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4. Appendices, continued

4

APPENDICES, CONTINUED

   

4.2

 

Appendix B: Dates

     

4.2.1

 

 

How to Record Dates

     

4.2.1.1

 

 

Specific Date Fields
General rules are discussed in this appendix. For rules specific to the particular Date you are recording, see the rules in this manual for the specific pertinent field: Dates for creation of the work, for titles/names, dates for hierarchical relationships, and dates for associative relationships. Note that rules for assigning dates are subject to variation from field to field.

     

4.2.1.2

 

 

General Rules for Recording Date
If you record a Display Date, it is required to record Start and End Dates. In all cases, if you fill in any one of the three fields, all three fields must be filled in.

       

4.2.1.2.1

   

Display, Start and End Dates
In the Display Date, record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date. In Start and End Dates, record years that delimit the span stated or implied in the Display Date. (Start and End Date will be hidden from end-users.)

      • Example
      • Display Date: ca. 1750
        Start: 1745 End: 1755

  • Use the proleptic Gregorian calendar (the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction).

  • End users do not see Start and End Dates, thus you may estimate in these fields. Do not estimate Display Dates except when you have warrant in authoritative sources.
     

4.2.1.2.2

 

 

Capitalization and abbreviation
Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or Period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with ca. (for circa), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: ca. 1730-ca. 1750
        Start: 1725 End: 1755

      • Display Date: 17th century
        Start: 1600 End: 1699

      • Display Date: New Kingdom, 18th dynasty (1404-1365 BCE)
        Start: -1404 End: -1365

  • Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., record 1780-1795, NOT 1780-95).

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.3

 

 

Language
Use Arabic numbers. Express words and phrases in English, except in rare cases where no English-language equivalent exists or where the foreign term is most commonly used (e.g., with the name of a period). Use diacritical codes as required.

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.4

 

 

Format [1]
In the Display Date, use natural word order. For Start and End Dates, record appropriate numbers. Use negative numbers for years BCE (use a hyphen for the negative number). Do not use commas or other punctuation.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: relevant between 1950 and 1952
        Start: 1950 End: 1952

      • Display Date: from the 2nd century BCE
        Start: -300 End: 9999

>> Syntax: Display dates

If a specific date is known, record the year. If a span of dates is applicable, record the year beginning of the span, dash, and the year ending the span.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: 1944
        Start: 1944 End: 1944

      • Display Date: 1821-1826
        Start: 1821 End: 1826

  • To express uncertainty or otherwise clarify the dates, place editorial commentary before the years (e.g., ca., founded, etc.) when possible. Use natural word order.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: ca. 1610
        Start: 1605 End: 1615

      • Display Date: used 1911 or 1912
        Start: 1911 End: 1912

      • Display Date: probably late 12th century
        Start: 1150 End: 1220

>> Syntax: Start and End Dates

  • Years: Record years in the Start and End Dates fields without commas or other punctuation, except for the dash/hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers for dates BCE. Use four digits for most years. Dates BCE may require more than four digits (e.g., -10000).

      • Examples
        [for a four-digit year CE]
      • Display Date: 1997
        Start: 1997 End: 1997

        [for a date BCE]
      • Display Date: 12-9 BCE
        Start: -12 End: -9

  • Month and day: Generally, the year is sufficiently specific. If the precise day is required, record the day, month, and year in the Display Date and index with only the year in the Start and End Dates. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation (e.g., 25 May 2000). The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

      • Example
      • Display Date: 1 January through 25 May 2000
        Start: 2000 End: 2000

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.5

 

 

Dates BCE and CE
In the Display Date, use BCE (Before Common Era) to indicate dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: 463 BCE
        Start: -463 End: -463

      • Display Date: 221-206 BCE
        Start: -221 End: 206

  • For dates after the year 1, do not include the designation CE (Current Era), except where confusion may occur because 1) the span of dates begins BCE and ends CE (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE) or 2) the date is within the first few centuries of the Current Era. Do not use BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). Indicate dates BCE with negative numbers in Start and End Dates.


      • Examples
      • Display Date: 15 BCE-20 CE
        Start: -15 End: 20

      • Display Date: 312-315 CE
        Start: 312 End: 315

>> Dates "years ago" or "before present"

For very ancient dates, BCE is generally not appropriate. Use the phrases years ago or before present if your source indicates age relative to the present rather than a date. Do not abbreviate designations (e.g., do not use y.a. or B.P.).

      • Example
      • Display Date: inhabited about 75,000 years ago
        Start: -76000 End: -70000

  • For Start and End Dates, translate the dates into the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Use an appropriate calibration table in the rare event that such a thing is readily available. [2]

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.6

   

Gregorian and other calendars
In general, record dates in the Display Date according to the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

  • If your source provides a date in another calendar (e.g., Julian, Napoleonic, or Islamic calendars), record it in the Display Date, clearly designating the alternate calendar. Also include the year in the proleptic Gregorian calendar to avoid confusion. Index the dates in the Start and End Dates using the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: 946 anno Hegirae (1540 CE)
        Start: 1540 End: 1540

      • Display Date: année II de la Rèpublique (1794 CE)
        Start: 1794 End: 1794

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.7

 

 

Specificity
If you are using a single year, explain what the year means in the Display Date. In Start and End Dates, record the estimated span of time referred to.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: use began in 689
        Start: 689 End: 720

      • Display Date: ended in 1643
        Start: 1550 End: 1643

  • When appropriate, express dates as a span of years, if known. Explain the significance of the span in the Display Date.

      • Example
      • Display Date: existed 1378-1485
        Start: 1378 End: 1485

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.1.2.8

 

 

Uncertain and approximate dates
If the specific year or years is not known, record dates with the greatest accuracy known. In the guidelines below, the conventions are arranged from greatest level of accuracy to the least; use the greatest possible level of accuracy, based on the information at hand.

>> Probably

If there is doubt among authoritative sources, indicate this in the Display Date by using the word probably, possibly, or another appropriate word. Index such dates with Start and End Dates representing an appropriate span. Do not use probably if you simply lack information to make a decision; this refers only to uncertainty expressed in authoritative sources.

      • Example
      • Display Date: probably in existence in 1937
        Start: 1936 End: 1938

>> Or

If the date is known to be one particular year or another, indicate this in the Display Date by using the word or. Do not use or if you simply lack information to make a decision; this refers only to uncertainty expressed in authoritative sources.

      • Example
      • Display Date: 1568 or 1569
        Start: 1568 End: 1569

>> Circa

If the precise date is unknown, preface the year with ca. (for circa) or about. Estimate Start and End Dates based on available information. If appropriate for the situation at hand, use a 10-year span for Start and End Dates for circa (e.g., ca. 1860 could be indexed Start: 1855, End: 1865); for ancient dates, use a much larger span (e.g., ca. 1200 BCE could be indexed Start: -1250, End: -1150). Do not use ca. if you simply lack information to make a decision; this refers only to uncertainty expressed in authoritative sources.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: ca. 1935
        Start: 1930 End: 1940

      • Display Date: ca. 500 BCE
        Start: -0550 End: -0450

  • If ca. is used with a span of dates, repeat it as necessary to indicate whether it applies to the beginning year, the ending year, or both years of the span. Estimate Start and End Dates as appropriate.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: ca. 1505-ca.1510
        Start: 1500 End: 1515

      • Display Date: established ca. 1750-1756
        Start: 1745 End: 9999

      • Display Date: known from 1834-ca. 1850
        Start: 1834 End: 9999

  • Preface centuries or other broad dates with ca. as needed. Estimate Start and End Dates appropriately, based on available information.

      • Example
      • Display Date: ca. 19th century
        Start: 1750 End: 9999

  • About: For very ancient dates, use the word about rather than ca.

      • Example
      • Display Date: began about 18,000 years ago
        Start: -19000 End: -10000

>> Before and after

If appropriate, express dates relative to a terminus ante quem or a terminus post quem (meaning date before which and date after which). In the Display Date, use the words before or after. Estimate Start and End Dates based on available information.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: known before 1758
        Start: 1750 End: 9999

      • Display Date: known after 547
        Start: 547 End: 9999

>> Spans indicating uncertainty

If appropriate, record the span of years appropriate for the field. Distinguish between 1) the span indicating that a precise date is unknown, but the date applies to some unknown point during the span, and 2) the span that is known, for example, during which a style was prominent. Clearly describe the meaning of the date in the Display Date rather than using subtle differences in punctuation, such as a dash/hyphen or forward slash, to convey differences in meaning.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: between 1559 and 1562
        Start: 1559 End: 1562

        [date implies a broad span]
      • Display Date: from 3rd or 2nd century BCE
        Start: -299 End: 9999

  • Dash vs. forward slash: A dash or forward slash may be used in the following ways, provided it will be clear from the context what is meant. Use the dash to indicate a span during which something occurred, as when a ruler ruled (e.g., ca. 1435 - ca. 1560 means that rule occurred from ca. 1435 to ca. 1560). Use the forward slash when a specific date is not known, to indicate a span that contains some year or years when the event occurred (e.g., 1735/1745 means the date is uncertain but the event occurred sometime between 1735 and 1745).

>> Decades and centuries

Where appropriate, indicate the date to the nearest decade or century, when appropriate. Do not use an apostrophe with decades (e.g., 1890s, NOT 1890's).

      • Examples
      • Display Date: 1890s
        Start: 1890 End: 1899

      • Display Date: 1720s or 1730s
        Start: 1720 End: 1739

      • Display Date: 16th century
        Start: 1500 End: 1599

      • Display Date: 2nd century BCE
        Start: -199 End: -100

  • Qualify decades or centuries with early, mid-, and late, as warranted. Assign appropriate Start and End Dates, dividing the century into thirds (e.g., late 18th century may be indexed as the last third of the century, Start: 1770, End: 1799).

      • Examples
      • Display Date: late 18th century
        Start: 1770 End: 1799

      • Display Date: late 12th or early 11th century BCE
        Start: -1130 End: -1070

>> Dates by Period or era

When a more exact date is not known, express dates according to a named period, dynasty, or ruler's reign, if appropriate. The periods may be divided into early, middle, or late. Start and End Dates for retrieval should be based on dates applicable for that period. In some cases, the Period named in Date may be the same as the Period recorded in Style.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: Late Archaic Period
        Start: -2000 End: -1000

      • Display Date: Medieval
        Start: 1100 End: 1499

      • Display Date: reign of Shah Jahan (1628-1657)
        Start: 1628 End: 1657

>> No Date

Do not use n.d. (for "no date"). Do not leave the date fields blank. If a date is uncertain, determine a possible date range based on available information.

  • The only exception to this rule is when dates are noted in citations; do not use n.d. in the Display Date.

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.2

 

 

How to Use the Date Authority

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.2.1

 

 

Using the Date Authority
The Date Authority is intended only as a reference tool; it is an incomplete and extensible list and may not apply to your specific situation. You must fill in all three fields (display, start and end), so estimate a value if the field is blank in the authority below.

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.2.1.1

 

 

Display Date
In the display date, write precisely what you know from your research (e.g., "possibly an Upper Paleolithic tool").

  • DO NOT give precise dates when only approximate dates or broad periods are known. Be careful - terms such as "period," "age" and "era" have specialized meanings in these contexts, so be sure to use them as they are used in your authoritative source; also, you must use initial capitalization correctly.

  • Any text in parentheses below should NOT be included in your display date; it is for your information only.

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.2.1.2

 

 

Time scales
There can be overlap between different time scales (e.g., between Geologic time scale and cultural time scale, or between cultural periods such as Bronze Age in different parts of the world). For Start and End Dates, estimate broad range for searching; if your source indicates a range of dates different from those indicated below, use the dates in the source rather than those below.

  • The abbreviations BCE, CE, and "ca." are permissible in display dates.

  • For "years before present," in display dates, type out the entire phrase (valid abbreviations in display dates are the following. For Start and End Dates, calculate negative values as years Before Common Era (i.e., in the proleptic Gregorian calendar).

 

 

 

 

 

4.2.2.1.3

 

 

Estimating Start and End Dates
For Start and End Dates, use your head. Don't just copy dates from the authority below, but instead consider available information relative to the situation at hand. For example, if you are determining searching dates for a type of tool and your source says remains of Neanderthals have been found with the tool, DO NOT blindly copy -800000 and -10000 as Start and End Dates; instead, use these years to estimate a terminus a quo for the earliest possible date (and look to other information to see what End Date is appropriate for this particular case; if it is still inhabited, the End Date is 9999).

 

 

           

4.2.3

 

 

Date Authority of Approximate Dates for Named Periods, Etc.

       

Name of the Period

Date range of the Period

Source

 

Years ago

 

Precambrian Era

-600000000 to

Macmillan

Paleozoic Era

-600000000 to -230000000

 

Cambrian Period

-600000000 to -500000000

 

Ordovician Period

-500000000 to -425000000

 

Silurian Period

-425000000 to -405000000

 

Devonian Period

-405000000 to -345000000

 

Carboniferous Period

-345000000 to -280000000

 

Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous)

-345000000 to -310000000

 

Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous)

-310000000 to -280000000

 

Permian Period

-280000000 to -230000000

 

Mesozoic Era

-230000000 to -63000000

 

Triassic Period

-230000000 to -180000000

 

Jurassic Period

-180000000 to -135000000

 

Cretaceous Period

-135000000 to -63000000

 

Cenozoic Era

-63000000 to present

 

Tertiary Period

-63000000 to -500000

 

Paleocene Epoch

-63000000 to -58000000

 

Eocene Epoch

-58000000 to -36000000

 

Oligocene Epoch

-36000000 to -25000000

 

Miocene Epoch

-25000000 to -13000000

 

first hominids

-8000000 to -5000000

Times

Pliocene Epoch

-13000000 to -500000

 

Australopithecines emerge

-5000000 to -3000000

 

Homo habilis emerges

-3500000 to -2500000

 

Quaternary Period

-2000000 to present

 

Pleistocene Epoch (Glacial)

-2000000 to -11000

 

Robust Australopithecines emerge

-2000000 to -1800000

 

Homo erectus in Java

-1000000 to -750000

 

Homo erectus in China

-1000000 to -200000

 

archaic Homo sapiens in Africa

-1000000 to -200000

 

archaic Homo sapiens in Europe

-1000000 to -200000

 

modern Homo sapiens emerge

-300000 to -200000

 

Homo sapiens Neanderthal in Europe

-300000 to -10000

 

 

BCE and-CE

 

Holocene Epoch (Recent)

-11000 to present

 

Stone Age

 

 

Paleolithic

-35000 to -10000

 

Lower Paleolithic Period

 

 

Middle Paleolithic Period

 

 

Upper Paleolithic Period

 

 

Migrations fr. Asia to Americas

-30000 to

 

Epipaleolithic Period

 

 

Mesolithic Period

-10000 to -8000

 

Neolithic Period

-8000 to -4000

 

Early Neolithic

 

 

Middle Neolithic

 

 

Late Neolithic

 

 

Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia

-5000 to

 

Narmer-Menes unites Upper/Lower Egypt

-3100

 

Narmer-Menes unites Upper/Lower Egypt

-3000 to -2340

 

Mongoloid and Melanotic sites in Oceania

-2000

 

Niger-Kordofanian culture, Africa

-3000 to 1000

 

Chalcolithic (Copper Age)

 

 

Early Chalcolithic

 

 

Narmer-Menes unites Upper/Lower Egypt

-3100

 

Middle Chalcolithic

 

 

Late Chalcolithic

 

 

Eneolithic

 

 

Final Neolithic

 

 

Bronze Age

-2750

 

Early Bronze Age

 

 

Protodynastic period, Sumer

-3000 to -2340

Langer, World History

Middle Bronze Age

 

 

First Intermediate Period, Egypt

-2155 to -2040

 

Middle Kingdom, Egypt

-2040 to -1785

 

Second Intermediate Period-Hyksos, Egypt

-1786 to -1554

 

Mesopotamia under Babylonians, Hammurabi

-1792 to -1750

Langer, World History

Minoans flourish

-1600 to -1400

Langer, World History

Late Bronze Age

 

 

Cycladic colonies develop

-2000

 

Egyptian Empire

-1554 to -1080

 

Amonhotep I

 

 

Hatshepsut

 

 

Amonhotep III

 

 

Akenaten

 

 

Seti I

 

 

Ramses II

 

 

Urnfield culture, ctrl Europe

-1300 to -500

 

Iron Age in Europe

-1500

 

Early Iron Age

 

 

Assyrian Empire

-1000 to -612

 

Neo-Babylonian Period, Nebuchadnezzar II

 

 

Archaic Greek

-800

 

Etruscan

-800 to 100

 

Dorians invade Greece

-1200

 

Ionians resettle in Asia Minor

-800

 

Mycenae destroyed

-750

 

Greek colonies in Italy

-725

 

Middle Iron Age

 

 

Persian Empire

-559 to -323

 

Cyrus the Great

-559 to -529

 

Late Iron Age

 

 

Persian Wars

-499 to -478

 

Delian League

-479 to -461

NYPL, Chronologies

Periclean Age

-460 to -429

 

Peloponnesian War

-431 to -404

 

Philip of Macedon

-359 to -336

NYPL, Chronologies

Alexander the Great, King of Macedon

-336 to -323

 

Roman

-650 to -500

Times (1989), 86

Roman Republican

-510

Times (1989), 86

Gauls sack Rome

-387

 

First Punic War

-264 to -241

 

Sulla becomes dictator

-82 to -79

 

First triumvirate, Pompey, Caesar, Crassus

-60

 

Cicero

 

 

Catullus

 

 

Virgil

 

 

Horace

 

 

Ovid

 

 

Seneca

 

 

Caesar assumes power

-49 to -44

 

Second triumvirate, Octavius

-43

 

Roman Imperial

-27

Hartt, History of Ptg.

Octavius becomes Augustus Caesar

-27 to 14

 

Jesus Christ

-3 to 30

 

Julio-Claudians

14 to 68

 

Tiberius

 

 

Claudius

 

 

Nero

 

 

Paul, Christianity in Asia Minor, etc.

65

 

Flavians

69 to 96

 

Vespasian

 

 

Titus

 

 

Domitian

 

 

Trajan

98 to 117

 

Hadrian

117 to 138

 

Antonines

138 to 180

 

Antoninus Pius

 

 

Marcus Aurelius

 

 

Commodus

 

 

Ptolomy, astronomer

160

 

Tacitus

50 to 120

 

Septimus Severus

193 to 211

 

Caracalla

211 to 217

 

Scythians flourish

200

 

Celts flourish

200

 

Christian persecution by Rome

250

 

Early Christian Period

50 to 300

 

Diocletian

284 to 305

 

Tetrarchy

293

 

Shapur I, Sassanian king of Persia

242 to 272

 

Vakatakas, S Indian dynasty

250 to 390

 

Gupta empire, India

390

 

Byzantine

300

 

Constantine the Great

324 to 337

 

Huns displace Vandals in central Europe

300

 

First Council of Nicea

325

 

Theodosius divides Empire

395

 

Western Roman Empire

395 to 476

 

Honorius makes Ravenna capital of West

402

 

Alaric I, Visogoths sack Rome

410

 

Vandals invade North Africa

429

 

Attila and Huns destroys Milan

450

 

Odoacer takes Ravenna

476

 

Theodoric founds Ostrogothic kingdom, Italy

488 to 526

 

Council of Ephesus

431

 

St. Patrick, Christians in Ireland

461

 

Justinian is Emperor of Byzantium

527 to 565

 

Anglo/Saxons, Germanic tribes in England

400 to 1100

 

Uzbeks arrive in Tashkent

550

 

Lombards establish kingdom in Italy

568

 

Muhammad, prophet of Islam

560 to 632

 

Muslims conquer Byzantine Near East, NAfrica

637 to 640

 

Second Council of Nicea

787

 

Medieval

500 to 1500

 

Omayyad caliphate, Damascus

661 to 750

 

Abbasid caliphate, Baghdad

750 to 1256

 

Uighurs, nomadic Turkic, ctrl Asia

700 to 900

 

Carolingian Period

800

 

Charlemagne crowned Emperor, Rome

800

 

Charles the Bald

840 to 877

 

Carolingian kingdom divided, Treaty of Verdun

843

 

Macedonian Dynasty

829 to 976

 

Vikings raid England

835

 

Charles the Simple cedes Normandy to Vikings

911

 

Ottonian

960

 

Otto I, German crowned Holy Roman Emperor

962

 

Zirids, Muslim Berber dynasty

972 to 1152

 

Vladimir I, Duke of Kiev

980 to 1015

 

Capetian Dynasty

 

 

Hugh Capet, French king

987 to 996

 

Schism between Eastern & Western Church

1054

 

Russia converts to Orthodox Church

980

 

 

 

 

Romanesque

900 to 1200

 

Italian city-states established

1000

 

William the Conqueror, Norman duke

1035 to 1087

 

Battle of Hastings

1066

 

First Crusade

1095 to 1099

 

Latin kingdom of Jerusalem founded

1099

 

Roger II, king of Sicily

1130 to 1154

 

Louis IV the Fat, of France

1108 to 1137

 

Second Crusade

1147 to 1187

 

St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux

1115 to 1153

 

Order of Knights Templars, Jerusalem

1119

 

Saladin captures Jerusalem

1187

 

Gothic

1050 to 1450

 

Zagwe, Ethiopian Semitic dynasty

1100 to 1300

 

Third Crusade

1189 to 1192

 

Angevin Dynasty (Plantagenets), England

1154 to 1399

 

Henry II

1154 to 1189

 

Richard II

1377 to 1399

 

Fourth Crusade

1202 to 1204

 

Sack Constantinople

1204

 

Latin Empire of the East

1204 to 1261

 

Moors in Europe

1250

 

St. Louis IX, French king

1226 to 1270

 

Magna Carta signed in England

1215

 

Sixth Crusade, Frederick II

1228 to 1229

 

Seventh Crusade, Louis IX

1248 to 1254

 

Eighth Crusade

1270

 

Marco Polo goes to China and India

1265 to 1293

 

Papacy in Avignon

1309 to 1378

 

Hundred Years War, France and England

1337 to 1453

 

Black Death epidemic in Europe

1347 to 1350

 

Renaissance

1400 to 1600

 

Sunni Ali, Emperor of Songha W Africa

1464 to 1492

 

Age of Exploration

1395 to 1750

 

Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal

1394 to 1460

 

Christopher Columbus charts America

1492

 

Magellan, circumnavigated globe

1475 to 1521

 

Bartholomew Diaz rounds Cape Good Hope

1487

 

Balboa sights Pacific Ocean

1513

 

Hapsburgs begin rule of Holy Roman Empire

1438

 

Constantinople falls to Turks

1453

 

Tudor period, England

1485

 

Henry VII, king of England

1485 to 1509

 

Gregorian Calendar, Pope Gregory XIII

1582

 

Pope Julius II

1503 to 1513

 

Pope Leo X

1513 to 1521

 

Mannerist style

1510 to 1600

 

Martin Luther

1483 to 1546

 

Lutheran/Catholic Wars in Germany end

1555

 

Jesuit religious order founded

1534

 

 

 

 

Baroque style

1600 to 1700

 

Pope Sixtus V

1585 to 1590

 

Edict of Nantes, religious tolerance in France 1598

 

 

Pope Paul V

1605 to 1621

 

Pope Innocent X

1644 to 1655

 

Pope Alexander VII

1655 to 1667

 

Great Fire of London

1666

 

 

 

 

Rococo style

1650 to 1775

 

Louis XV, France

1715 to 1774

 

Ashanti culture, Ivory Coast, etc

1700 to 1900

 

Sikhs, Indian religious community

1500

 

Frederick II the Great of Prussia 1748

1740

 

Seven Years War

1756 to 1763

 

American Revolution

1775 to 1783

 

Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 to 1796

 

Excavations at Pompeii & Herculaneum, etc.

1738

 

French Revolution

1789 to 1797

 

Napoleon

1799 to 1815

 

Neoclassicism (style)

1780

 

Romanticism(style)

1780

 

Realism (style)

1780

 

Impressionism (style)

1860

 

Post-Impressionism (style)

1880

 

Sioux (Dakota) culture

1876

 

Industrial Revolution

1800

 

Zulu empire, Africa

1810 to 1879

 

Crimean War

1853 to 1856

 

Peace of Zurich, Napoleon III & Franz Joseph

1859

 

Unification of Italy

1860 to 1870

 

American Civil War

1861 to 1865

 

Spanish-American War

1898

 

Revolution in China, republic founded

1911

 

World War I

1914 to 1918

 

Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

1917

 

Spanish Civil War

1936 to 1939

 

World War II

1939 to 1945

 

United Nations Charter

1945

 

Israel is independent

1948

 

Korean War

1950 to 1953

 

Common Market established in Europe

1957

 

Six-Day War, Middle East

1967

 

Vietnam War

1974

 

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

1991

 

       
   

[1]Dates are compliant with ISO standards; however, the standard advises that dates comprising fewer than four digits should be padded with leading zeroes. VCS/Oracle will not allow leading zeroes. The zeroes may be added by implementers after the data is published. The ISO standard is the following: ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

       
     

[2] Note that years in ages estimated by radiocarbon dating, potassium/argon dating, and other such relative dating methods do not necessarily correspond to years recorded in a calendar; therefore, calibration tables are designed for the particular circumstances surrounding the specific relative dating process. Calibration tables are often unavailable; however, dates should still be estimated because the fields may not be left blank and slight inaccuracies in Earliest and Latest Dates will not affect overall retrieval.

       

Last updated 16 September 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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