rubber was used for adhesive tapes and crepe shoe soles. In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered that rubber can be hardened with the vulcanization process in which sulfur is used to initiate crosslinking of the hydrocarbon strands. Higher sulfur content produces a harder, denser material. Vulcanized rubber is used to make rubber bands, foams, fabric coatings, small objects, combs, pens, and musical instruments. Vulcanized rubber, however, will emit sulfur when exposed to light or heat causing the rubber to degrade and become brittle. Since the 19th century, small amounts of wax have been added to the rubber during vulcanization. The wax slowly migrates to the surface and provides a thin layer of protection from oxidation.
 
Terms:
rubber (material) (preferred,C,U,LC,English-P,D,U,N)
rubber (materiaal) (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
rubbers (materials) (C,U,English,AD,U,N)
natural rubber (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
橡膠 (材料) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
xiàng jiāo (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
xiang jiao (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
hsiang chiao (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
caoutchouc (material traitées) (C,U,French-P,D,U,N)
caoutchouc naturel (material traitées) (C,U,French,UF,U,U)
goma elástica (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of organic material
................ organic material (G)
Hierarchy of resin (organic material)
.................... resin (organic material) (G)
Hierarchy of <gum resin and gum resin by product>
........................ <gum resin and gum resin by product> (G)
Hierarchy of <gum resin by product>
............................ <gum resin by product> (G)
Hierarchy of rubber (material)
................................ rubber (material) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 加工多種熱帶樹木和其它植物之乳白色汁液(稱為生橡膠)所得的材料,可製成多種不同的硬度,其可貴之處在於其彈性。 
Dutch ..... Product dat wordt gewonnen door het verwerken van het melkachtige sap van verschillende tropische bomen en andere planten, 'caoutchouc' genaamd. Geproduceerd in verschillende maten van hardheid en gewaardeerd om de elastische eigenschappen. 
Spanish ..... Producto obtenido al procesar la savia lechosa de varios árboles y plantas tropicales, llamadas "caucho" y que se produce con diferentes grados de dureza. Apreciado por su elasticidad. 

Related concepts:
composed of ....  caoutchouc (resin)
....................  (gum resin, <gum resin and gum resin by product>, ... Materials (hierarchy name)) [300263583]
derived/made from ....  Helianthus (genus)
................................  (Asteraceae (family), Asterales (order), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300404749]
derived/made from ....  Hevea (genus)
................................  (Euphorbiaceae (family), Malpighiales (order), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300375630]
derived/made from ....  Parthenium (genus)
................................  (Asteraceae (family), Asterales (order), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300375631]
distinguished from ....  gutta-percha
..................................  (gum resin, <gum resin and gum resin by product>, ... Materials (hierarchy name)) [300211567]

Sources and Contributors:
橡膠 (材料)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.................  玻璃陶瓷名詞辭典 p. 267
caoutchouc (material traitées)............  [CHIN / RCIP Preferred, VP]
.....................................................  CHIN database (1988-)
caoutchouc naturel (material traitées)............  [VP]
.................................................................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
goma elástica............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred]
..........................  Rico y Martínez, Diccionario Técnico Akal de conservación y restauración de bienes culturales, español-alemán-inglés-italiano-francés (2003) 646
hsiang chiao............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
natural rubber............  [VP]
.............................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
rubber (material)............  [GCI Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
................................  AATA database (2002-) 128371 checked 26 January 2012
................................  Brady and Clauser, Materials Handbook (1986) 688; rubber
................................  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) rubber
................................  Harris, Dictionary of Architecture and Construction (1975) 416; rubber
................................  Museum Prototype Project, Medium of Objects Frequency Report (1985) rubber
................................  National Museum of American Art, Media Thesaurus (1980s) rubber
................................  Oxford English Dictionary (1989) rubber
................................  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
................................  Stein, Construction Glossary (1980) 264; rubber
................................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961) rubber
rubbers (materials)............  [VP]
...................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
xiang jiao............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
xiàng jiāo............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, CHIN / RCIP, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 128371 checked 26 January 2012
............  CHIN database (1988-)
............  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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