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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.6.2

 

Physical Characteristics, Culture, Provenance

Included in this chapter

 

3.6.2.1

   

Display Materials (required)

     

3.6.2.1.1

   

Definition
An indication of the substances or materials used in the creation of a work, as well as any implements, production or manufacturing techniques, processes, or methods incorporated in its fabrication, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.

    • Examples

    • oil on canvas
    • gelatin silverprint
    • letterpress on pale yellow paper
    • egg-tempera paint with tooled gold-leaf halos on panel
    • iron, artificially oxidized
    • Carrara marble on granite base
    • limestone with sandstone flying buttresses
    • steel frame with steel and glass panels
    • Volkswagen bus with mannequin and picnic basket
     

3.6.2.1.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.1.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.1.4

 

 

Discussion
This field supplies a description of the technique, media, and support used in the creation of the work.

       

3.6.2.1.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.1.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
It is required to record Display Materials. Enter an appropriate free-text value.

  • Record the matter, materials, or substances used to create a work, and the processes, techniques, and implements used to apply or form the materials, as appropriate.

  • When necessary, clarify the relationship between the materials and the techniques used to apply them.

 

3.6.2.2

   

Material Term (required)

     

3.6.2.2.1

   

Definition
For materials, the names of the matter, material, or substance used to create the work of art or architecture. For techniques/implements, the names of the means, method, process, or technique by which a material was used in the creation of a work, or the name of any implement or tool used to create the work using the process or technique.

    • Examples

    • For materials

      wood
      glass
      marble
      poplar
      charcoal
      vernis Martin
      laid paper
      mother of pearl
      egg tempera
      paint
      oil paint
      gold
      iron gall ink

      bronze
      ink
      gouache
      canvas
      Conté crayon [TM]
      Foam-Cor [TM]
      burlap sacking
      deer bone
      cinnabar
      amethyst
      fiberglass
      Formica [TM]
      the artist


      For techniques/implements

      drawing
      painting
      sculpting
      lost wax
      stumping
      pricking
      carving
      intaglio

      engraving
      etching
      gilding
      weaving
      chasing
      tooling
      aquatint
      burnishing
      coating
      overpainting
      montage
      inlaidcollage
      red figure

      finger painting
      underdrawing
      drawing à deux crayons
      stipple engraving

      stumping
      stencil
      duplicatingimpasto
      gelatin-silver print

      assemblage
      chromogenic color process
      half-timber construction
      balloon frame
      wattle and daub
      board and batten construction
      prefabrication
      roulette
      compass
      chisel
      brush
      eraser
      chain saw
      palette knife
      felt tip pen
      jacquard loom
      burin
      sable brush
      scorper
      pen
      pencil
      fingers

     

3.6.2.2.2

   

Values
Controlled by the AAT.

       

3.6.2.2.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.2.4

 

 

Discussion
This field supplies a description of the technique, media, and support used in It is important to record the matter, materials, or substances utilized in creating the work of art or architecture, and the methods by which materials are utilized in creating art or architecture, particularly when the process or technique is not apparent from the materials used. For example, if paint was applied by a technique other than painting, it is more important to record that technique than if paint were applied by painting. If the implement is not apparent from the materials used, record the implement (e.g., if oil paint is applied with a palette knife rather than the more typical paint brush, it would be especially important to record palette knife).

       

3.6.2.2.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.2.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Record terms indexing the materials and technique used to create the work or implements used to carry out the technique and apply media.

 

3.6.2.3

   

Material Role

     

3.6.2.3.1

   

Definition
The role indicating if the terms refer to to a medium or support for materials, or to a technique or implement for techniques/implements.

    • Examples

    • medium
      support
      technique
      implement
     

3.6.2.3.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.3.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.3.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.3.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.3.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: These flags refer to the indexing terms that are being entered for technique, medium, and support.

  • For materials, record a term indicating if the material is a support or medium. It is particularly important to distinguish between medium and support when cataloging works that are primarily two-dimensional, where materials are applied to a surface to create an image

Medium is the material applied to the support. Examples of medium include the following: ink, paint, pastels, watercolor, charcoal, vernis Martin, mother of pearl, egg tempera, oil paint, gold leaf, iron gall ink, bronze, gouache, Conté crayon™, deer bone, cinnabar, amethyst, graphite. In other words, the materials applied over the support to create an image are the media (e.g., oil paint or chalk). For sculpture, architecture, and other three-dimensional works, any material of which the work is made is typically called medium, rather than support.

Support is the surface upon which media have been applied. Examples of support include the following: canvas, oak panel, laid paper, wove paper, wood, copper, glass, marble, poplar, linen, burlap sacking, Foam-Cor™, fiberglass. The support is the material on the surface of which an image resides, as in paintings, drawings, prints, or photographs (e.g., wood, canvas, or paper). There may be primary and secondary supports (as with a sheet of paper mounted to cardboard).

  • For techniques/implements, record an indication of whether the terms refer to the technique (e.g., drawing, engraving ) or the implement (e.g., pen, burin).


 

3.6.2.4

   

Material Flag

     

3.6.2.4.1

   

Definition
Flag for distinguishing materials from techniques.

    • Examples

    • material
      technique/implement
     

3.6.2.4.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.4.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.4.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.4.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.4.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Use a flag to indicate if the indexing term refers to a material or to a technique/implement.Use lower case.

  • Materials are physical materials of which the work is composed, including both the media and any support to which the media are applied (e.g., ink and paper are materials).

  • Techniques/implements are the activities or tools used in the creation process (e.g., engraving is a technique and burin is an implement).


 

3.6.2.5

   

Material Extent

     

3.6.2.5.1

   

Definition
An indication of the specific part of a work composed of a certain material manufactured or created using a particular technique.

    • Examples

    • overall
      surface
      statue
      base
      lid
      backing board
      lower panel
      glaze
     

3.6.2.5.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.5.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.5.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.5.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.5.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: As necessary, record the part of the work to which the media or technique was applied.Use lower case.

  • Works of art can be made up of many different parts, each composed of different materials, and made using different techniques. Recording the extent of the use of a particular material or technique clarifies this relationship.


 

3.6.2.6

   

Display Dimensions (required)

     

3.6.2.6.1

   

Definition
Information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. It may include the scale of the work. It may also include the number of the parts of a complex work, series, or collection.

    • Examples

    • 46.5 x 38 cm (18 3/8 x 14 15/16 inches)

    • 89 cm (35 inches) (diameter)

    • 48.3 (height) x 28.1 (diameter of mouth) cm (19 x 11 inches), 27.2 cm (10 3/4 inches) (diameter of body)

    • 179 leaves; text block: 26.6 x 19.1 cm (10 1/2 x 7 7/16 inches), oak covers: 27.3 x 19.8 cm (10 3/4 x 7 7/8 inches)

    • 43.59 m (143 feet) (diameter of dome); 43.59 m (143 feet) (interior height of dome from floor)

    • 152 items; various dimensions
     

3.6.2.6.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.6.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.6.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.6.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.1.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Required: Record a prose description of the dimensions, or construct a display by concatenating information from controlled fields. Include information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. As appropriate, include the scale of the work or the number of the parts of a complex work, series, or collection.

  • It is required to index this display with Value, Unit, and Dimensions Type.

    regular dimensions, simple height by width by depth
    - 46.5 x 38 cm (18 3/8 x 14 15/16 inches)
    - 198 x 233 x 82 cm (78 x 91 3/4 x 32 1/4 inches)
    - 436.9 x 718 x 777 cm (14 feet 4 inches x 23 feet 6 1/2inches x 25 feet 6 inches)

    unusual shapes, scale, irregular dimensions
    - 89 cm (35 inches) (diameter)
    - 29.8 x 20.3 cm (11 3/4 x 8 inches) (oval)
    - 161.5 cm (63 5/8 inches) (circumference, sphere)

    - 139 cm (54 3/4 inches) (greatest circumference of the body)
    - 61.6 x 97.2 cm (24 1/4 x 38 1/4 inches); scale: 1 inch = 10 feet
    - 19.1 x 23.5 x 13.9 cm (irregular, largest dimensions)

    measuring multiple parts
    - 48.3 (height) x 28.1 (diameter of mouth) cm (19 x 11 inches), 27.2 cm (10 3/4 inches) (diameter of body)

    - 12 x 20.3 cm (4 3/4 x 8 inches); secondary support: 30.5 x 40 cm (12 x 15 3/4 inches)
    - 17.6 x 26.4 cm (6 15/16 x 10 3/8 inches) (plate mark), 24.5 x 30.7 cm (9 5/8 x 12 inches) (folio)

    - composed of 4 panels, 23 x 45 cm each (9 x 17 3/4 inches)
    - 183 x 187 cm (72 x 73 5/8 inches) (overall); 105 cm (41 3/8 inches) (width of central panel); 39 cm (15 3/8 inches) (width of each side panel)

    works on paper, manuscripts, books
    - 179 leaves; text block: 26.6 x 19.1 cm (10 1/2 x 7 7/16 inches), oak covers: 27.3 x 19.8 cm (10 3/4 x 7 7/8 inches)

    - 3 volumes, 274 pages; textblock: 47 x 32.2 cm (18 1/2 x 12 11/16 inches)
    - 13.3 x 20.6 cm (5 1/4 x 8 1/8 inches)(sheet); 25 mm apart (15/16 inch) (chain lines); 14 per 20 mm (7/8 inch) (laid lines)

    approximate dimensions, sight measurements, historical measurements
    - approximately 22.4 x 17.3 mm (7/8 x 5/8 inches) (in setting)

    - circumference of the base of the object was measured as 5 braccia during the 17th century

    - 86 x 93.35 cm (34 1/4 x 36 3/4 inches) (sight measurements, window of mat)

    weight, format, running time, size, new media
    - 31 mm (1 1/8 inch) (diameter), 7.32 g (.2354 troy ounce)
    - 32 x 254.5 cm (12 5/8 x 100 1/4 inches) (scroll)
    - approximately 8.25 x 5.72 cm (3 1/4 x 2 1/4 inches) (image, carte-de-visite format); 10.16 x 6.35 cm (4 x 2 1/2 inches) (sheet)

    - 2 hours 32 minutes 40 seconds (VHS)
    - 239 feet, 35 mm; 153 minutes, 24 frames per second (running time)
    - 17488 kb (jpeg)
    - 2100 x 1557 pixels
    - U.S. women's size 8; 50 inches (127 cm) (length at center back)

    architecture, area
    - 43.59 m (143 feet) (diameter of dome); 43.59 m (143 feet) (interior height of dome from floor)
    - 418 square m (4500 square feet) (interior area)
    - approximately 5.18 square km (2 square miles) (area)

    group or collection of works
    - 21 items; sheets range in size from 28.3 x 41.2 cm to 35.9 x 66.4 cm (11 1/8 x 16 1/4 inches to 14 1/8 x 26 1/8 inches)
    - 152 items; various dimensions


 

3.6.2.7

   

Value (required)

     

3.6.2.7.1

   

Definition
The numerical value of a particular dimension taken of a work.

    • Examples

    • 60
      238
      91.6
      17.25
     

3.6.2.7.2

   

Values
Controlled format.

       

3.6.2.7.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.7.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.7.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.7.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Record the numerical value for dimensions.

  • Separating the actual dimension from its qualifiers allows mathematical processing on numerical values. This value may be an exact number or an approximation. Dimensions may be measured to varying levels of accuracy.


 

3.6.2.8

   

Unit (required)

     

3.6.2.8.1

   

Definition
The unit of measurement used.

    • Examples

    • centimeters
      millimeters
      meters
      liters
      kilograms
      cubic centimeters
      minutes
      carats

      pixels
      stories

      inches
      square feet
      feet
     

3.6.2.8.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.8.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.8.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.8.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.8.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Enter a term describing the unit of measurement. Use lower case.

  • In order for a numerical measurement to have meaning and to allow manual or automated calculations, the unit of measurement must be specified.

  • To allow objects to be retrieved efficiently, historical measurements should be indexed according to modern equivalents..


 

3.6.2.9

   

Dimension Type (required)

     

3.6.2.9.1

   

Definition
The kind of dimension taken of a particular area or part of an object or work.

    • Examples

    • height
      width
      depth
      length
      circumference
      diameter
      volume
      weight
      area
      running time
      base
      target
      count
     

3.6.2.9.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.9.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.9.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.9.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.9.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Choose a value that describes the type of dimensions.

  • For scale, use type base and target as necessary (e.g., Scale: numeric Value: .75 Unit: inch Type: base | Value: 1 Unit: foot Type: target).

  • Knowing what was measured is critical to understanding the dimensions of an object. Recording the dimension type identifies the orientation or nature of the measurement being recorded


 

3.6.2.10

   

Dimensions Extent

     

3.6.2.10.1

   

Definition
An explanation of the part of the work being measured, included when necessary for clarity.

    • Examples

    • image
      overall
      diameter
      platemark
      sheet
      secondary support
      mat
      mount
      frame
      pattern
      repeat
      lid
      footprint
      components
      stories
      tessera
     

3.6.2.10.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.10.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.10.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.10.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.10.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record a term or terms indicating the part of the work being measured.

  • When it is necessary for clarity or to distinguish two sets of measurements, include the Extent.

  • Measurements are assumed to be overall unless otherwise indicated. For example, when dimensions are taken for different parts of a work, such as the body and the base of a sculpture, use Extent to index the part referred to by each dimension.

  • Overall or outside dimensions (including any secondary support, such as a mount, frame, border, or pedestal) must be differentiated from exact dimensions of the object's primary support or image (i.e., the area covered by the medium without the support).


 

3.6.2.11

   

Dimensions Qualifier

     

3.6.2.11.1

   

Definition
A word or phrase that elaborates on the nature of the measurements of the work when necessary, as when the measurements are approximate.

    • Examples

    • sight
      maximum
      largest
      approximate
      assembled
      variable
      before restoration
      corners rounded
      framed
      with base
     

3.6.2.11.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.11.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.11.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.11.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.11.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Include a term indicating how the dimensions of a work were taken, when appropriate.

 

3.6.2.12

   

Scale Type

     

3.6.2.12.1

   

Definition
A term describing the scale, which is an expression of the ratio between the size of the representation of something and that thing (e.g., the size of the drawn structure and the actual built work). Used for studies, record drawings, models, and other representations drawn or constructed to scale.

    • Examples

    • numeric
      full-size

      life-size
      monumental
     

3.6.2.12.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.12.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.12.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.12.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.12.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record the type of scale used, if any.


 

3.6.2.13

   

Format

     

3.6.2.1.1

   

Definition
The configuration of a work, including technical formats, or the conventional designation for the dimensions or proportion of a work; includes format and size.

    • Examples

    • Formats
      longline
      3-column grid
      tabloid
      stations format
      carte-de-visite
      cabinet photograph
      vignette
      VHS
      Beta
      IMAX
      DOS

      Sizes
      quarto
      elephant folio
      half-plate
      pint
      British men's medium
      A4

     

3.6.2.13.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.13.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.13.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.13.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.13.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Include a designation of the format or conventional size designation if pertinent.

  • Designations of format and of size often overlap. This subcategory describes the configuration of the work. It may also refer to standard technical formats, particularly in photography, film, video, printing, and computing. Sizes are relative designations of magnitude. Works of the same "size" may vary in actual dimensions, but share a common set of proportions.

  • To record numeric sizes, use Value to record the number and indicate the controlled term size in Dimensions Type. Industry sizes are not always accurate or consistent, and vary within certain tolerances. Some sizes, such as those for standard containers or bottles, are strictly regulated. Others, such as clothing sizes, are inconsistent. Sizes often vary by nationality. A women's size 12 in Great Britain differs from that in Canada or in the United States, and may be a size 40 in Europe. Sizes may also vary over time.


 

3.6.2.14

   

Shape

     

3.6.2.14.1

   

Definition
The outline, form, or characteristic configuration of a work or part of a work, including its contours; used for unusual shapes.

    • Examples

    • square
      rectangular
      round
      oval
      triangular
      cylindrical
      hexagonal
      irregular
     

3.6.2.14.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.14.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.14.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.14.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.14.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record a term describing the shape of the work if it is an unusual or distinguishing characteristic (e.g., if a panel painting is oval rather than rectangular).

  • Recording the shape of a work provides context for its measurements and physical appearance. Objects may change shape over time, as when a rectangular panel painting has been cut down to an oval shape. Various shapes may be associated with multiple occurrences of the indexing fields, as when a round drawing is mounted on a square secondary support. Each shape could have corresponding dimensions and dates.

  • Shape is important to some lines of inquiry. For example, a scholar may wish to examine the composition of round paintings of the Northern Baroque.


 

3.6.2.15

   

Culture Term

     

3.6.2.15.1

   

Definition
The name of the culture, people, or nationality from which the work originated.

    • Examples

    • Celtic
      Chinese
      Italian
      Hispanic
      Burgundian
      Khoikhoi

      Sienese
      Pre-Columbian
      Buddhist
      Ottoman
      Asian
      ancient Egyptian
     

3.6.2.15.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.15.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.15.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.15.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.15.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record the name of the tribe, band, ethnic group, linguistic group, cultural group, civilization, religious group, nation, country, city-state, continent, or general region from which the work originated, as indicated in authoritative sources

  • For a group of items, include all the cultures represented in the group. If there are too many to list them all, include the most important or the most typical cultures evident in the group.

  • Uncertainty
    When in doubt about which specific culture or nationality produced a work, choose a broader concept of which you are certain (e.g., use the broader Western Sudanese if it is uncertain if the culture is Dogon or Bamana).


 

3.6.2.16

   

Sequence Number

     

3.6.2.16.1

   

Definition
Number indicating the sort order of Culture Terms.

     

3.6.2.16.2

   

Values
System generated. Controlled format.

       

3.6.2.16.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.16.4

 

 

Discussion

       
3.6.2.16.5    

RULES

       

3.6.2.16.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Number the culture terms in the order of priority.


 

3.6.2.17

   

Preferred Flag

     

3.6.2.17.1

   

Definition
An indication of whether the culture term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

     

3.6.2.17.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.17.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.17.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.17.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.17.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Indicate if the culture term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.


 

3.6.2.18

   

Style Term

     

3.6.2.18.1

   

Definition
Indication of style, period, group or movement, as a description of a work of art that associates it with a defined style, historical period, group, school, or movement whose characteristics are represented in the work.

    • Examples

    • Ancient
      Op-art
      Fauve
      Medieval
      Neo-Romanticist
      Pre-Raphaelite
      Hellenistic
      Feminist
      Classicist
      Old Kingdom
      Ming
      Renaissance
      Surrealist
      Louis XVI
      Mannerist
      Ch'ien-lung
      Postmodern
      Nayarit
      Huari
     

3.6.2.18.2

   

Values
Controlled by the AAT.

       

3.6.2.18.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.18.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.18.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.18.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record a style, historical period, group, movement, or school whose characteristics are represented in the work being cataloged. Derive this information from scholarly or other authoritative sources. There may be multiple styles, periods, groups, or movements represented in a single art work.

 

3.6.2.19

   

Sequence Number

     

3.6.2.19.1

   

Definition
An indication of the sort order of the style terms.

     

3.6.2.19.2

   

Values
System generated. Controlled format.

       

3.6.2.19.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.19.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.19.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.19.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Assign a sort order to the style terms.


 

3.6.2.20

   

Preferred Flag

     

3.6.2.20.1

   

Definition
An indication whether the style term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

     

3.6.2.20.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.20.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.20.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.20.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.20.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Indicate if the culture term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.


 

3.6.2.21

   

Style Type

     

3.6.2.21.1

   

Definition
A term identifying the type represented in the indexing terms.

    • Examples

    • style
      period
      group
      movement
      dynasty
     

3.6.2.21.2

   

Values
Controlled list.

       

3.6.2.21.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.21.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.21.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.21.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record a term that characterizes the type of style term recorded.

  • Terms such as Baroque or Renaissance, can refer to both a style and a period. Given that distinguishing between terms for styles, periods, groups, and movements may be problematic, the terms are not flagged in the AAT. The Style Type field in the Work Record allows contributors to indicate the context of the term as it relates to the work being cataloged.


 

3.6.2.22

   

Creation Number

     

3.6.2.22.1

   

Definition
Any numbers assigned to a work of art in the context of its creation.

    • Examples

    • 00334348
      Ruspan Originals No. 527
      DAR
      no. 1227Y
     

3.6.2.22.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.22.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.22.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.22.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.22.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record object identifications used during creation, including numeric, alphabetical, or alphanumeric designations. Numbers may have prefixes or suffixes that are vital to their meaning. Include the type of number, if known.

  • Numbers take their meaning from the context within which they were assigned, so noting a number's type is important.

  • Frequently, numbering systems reflect other organizational patterns; for example, they may be assigned consecutively by date or they may indicate a particular object (e.g., serial number), or a general kind of work (e.g., model number).

  • Where numbers are known to carry these additional meanings, those facts should be recorded. Works of art are numbered to make it easier to identify them.

  • Designs for architecture may also be numbered or coded for identification.

  • Numbers assigned during creation may refer to a particular style or design, or they may help identify the work in historical documents.

  • Numbers may be used as a "shorthand" to ensure that a work is clearly referenced. Alvar Aalto's Tea Trolley 900 is slightly different from his Tea Trolley 98.


 

3.6.2.23

   

Copyright

     

3.6.2.23.1

   

Definition
A formal statement of the copyright of a work, and/or any restrictions placed on it.

    • Examples

    • Copyright © 1981 The Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust

    • Copyright © 1957 Richard Avedon Inc. All rights reserved.

    • © 1981 Arizona Board of Regents, Center for Creative Photography

    • © 2010 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved

    • Restricted Loans List
     

3.6.2.23.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.23.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.23.4

 

 

Discussion
This field records a formal statement of the copyright of a work, and/or any restrictions placed on it, generally provided by the individual or group that holds the rights to use, exhibit, or reproduce a work, along with an indication of any existing restrictions on its reproduction, exhibition, or use. This field has to do with copyright of the work of art or architecture; copyright held by a photographer or publisher of images of the work is not recorded here.

  • This field refers to the copyright of the work. Copyright is a broad concept that includes both "moral rights assigned to the author and his successors to prevent the distortion of his work and to assure that he is identified as the author of the work," and " 'a bundle of rights,' including the right to copy, the right to distribute, the right to display or perform, and the right to create derivative works."These rights may be held by a work's creator, its owner, a repository, or by a third party to whom the creator or owner assigned the rights.

  • Note: This field refers to copyright of the work itself, not to the copyright for photographs or other images of the work, which is a separate issue regarding the rights of the owner or creator of the photograph.

  • Copyright and other restrictions for a work can be complex, and can relate to all aspects of the work's display and reproduction. Copyright arises automatically once an original effort has been started and some aspect of it has been fixed in a tangible medium (including media on a computer); a work is copyrighted whether or not it is actually registered with the Copyright Office or displayed with a copyright statement. Copyright is affected by various issues, including Fair Use, which has to do with the partial or limited reproduction of another's work that is permitted under the fair use doctrine; this doctrine may allow use that advances public interests such as education or scholarship.

  • Another important issue is that expressions, not ideas, are protected by copyright; however, the idea may be protected by trade secret or patent laws. Although copyright laws vary from country to country, generally the duration of copyright for the work itself is 70-75 years after the death of the artist. Note that copyright term extensions may be in place. Copyright is a personal property right, in the United States subject to the various state laws and regulations that govern the ownership, inheritance, or transfer of personal property, in addition to terms that govern contracts.

  • The copyright of a work of art or architecture may be held by a third party, who is neither the creator nor the owner of the work itself. This is particularly true with contemporary works of art, where the copyright may have been sold to an agency. There are also artists' collectives, such as CAR (Canadian Artists' Representation/Front des artistes canadiens), that administer copyright and broker permissions to reproduce works of art. When a work is created as part of the artist's employment, the employer probably owns the copyright.

  • Note that repositories and other owners of works who are not the creators may have rights governing the reproduction or other uses of the work under various laws, including copyright, trademark, contract, or privacy and publicity law.

  • Researchers are interested in copyright and restrictions information because they often need to know if a work is in the public domain or who must be solicited for permission before a work may be reproduced.
       

3.6.2.23.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.23.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: But required if known. Record the copyright statement or restrictions information for the work in an accessible, concise, and easily understandable form.

  • Transcribe the statement verbatim as expressed by the copyright holder, using syntax, capitalization, and punctuation as indicated in the original statement.

  • Alternatively, if you are composing a new statement, the following syntax is recommended: The word "copyright" (optional) followed by the copyright symbol (a "c" in a circle, ©), the first year when the work was covered by copyright, and the name of the copyright holder (e.g., © 2003 Marcus M. Moroniani. All rights reserved). If the year of first copyright is not known, it may be omitted from the statement (e.g., Copyright © Chuck Close).


 

3.6.2.24

   

Provenance

     

3.6.2.24.1

   

Definition
The prose description of the provenance or history of the owners or others in possession of a work of art or architecture, or a group.

    • Example

    • before 1835, Sant'Agostino (San Gimignano, Italy);
      before 1846, Cardinal Fesch [1763-1839] collection (Rome, Italy).
      then to Campana collection;
      1863-present, Musée du Louvre (Paris, France)
     

3.6.2.24.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.24.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.24.4

 

 

Discussion
Provenance is the ownship and collecting history of a work of art, architecture, or group from its creation to the present. This includes the means by which a work passed from one owner to the next, an identification of any public sales involving the work or the names of any agents who aided the transfer of ownership, and the names of any dealers who handled the work or included it in their inventories. If a work has been lost, stolen, or destroyed, or has otherwise vanished from public view, this fact should also be indicated here

       

3.6.2.24.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.24.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record the work's successive owners (or those who had possession of the work), from the first owner to the present, if known. The names of ancillary individuals or firms (agents, dealers, auction houses, consignees) which, while not technically owners, played a role in the transfer of the object from one owner to another, may also be included. Include notes on the relationship of one owner to another if this elucidates the chain of ownership. Indicate if information about the provenance or ownership of a work is speculative or uncertain.


 

3.6.2.25

   

Watermarks

     

3.6.2.25.1

   

Definition
A description of marks inherent in or applied to the material before it was fashioned into the work, including watermarks and stationers' stamps or marks.

    • Examples

    • foolscap
    • dog with a coat of arms in a circle
    • snake with a ring
    • letters EAL in orb with cross
    • fleur de lys above a banded shield; countermark: STACE
    • Florentine lily in double circle with F below and CAC above
    • crescents in a circle (possibly arms of Piccolomini)
    • indistinct (probably walking man)
    • star in circle with cross (like Briquet 6088)
    • watermark: none visible through lining
     

3.6.2.25.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.25.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.25.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.25.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.25.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Describe the watermarks, stationers' stamps, and other marks inherent in or applied to the material before it was fashioned into the work of art, if known.

  • Use lower case. Capitalize proper names.

  • If the mark corresponds to published sources (e.g., dictionaries of watermarks), this should be indicated.

  • This field may be used for works on paper, as well as for other works, if appropriate. Marks are a characteristic of the

.

 

3.6.2.26

   

Inscriptions

     

3.6.2.26.1

   

Definition
The transcription or description of the content of the inscription, mark, or text, which includes the material or medium in which the inscription, mark, or text was executed; its support if it is on a separate piece affixed to the object; the method by which the inscription, mark, or text was produced; and a brief description of the content or appearance of the inscription or mark.

    • Examples

    • signed and dated lower left: 1505 / AD [monogram]

    • signed lower left below the image: A Kertész; inscribed by the artist lower right: Paris

    • inscribed in frame: ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI FIAT MIHI SECUNDUM VERBUM TUU[M]; words projecting from angel's mouth: AVE GRATIA PLENA DOM[INUS TECUM]; text from Isaiah 7:14 is inscribed on book held by the Virgin
     

3.6.2.26.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.26.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.26.4

 

 

Discussion
Record a description of distinguishing or identifying physical markings, lettering, annotations, texts, or labels that are a part of a work or are affixed, applied, stamped, written, inscribed, or attached to the work, excluding any mark or text inherent in materials (record watermarks in the Watermarks field).

  • This category includes all words, numbers, symbols, stamps, and marks applied to the object during or after creation, whether by the artist or architect, his agent, or an owner or other later hand. It includes inscribed signatures, dates of execution, scale, explanatory texts, and other remarks. It also includes texts that are considered part of the art work, such as calligraphy in a Chinese painting, text on a medieval manuscript page, or text written on a statue, as on the scroll held in the hand of a Romanesque sculpted prophet. Watermarks and other marks inherent in the materials should be recorded in the Watermarks field.

  • Specificity and Exhaustivity
    A precise transcription or a prose description of the inscription is important to provide clarity and explain unusual features of the inscription. The information in this transcription should then be indexed in other subcategories as appropriate (e.g., inscribed date should be recorded in Creation Date); this makes it possible to formulate queries about types of inscriptions and their authors, as well as their locations, dates, and scripts.

  • When transcribing an inscription, care should be taken to transcribe the inscription as it is written, with little or no subjective interpretation. While inscriptions, stamps, marks, labels, annotations, graffito, and other texts found on a work may provide information that may improve understanding of a work, their interpretation is often disputed. An accurate transcription or description is critical to the use of an inscription as evidence. All explanatory text that accompanies the inscription (e.g., the location or medium) should be clearly distinguished from the transcription. For example, editorial text could be separated from the transcription by using a colon, as in the following text: signed lower right, below the image: A. Kertész; inscribed by the artist lower right: Paris.

  • When an inscription or mark is documented, the following characteristics are important: Who made it; the way in which it was made (materials and technique); its location on the object; and an indication of what the inscription says or what the mark looks like. This may include a transcription, transliteration (if it is not in the Roman alphabet), description, or translation. Remarks about the significance of an inscription or mark, and citations to any sources used to identify or describe an inscription or mark, can also be recorded. This category is also used to record the content of works that are primarily textual.

  • Note that the information found in an inscription is not always accurate. Often "signatures," such as those on a number of works purported to be by Rembrandt, were added later. Inscribed dates, such as those on Corot's prints, may not reflect the actual date of the printing. Inscriptions may also be difficult to decipher: For example, Joseph Hecht's inscription 1:2 means something different from impression number or scale, which would typically be expressed in a similar way as 1/2. The location of an inscription may give it meaning, as is the case of the Gray collection at Harvard. The colophon in a manuscript may be copied in later editions without regard for its accuracy. Inscriptions may have been added to works at sales, such as the Degas estate sale, or by dealers, such as stock numbers or coded prices.

  • Inscriptions and marks are transcribed during a detailed examination of the object. They may also have been transcribed and published elsewhere. Secondary or primary research sources may have to be consulted to identify the purpose and origin of certain types of inscriptions, such as an inscribed lot number from a sale.
       
3.6.2.26.5    

RULES

       

3.6.2.26.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record an exact transcription or accurate transliteration of an inscription, or a description of a mark found on a work.


 

3.6.2.27

   

Typeface

     

3.6.2.27.1

   

Definition
An indication of the typeface, letterform, or script used in an inscription or textual document.

    • Examples

    • Helvetica 9 pt bold
      Univers
      Gothic script
      open letters
      Carolingian minuscule

      rustic capitals
      dotted delta
      three-bar sigma
     

3.6.2.27.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.27.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.27.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.27.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.27.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: If it is required for retrieval, record a term identifying the typeface or letter form used in the inscription. Use lower case, but capitalize proper names and script names that are used as proper names in authoritative sources.

  • Record it for inscriptions and for works that are primarily textual.

  • Typefaces and letter forms are identified by names or phrases. If it is not possible to identify a typeface or letter form definitively, record it here but note note the uncertainty (e.g., Typeface is close to Gill Sans).


 

3.6.2.28

   

Marks

     

3.6.2.28.1

   

Definition
An identification of the mark type or name.

    • Examples

    • Sèvres double Louis
      Grindley Tunstall
      R.S. Prussia with star
     

3.6.2.28.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.28.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.28.4

 

 

Discussion

       

3.6.2.28.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.28.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: Record a term or reference to a mark on the work (e.g., a porcelain mark). Use a name for the mark as found in a mark authority, if possible. Use lower case, but capitalize proper names.

If a mark authority is cited, list the citation for the authority in the Subject Sources.


 

3.6.2.29

   

State

     

3.6.2.29.1

   

Definition
An indication of the The relationship of a work created in multiples, such as a print, to other stages of the same work.

    • Examples

    • 3rd state
      4th of 5 states
      bon à tirer
      printer's proof
      hors commerce
      final state
      artist's proof
      proof before letters
      experimental proof
      progressive proof
      printer's proof
      counter proof
      unnumbered

      1st of 3 states (Robison (1986))

      variant of state I (Bartsch 171-II (129)
      Adhémar 54.X
      Reed and Shapiro 52.XV-XVIH
     

3.6.2.29.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.29.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.29.4

 

 

Discussion
State is applicable to works created in multiples, particularly prints such as etchings printed from plates that are altered repeatedly. It may also refer to any sequence of related stages that together build toward the creation of a work of art or architecture. Each variation in the plate or stage of production is identified as a particular state. Since works of art produced in multiples typically vary slightly, identifying the state of a specific work makes it possible to distinguish it from other quite similar works. Differences in the application of ink to the same state of the plate are not separated states. Printmakers may make proofs to test their work on the plate; proofs sometimes survive and are typically named (e.g., artist's proof).

  • While state is primarily associated with graphic works, some sculptures have terms associated with them that refer to their state, such as artist's proof. This category could also be used to refer to stages in the construction of a work of architecture.

  • Numbered and named states
    STATE can be expressed as a ratio of the state of the object to the number of known states. This should be combined with the name of the person who identified the total number of states, and the date of the publication in which the schema of possible states was delineated. Different authors may enumerate a varying number of possible states of a work, and alternate sequences of these states.

  • Unnumbered states also exist; these usually date from the time before a print was in circulation or before a work was completed. These are identified by specialized terms such as printer's proof and bon à tiré proof.

  • Caveat: The identification of the state of a work may require the expertise of a connoisseur if a published catalogue raisonné does not exist. The enumeration of states is often speculative, as not all states of a work may be known or described. Much of the literature on printmaking has focused on the identification of the various states of an artist's graphic works. Unless an inscription exists on the object, identifying it may be difficult; secondary sources or other works may be consulted to identify a specific state. Prepublication states such as working proofs often have inscriptions that identify their purpose.
       

3.6.2.29.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.29.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: For prints and as appropriate for other works produced in multiples, record an indication of the relationship of the work to other stages of the same work, if known. Any stage in the development of a printing plate at which impressions are taken is a State; a new State occurs when the matrix (plate) is altered (e.g., lines are added or erased). A work's state may be expressed as a ratio: the state to which this work belongs out of the number of known states (e.g., 2nd of 5 states). It may also be identified by a descriptive phrase, such as final state or print before letters.

  • Format and syntax
    Use natural word order. List the ratio of the state of the work to the total number of known states (e.g., 3rd of 5 states). If the number of states is unknown, list the numeric indication of the state (e.g., 3rd state). For unnumbered states, record the appropriate term. Use lower case. Avoid abbreviations, except for abbreviations for numbers (e.g., use 2nd rather than second). Use ordinal numerals (e.g., 4th) and Arabic cardinal numbers (e.g., 5), as appropriate. Record other terminology in the language of the catalog record. If no English term exists and non-English terms must be used, include the appropriate diacritical marks (e.g., bon à tirer).

  • If scholars disagree or are uncertain about the state, clearly indicate this in the display (e.g., possibly 2nd of 4 states). If you do not know the total number of states, include the known state and omit the total number of states (e.g., 2nd state). When more than one study of an artist's oeuvre exists, or there is disagreement about the number of states of a particular work in existence, the identification of the state should also include the name of the author of the catalogue raisonné used to identify the state, and the date it was published; Adhémar 54.X and Reed and Shapiro 52.XV-XVIH actually refer to the same state.

  • Types of states
    Use the following terminology for various types of states and proofs. For additional types of proofs, see the sources of terminology below.

    • Numerical states: For most indications of STATE, record numerical references as described above (e.g., 1st of 3 states).

    • Artist's proof: Use artist's proof (or epreuve d'artiste) for impressions printed especially for the artist and excluded from the numbering of an edition. On the print, you may find it abbreviated as AP or EA, and numbered with an edition number according to the number of artist's proofs pulled (e.g., AP 2/12).

    • Bon à tirer: Use bon à tirer (or right to print) for the proof approved by the artist to establish the standard for all of the other prints in the edition.

    • Hors-commerce: Use hors-commerce, meaning "outside the commercial edition," for proofs that were excluded from the numbering of an edition, were not originally intended for sale, are not artist's proofs, printer's proofs, or bon à tirer. You may find it abbreviated HC on the print.

    • Printer's proof: Use printer's proof for impressions printed as tests for the printer and excluded from the numbering of an edition. You may find it abbreviated PP on the print.


 

3.6.2.30

   

Edition

     

3.6.2.30.1

   

Definition
An indication of the placement of a work in the context of prior or later issuances of multiples of the same work. Edition either identifies a specific work in the context of a group issued at the same time, or defines an issuance of a work in relation to previous and subsequent editions.

    • Examples

    • 46/500
      2nd edition
      subscriber's edition
      Kennedy edition
      unlimited edition
      edition of approximately 100
      edition of 10 or fewer
      25 casts made
      4 known casts
     

3.6.2.30.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

       

3.6.2.30.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources as described in Titles/Names and Descriptive Note, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.30.4

 

 

Discussion
Edition may be used in two senses.

  • In the first sense, it may identify a specific work in the context of a group issued at the same time. In this sense, it describes a limited number of works made at a given time, such as prints taken from a plate or bronzes made from a set of molds. In the case of prints or photographs, an inscription often identifies the number of the impression, and juxtaposes it with the total print run (e.g., 2/32).

  • In another sense, Editon defines an issuance of a work in relation to previous and subsequent editions. Historically, this concept of edition is more problematic, and applying the category to printed works is often possible only if they were published in book form or can be grouped as a result of detailed study.

  • The edition of a work is often difficult to identify. In the case of books and "book-like" materials, an inscription may be present, possibly on the title page (e.g., Third Edition). If an edition statement is found on the title page, it should be transcribed accurately. Such inscriptions, however, can be misleading, as they may not accurately reflect the number of the edition at hand.

  • Identifying an edition may require the expertise of a connoisseur, or comparison of the object with a published catalogue raisonné. It is often a small technical change, such as the use of a different paper, shown by a change in watermark, that identifies a different edition. In other cases, different publishers will have issued a work, each in their own editions.

  • This information is often speculative, and not always reliable; all editions of a work are not always known or described. It is also difficult to apply the concept of edition to earlier works, when "printmaking plates were kept in the possession of the artist or publisher who ran off more impressions as needed until the plate wore out." Multiple opinions should be accommodated.

  • Note that different versions of a work, such as copies after a work, re-creations, replicas, or reproductions of it, are not considered states or editions. Versions include the following examples: 1/4-scale version, small version, version A. Record versions as Related Works.

  • Caveat: A printed work in book form may have a title page with an edition statement. Inscriptions may be found on single sheets or photographs. Information about the various editions of an artist's graphic works may also be found in secondary sources devoted to the history of printmaking or to the graphic work of an artist. Sometimes the date a work was created identifies it as a separate edition. For example, the sculptures of the nineteenth-century artist, Rodin, are still being cast today, but the twentieth-century bronzes are not considered part of the original edition. Edition statements may be found on the title page, colophon, or justification of "book-like" works, or in inscriptions on single-sheet works. Secondary sources, such as collection catalogs and catalogues raisonnés, may also help to identify the edition of a work, as will comparison to other known instances of the same work.
       

3.6.2.30.5

 

 

RULES

       

3.6.2.30.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Optional: For prints and other works produced in multiples, record a description of the Edition when applicable. Edition should be, a notation that identifies a specific print or other work in the context of a limited number of identical or very similar works made or issued at the same time and from the same matrix (e.g., 4/75). For books, record an indication of the position of the issuance of the work in relation to previous and subsequent editions (e.g., 3nd edition), if known. A new edition of a book is characterized by substantive revisions to the intellectual content of the work, including alterations of the text or illustrations.

  • Form and syntax
    Avoid abbreviations, except for ordinal numerals (e.g., use 3rd rather than third). Use lower case except when a term includes a proper name. Use Arabic cardinal numbers (e.g., 5) and ordinal numbers (e.g., 4th), as appropriate. Record terminology in the language of the catalog record. Include the appropriate diacritical marks. If there is an edition statement on the work, accurately transcribe it in the original language (transliterated into the Roman alphabet when necessary).

  • For prints or other works issued in multiples at the same time, record a fractional number. Record the impression number, forward slash, and the edition size (e.g., 51/250). For books and other works produced in the context of prior or later issuances, record the number or name of the edition followed by the word edition (e.g., 5th edition). If an edition is both numbered and named, record the name followed by the impression number and edition size (e.g., Sagot and Le Garrec edition, 98/150 ).

  • If the impression number or edition size is uncertain, clearly indicate this in the display (e.g., probably 34/50). If the edition size is known but the impression number is unknown, record the edition size (e.g., edition of 20).


 

       
   

[1]In these guidelines, "required" fields are flagged; "required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set by the system.

       

Last updated 23 September 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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