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ID: 300443521
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300443521

 

Record Type: concept
(crossbeams, <beams by location or context>, ... Components (hierarchy name))

 

Note: One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with liang 梁. The essential features of a cross-beam are described in Yingzao fashi (1103) and Gongcheng zuofa (1734) as such: (1) the cross-beam is placed above the pillars; (2) at least one end is supported by a pillar directly or by a bracket (gong) on top of a pillar; (3) the other end can either be inserted into the body of a pillar or placed above another beam. Within extant historic buildings it is also possible to find cross-beams in which both ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam 丁栿, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character “fu 栿,” and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam; however, there are exceptions, including the pinpricking connector (zhaqian 剳牽), infant beam (rufu 乳栿), eaves cross beam (yanfu 檐栿), level cross beam (pingliang 平梁), and T-beam. Modern architectural historians use this term to describe architecture dating from the Tang (618-907) to early Ming (1368-1644). In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, such a 5-purlin-beam or 7-purlin-beam.
 
Terms:
(preferred,C,U,English-P,D,L,N)
(Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)-P,D,U,N)
(C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
fu (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles),UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.PJ

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Components (hierarchy name)
.... Components (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of components (objects parts)
........ components (objects parts) (G)
Hierarchy of <components by specific context>
............ <components by specific context> (G)
Hierarchy of architectural elements
................ architectural elements (G)
Hierarchy of <structural elements and components for structural elements>
.................... <structural elements and components for structural elements> (G)
Hierarchy of structural elements
........................ structural elements (G)
Hierarchy of <spanning and projecting structural elements>
............................ <spanning and projecting structural elements> (G)
Hierarchy of beams (structural elements)
................................ beams (structural elements) (G)
Hierarchy of <beams by location or context>
.................................... <beams by location or context> (G)
Hierarchy of crossbeams
........................................ crossbeams (G)
Hierarchy of fú
............................................  (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 作為建築構件,栿是中國傳統建築中的主要長材之一種,也可稱為梁。根據北宋《營造法式》 (1103年)與清工部《工程做法》 (1734年),梁栿的基本特徵包括:(1)位於柱上。(2)梁栿的兩個支點中,至少有一端位置在柱以上;其支點直接或經由斗栱被柱支撐。(3)其另一端或可插入柱,或也可能架於另一梁栿上。在實例中,也有可能兩個支點都架在其它梁或額上。除丁栿為特例外,梁栿一般不用於面闊方向。 北宋《營造法式》術語體系裡多用“栿”字。殿堂構架的梁通常以其跨度的椽架數命名:如六椽栿、八椽栿等。不符合這一命名規則的梁則有劄牽、乳栿、檐栿、平梁、丁栿等。元以後,用栿字者較為少見。清工部《工程做法》中統一稱為“梁”。 

Related concepts:
meaning/usage overlaps with ....  liáng
..................................................  (crossbeams, <beams by location or context>, ... Components (hierarchy name)) [300443525]

Sources and Contributors:
栿............  [ATTCAT, VP]
........  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
fú............  [ATTCAT Preferred, VP Preferred]
...........  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
...........  ATTCAT (2018)
...........  ZDIC [online] (2020-)
fu............  [ATTCAT, VP]
...........  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [ATTCAT, VP]
............  Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
 
Note:
English .......... [ATTCAT, VP]
.......... Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [ATTCAT, VP]
.......... Architectura Sinica [online] (2014-)

 

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