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ID: 300011074
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300011074

 

Record Type: concept
emerald (mineral) (beryl, mineral, ... Materials (hierarchy name))

 

Note: A brilliant grass-green variety of beryl, highly prized as a gemstone. The name comes indirectly from the Greek "smaragdos," referring to a number of stones having little in common except a green color. The emerald in the the Bible was probably a garnet. However, ancient societies did also value the genuine emerald, which came from Upper Egypt as early as 2000 BCE. Greek emerald miners worked for Alexander the Great and Cleopatra. The physical properties of emerald are essentially the same as those of beryl, with only moderate light refractive and dispersive powers, meaning that cut stones display little brilliancy or fire. The gems are instead valued for their magnificent color, which is probably caused by small amounts of chromium. The stone loses colour when strongly heated. Synthetic emerald was successfully produced in the 1930s, and today is produced by a either a molten-flux process or a hydrothermal method crystal growing process. Synthetic crystals appear very similar to natural emerald crystals.
 
Terms:
emerald (mineral) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,N)
emeralds (mineral) (C,U,English,AD,U,N)
祖母綠 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
綠柱石 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
純綠寶石 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
純綠柱石 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
zǔ mǔ lǜ (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
zu mu lü (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
tsu mu lü (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
smaragd (mineraal) (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
esmerald (C,U,Dutch,UF,U,U)
esmeralda (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of inorganic material
................ inorganic material (G)
Hierarchy of mineral
.................... mineral (G)
Hierarchy of beryl
........................ beryl (G)
Hierarchy of emerald (mineral)
............................ emerald (mineral) (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of inorganic material
................ inorganic material (G)
Hierarchy of rock (inorganic material)
.................... rock (inorganic material) (G)
Hierarchy of <rock by form>
........................ <rock by form> (G)
Hierarchy of stone (worked rock)
............................ stone (worked rock) (G)
Hierarchy of <stone by quality>
................................ <stone by quality> (G)
Hierarchy of gemstone
.................................... gemstone (G)
Hierarchy of <gemstones by specific type>
........................................ <gemstones by specific type> (G)
Hierarchy of emerald (mineral)
............................................ emerald (mineral) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 一種呈亮草綠色的綠柱石,被視為珍貴的寶石。其名間接取自希臘文「smaragdos」,意指綠色之石。祖母綠可能為聖經中的石榴石。不過,古代社會也珍視真正的祖母綠,西元前兩千年即始於埃及王國。當時希臘的祖母綠礦工為亞歷山大大帝及古埃及豔后工作。祖母綠的物理屬性本質上與綠柱石相同,不過光折射與分散力僅中等,這意味經過切割的石頭顯示很低亮度或火屬性。然而,因少量的鉻形成的美麗顏色,使祖母綠受到珍視。由於石頭受到高溫加熱時會失去顏色:合成祖母綠成功製成於1930年代,今日的製造過程採熔融與助熔法或水熱晶體生成法,合成晶體外觀與天然祖母綠晶體極為相似。  
Dutch ..... Een helder grasgroene variëteit van beril, zeer geliefd als edelsteen. De naam is afgeleid van het Griekse woord 'smaragdos', dat verwijst naar een aantal stenen die weinig gemeenschappelijk hebben behalve een groene kleur. De smaragd in de Bijbel was vermoedelijk granaat. In oude beschavingen werd de echte smaragd, die al in 2000 v. Chr. uit noordelijk Egypte werd ingevoerd, echter ook zeer gewaardeerd. Griekse smaragdwinners werkten voor Alexander de Grote en Cleopatra. De fysische eigenschappen van smaragd zijn in principe hetzelfde als van beril, waarbij licht slechts matig wordt gebroken en verstrooid. Dit betekent dat geslepen stenen beperkt schitteren. De edelstenen worden in plaats daarvan gewaardeerd om de prachtige kleur, die waarschijnlijk het resultaat is van kleine hoeveelheden chroom. De steen verliest zijn kleur wanneer deze sterk wordt verhit. In de jaren dertig van de 19de eeuw werd voor het eerst synthetische smaragd vervaardigd. Heden ten dage wordt synthetische kristalaangroei gerealiseerd met een hydrothermale methode of een proces van gesmolten verdunningsmiddel. Synthetische kristallen vertonen een sterke gelijkenis met de kristallen in natuurlijke smaragd. 
Spanish ..... Variedad verde brillante de berilo, de alto precio como gema.  

Sources and Contributors:
祖母綠............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  寶石圖鑑 p. 160
...........  玻璃陶瓷名詞辭典 p. 102
綠柱石............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  TELDAP database (2009-)
純綠寶石............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  玻璃陶瓷名詞辭典 p. 102
純綠柱石............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  玻璃陶瓷名詞辭典 p. 102
emerald (mineral)............  [GCI Preferred, VP Preferred]
................................  AATA database (2002-) 123271 checked 26 January 2012
................................  Brady and Clauser, Materials Handbook (1977) 94
................................  Dictionary of Geological Terms (1984)
................................  Newman, Illustrated Dictionary of Jewelry (1981)
emeralds (mineral)............  [VP]
...................................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
esmerald............  [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.................  Van Dale groot woordenboek (1994)
esmeralda............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred]
....................  Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. Biblioteca de Consulta 2003 (2003)
....................  Rico y Martínez, Diccionario Técnico Akal de conservación y restauración de bienes culturales, español-alemán-inglés-italiano-francés (2003) 86
smaragd (mineraal)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
...................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
...................................  Van Dale groot woordenboek (1994)
tsu mu lü............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  TELDAP database (2009-)
zǔ mǔ lǜ............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  TELDAP database (2009-)
zu mu lü............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  TELDAP database (2009-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 123271 checked 26 January 2012
............  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) Emeralds
............  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990) Emeralds
............  Van Dale groot woordenboek (1994)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Dictionary of Geological Terms (1984)
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 19 February 2007
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Van Dale groot woordenboek (1994)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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