The GettyResearch Institute
Research Home Tools Art & Architecture Thesaurus Full Record Display
Art & Architecture Thesaurus Full Record Display
New Search Previous Page Help

Click the icon to view the hierarchy.

Semantic View (JSONRDFN3/TurtleN-Triples)

ID: 300443525
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300443525

 

Record Type: concept
liáng (crossbeams, <beams by location or context>, ... Components (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Cross beams, One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with fu 栿. According to the Yingzao fashi (1103), Chapter 5, 1a and the Gongcheng zuofa (1734), cross beams are placed above the pillars and at least one end is supported directly by a pillar or by a bracket on top of a pillar, while the other end could be inserted into the body of the a pillar or placed above another beam. In extant historic buildings it is also possible to find cross beams whose ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In the Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character fu 栿, and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam. But there are exceptions, including the zhaqian 剳牽 (lit. pin-pricking connector), rufu 乳栿 (lit. infant beam), yanfu 檐栿 (lit. eaves cross beam), pingliang 平梁 (lit. level cross beam), and 丁栿 dingfu (T-beam). Modern architectural historians use this terminology to describe architecture dating from the Tang to the early Ming dynasties. In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, e.g. a 5-purlin beam, or a 7-purlin beam.
 
Terms:
liáng (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,L,N)  ............ cross beams
liáng (Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)-P,D,U,N)
(C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
liang (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles),UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.PJ

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Components (hierarchy name)
.... Components (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of components (objects parts)
........ components (objects parts) (G)
Hierarchy of <components by specific context>
............ <components by specific context> (G)
Hierarchy of architectural elements
................ architectural elements (G)
Hierarchy of <structural elements and components for structural elements>
.................... <structural elements and components for structural elements> (G)
Hierarchy of structural elements
........................ structural elements (G)
Hierarchy of <spanning and projecting structural elements>
............................ <spanning and projecting structural elements> (G)
Hierarchy of beams (structural elements)
................................ beams (structural elements) (G)
Hierarchy of <beams by location or context>
.................................... <beams by location or context> (G)
Hierarchy of crossbeams
........................................ crossbeams (G)
Hierarchy of liáng
............................................ liáng (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) .....  作為建築構件,梁是中國傳統建築中的主要長材之一種,也可稱為栿。但元以後,用栿字者較為少見。清工部《工程做法》中統一稱為“梁”。根據北宋《營造法式》(1103年)與清工部《工程做法》(1734年),梁的基本特徵包括:不用於面闊方向;梁的兩個支點中,至少有一端位置在柱以上;其支點直接或經由斗栱被柱支撐。其中一端或可插入柱,或也可能架於另一梁栿上。在實例中,也有可能兩個支點都架在其它梁或額上。北宋《營造法式》術語體系裡多用“栿”字。通常以其跨度的椽架數命名:如六椽栿、八椽栿等。不符合這一命名規則的梁則有劄牽、乳栿、檐栿、平梁、丁栿等。清代文獻如工部《工程做法》中通常以其跨度的檁條數來命名,如五架梁、七架梁等。 

Related concepts:
meaning/usage overlaps with .... 
..................................................  (crossbeams, <beams by location or context>, ... Components (hierarchy name)) [300443521]

Sources and Contributors:
梁............  [ATTCAT, VP]
........  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
liang............  [ATTCAT, VP]
..............  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
liáng............  [ATTCAT Preferred, VP Preferred]
..............  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-) https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000045
..............  ATTCAT (2018)
..............  ZDIC [online] (2020-)
 
Subject: .....  [ATTCAT, VP]
............  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
 
Note:
English .......... [ATTCAT, VP]
.......... Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [ATTCAT, VP]
.......... Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)

 

New Search

Back to Top

Printer Friendly Version

The J. Paul Getty Trust
The J. Paul Getty Trust