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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
2. General Guidelines

2

GENERAL GUIDELINES

   

2.1

 

General Information

     

2.1.1

 

 

Following the rules

  • To enter or edit data in VCS, follow the Editorial Rules in this document. Where the rules or their application are ambiguous or not applicable to a situation at hand, consult with your supervisor; the rules will be updated to reflect the new issue.
     

2.1.2

 

 

Required fields and minimal records

     

2.1.2.1

 

 

Minimal record
When adding new records, create a minimal record, meaning a record containing all the required fields.

     

2.1.2.2

 

 

Fuller records
When adding records or editing existing records, if editorial priorities allow, and if the work is important, you may create a fuller CONA record by filling in other fields as time and research warrant.

     

2.1.2.3

 

 

Required fields
A minimum record in CONA contains a numeric ID, title or name, creator, object/work type, and other fields as described below. VCS will not allow you to save a record without the following system-required fields:

    • a numeric ID identifies the record uniquely (IDs are assigned by the system)
    • a parent (you create the link to a parent by designating the correct
      by the mark "DOM" (for dominant) when you create or move a record)
    • preferred title
      • various associated flags
      • sources for the title
      • contributor of the title (automatically assigned by VCS)
    • creator and links the ULAN record for the creator
    • catalog level
    • object type
    • classification
    • location
    • creation date
    • subject
    • materials (if possible)
    • dimensions (if possible)

  • Additional fields may be included as time and editorial priorities allow.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.3

 

 

Format and values

  • Examples in the various sections of the editorial rules illustrate the format of data in all fields.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.3.1

 

 

Controlled vocabulary
Some fields use controlled vocabulary, meaning you must link to a value in a controlled list or to a record in ULAN, TGN, or AAT. If you feel additional values need to be added to the list, consult with your supervisor. Controlled vocabulary in another Getty vocabulary should be added to that vocabulary, which will allow it to be immediately available for linking to CONA.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.4

 

 

Capitalization and abbreviation

  • In general, data in all fields should be expressed in mixed case (i.e., with the appropriate initial capitals for proper terms, but not all upper-case or all in lower case). Do not use initial capitals for titles or other fields. See further discussion under each field below.

  • Avoid abbreviations in all fields unless otherwise instructed in the appropriate rules. For terms, avoid abbreviations in the preferred term, but if there is a common abbreviation, include it as a variant term to allow retrieval.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.5

 

 

Language of the Record

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.5.1

 

 

Multilingual
CONA is multilingual insofar as the titles and descriptive notes may be flagged in multiple languages. The preferred title in CONA is in English, with differences between American English and British English noted where pertinent; however, titles in other languages are encouraged. The flags, display dates, and other fields in the CONA record are generally in English.

Background: In a completely multilingual vocabulary, all languages would be treated equally, with none serving as a so-called dominant language. However, in practical applications, it is often necessary to treat one language as the default dominant language, particularly when the vocabulary is rich and complex. An example is CONA, in which each work record includes over 100 fields or data elements in addition to the title itself. With such vocabularies, it would be impractical to maintain the data values of flags, notes, dates, hierarchies, and other subsidiary information in several languages. For CONA, English is the dominant language, although titles and descriptive notes may be in multiple languages. In addition, if every term (title) in the original source language has not been assigned equivalents in all other target languages, the status of the other languages is not equal to that of the source language, and they are known as secondary languages according to thesuarus standards.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.5.2

 

 

Alphabet
Preferred titles and other words in foreign languages are in the Roman alphabet (if necessary, transliterated into the Roman alphabet from other alphabets). When Unicode is implemented in VCS, titles may be entered in other alphabets and writing systems. However, it will still be required to supply a Roman alphabet transliteration of all such titles.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.5.3

 

 

Diacritics
CONA uses the full set of diacritics required to represent terms in the Roman alphabet (including terms transliterated into the Roman alphabet from other alphabets). In VCS, special codes are used to represent diacritics.

  • Although CONA is published in Unicode, to express diacritical marks in the editorial system, you must use the diacritical codes listed in Appendix A. The codes comprise a dollar sign and two or three digits; the codes are usually placed before the letter requiring the diacritic.

    • Example
      [title with accent grave in display]
    • Virgin of the Host (preferred, English-P)
      La vierge à l'hostie (French-P)

  • The special diacritic codes used by VCS may be mapped to Unicode.

  • The display of the Vocabularies should include all diacritics. While some online displays may omit diacritics that will not display correctly, it is highly recommended to display CONA data in Unicode, even if some of the characters are currently or temporarily illegible in certain Web displays.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.6

 

 

Production goals

  • Editors are assigned quotas for the number of records that they should complete each day. The quota differs depending upon the editorial task. Your supervisor will provide you with the target quota for the task assigned to you.

  • Typically, the quotas are gathered at the end of each month and the number of records per day is averaged over the days worked during that month. Your supervisor may tally your quota for smaller periods of time as warranted. In order to meet your quota for the month, it is recommended that you meet your quota each day rather than trying to make it up at the end of the month.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.7

 

 

Leaving records unfinished overnight

  • Do not leave unfinished records overnight. This is particularly critical on nights when data extractions will be made for the various data releases. At the end of each day, all records in the regular, publishable sections of the hierarchy must be ready for publication.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.8

 

 

Quality control

  • Avoid typographical errors at all costs. Proofread your work carefully.

  • If you have a tendency to make typos, for notes and other texts it is recommended to copy the note into Word, run spell check, and then paste the corrected note into VCS (but do not paste any special characters from Word).

  • Pay special attention to titles, because it is very difficult in which to spot errors in this field.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.9

 

 

Avoid plagiarism

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.9.1

 

 

Published sources
Caveat: Do not copy texts from published sources verbatim! Read, analyze, and rephrase the material. Do not jump to conclusions or state more than is discussed in your sources.

  • It is permitted to use the copy function to extract texts from the Web provided you do so only as a reference. You must rewrite any such text and cite the source.

  • To avoid pasting illegal characters into VCS, first put the Web text into Notepad, and then copy it from Notepad before pasting it into VCS.

  • It is required to cite the published source of terms and the information in notes. Include the page number or other appropriate reference to the passage where you found the term or other information.

  • Sources may be linked directly to each Term and to the Descriptive Note. For other information, record the source in the overall record (called "Subject") citation designation.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.9.2

 

 

Contributors
It is required to include the contributor who provided titles and the descriptive note. Generally, the contributor is automatically assigned when the data is loaded and the editor need not worry about it (other than to avoid deleting the contributor or misrepresenting the contribution).

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.9.2.1

 

 

What is a contributor?
A contributor to VCS is an institution or occasionally an individual person who does one of the following: 1) They use programmers to process data files that originated in their institution and they send us their data in our XML contribution format, or 2) they use our online contribution form to fill in data based on their own local data. In either case, the contributor is handling the data; their data is not being interpreted by the Vocabulary Program.

  • If an institution or person sends us hardcopy information that we in the Vocabulary Program enter into VCS, that institution or person is NOT a contributor per se. They are considered a source for the data, but they are not a contributor because they do not physically provide data in a format that may be entered into our system. Given that there is some interpretation going on when we enter the data by hand, the Vocabulary Program is the contributor in these cases.

  • To avoid misrepresenting the contributor's contribution, if you change a Title or significantly change a Descriptive Note that had been provided by a contributor, change the contributor to "VP" (for Vocabulary Program) and make a link through Source to the contributor's database. Thus, you are indicating that the contributor's data was the source for the information, but the VP has changed it or entered it.

  • Caveat: Note that you may change a Title or Creator Display contributed by a contributor only in special circumstances that have been approved by your supervisor. Normally, you should not edit a contributor's contributed Title or Creator Display. If you need to add a modified version of the Title or Creator Display, make a new Title or Creator Display with contributor "VP"; do not delete or edit the contributed Title or Creator Display unless directed to do so by your supervisor.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.10

 

 

Uncertainty and ambiguity in display fields

  • When important information is described as uncertain by your source, the information may still be recorded, but with an indication of uncertainty or approximation in a Descriptive Note or Display Date field (e.g., "ca." or "probably").

  • Never express more certainty than warranted by your sources. If there is disagreement among reliable sources, use terms such as probably or otherwise express the uncertainty (e.g., "Some scholars believe there is a relationship between this bronze and workshops in Rome."). Consider idiosyncrasies of contributed data (where data may have been parsed incorrectly by algorithm out of various systems) and your published sources; analyze what is true and what is only possibly or probably true.

  • Index important information in the note or display date field using appropriate indexing fields and estimating data for retrieval. See the discussion of individual Display Date and Descriptive Note fields below for more information.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.11

 

 

Uncertainty and ambiguity in indexing fields

  • Indexing fields are intended for retrieval. Any field that contains a controlled number (e.g., Start Date) or values controlled by pick lists (e.g., Preferred flag), controlled files (e.g., Language), or links to other vocabularies (e.g., Location) are indexing fields. Consider retrieval issues when you assign terms and values to such fields.

  • When fields do not display to end-users: Some fields do not display to end-users. For example, the Start Date and End Date do not display to end-users; for these fields, estimate broadly the span of time that is applicable. Estimating too narrowly will result in failed retrieval. However, estimating overly broadly will result in false hits in retrieval.

  • When fields display to end users: Most fields in CONA are displayed to end-users. For these fields, do not make wild estimations or guess. However, if a specific value is in question, use a broader value or use both of two possible values, depending upon the circumstances. For example, in the Descriptive Note, if sources disagree about whether a style developed in 15th-century Bruges or Brussels, you could 1) state that the concept was Flemish (encompassing both Bruges and Brussels), or 2) name both cities, stating that scholars disagree regarding if the concept developed in Bruges or Brussels.

  • Knowable information: For information that is knowable but simply unknown by you, always use a more general term or omit the information. When the lack of knowledge is due to your ignorance regarding the issue, do not use terms such as "probably" or "perhaps" because this implies that scholars are uncertain of this information.

  • Debated information: For information that is unknowable because scholars disagree because the historical or archaeological information is incomplete or interpretation of the information is debated, you may use terms such as "probably" or "perhaps" to explain the ambiguity or uncertainty in a Display Date or Scope (Descriptive) Note.

  • Flags: For flags, where you must choose one value only, make the best choice based on the information at hand. If there is any doubt, consult with your supervisor. See further discussion of individual fields in the relevant chapters.

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.12

 

 

Uncertain identification of a work

  • In some cases, scholarly opinion or common usage may be divided regarding whether two titles refer to the same work; this will generally happen only with lost or destroyed works. Rely on general scholarly opinion to decide whether both titles should appear in the same CONA record or in separate records (representing separate works). When scholarly opinion is split, make them separate records, and note the possible connection in Descriptive Note and through an associative relationship. See also Associative Relationships.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2

 

Merging records

  • If two records are contributed for the same work, they must be merged in VCS. The Vocabulary Program or approved surrogates may "merge" multiple records that represent the same concept.

  • In the merged record, the contributors' brief name appears with the Titles, Creator Display, and Descriptive Note that they have contributed. Other fields in the database do not link to the contributor name.

  • Caveat: Note that when you merge two records that have children in the hierarchy, all of the children will be combined in a list under the newly merged record. You must check to see if any of the children in the new list should themselves be merged.

 

 

 

 

 

2.2.1

 

 

Rules for merging

 

 

 

 

 

2.2.1.1

 

 

When to merge

 

 

 

 

 

2.2.1.1.1

 

 

Matching the term, parents, and meaning
Before merging, it must be ascertained that the two records actually represent the same concept. In order to be merged, CONA works must contain a title that is the same, the same location, creation date, work type, and creator.

  • Caveat re. merging: If in doubt, do NOT merge the records!
         

2.2.1.1.2

   

Facets
Do NOT merge facets.

         

2.2.1.1.3

   

Tops of Hierarchies
Do NOT merge records flagged with record type "hierarchy name."

         

2.2.1.1.4

   

Guide terms
Currently there are no guide terms in CONA. In the future, if guide terms are established, consult with your supervisor before merging them.

         

2.2.2

   

Procedures for merging

  • After determining that the records absolutely represent the same work, you may "merge." Go to the hierarchy view; mark DOM and REC. Mark the best, primary record as "DOM" (for dominant) and the record(s) that are to be merged into it as "REC" (for recessive). Merge using the menu.

  • Mark list: Before every merge, it is mandatory editorial practice to look at the Mark List window in order to double-check that you have marked the correct records as DOM and REC.

  • After merging, check the merged record and edit as necessary.
         

2.2.2.1

   

Unmerging
If, in spite of all precautions, you mistakenly merge the wrong records and you notice this error immediately, you may click "unmerge" from the menu. If some time has passed before you've noticed the mistake, if you are uncertain how to do this, or have any doubt about the "unmerge," consult with your supervisor before doing anything.

 

 

         

2.3

 

Moving records

         

2.3.1

   

Rules for moving

         

2.3.1.1

   

When to move records
You will generally be moving records in order 1) to put candidate records in the publishable parts of the hierarchies or 2) to change a movable work to a built work, or vice versa.

         

2.3.2

   

Procedures for moving

  • Determine where in the hierarchy the records belong, based on the rules in Chapter 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships. Go to the hierarchy view; mark DOM and REC. Mark the parent record as "DOM" (for dominant) and the record(s) that are to be moved under it as "REC" (for recessive). Move using the menu.

  • Mark list: Before every move, it is mandatory editorial practice to look at the Mark List window in order to double-check that you have marked the correct records as DOM and REC.

  • After moving, check the hierarchy to be sure that the move was accomplished as you intended.
         

2.3.2.1

   

Undoing a move
If, in spite of all precautions, you mistakenly move the record(s) incorrectly and you notice this error immediately, you may click "undo move" from the menu. If time has passed before you have noticed the mistake or if you have done any other editing, the "undo move" will not work and you will have to correct the hierarchy manually. If you are uncertain how to do this, or have any doubt about the "undo move," consult with your supervisor before doing anything.

 

 

         

2.4

 

Sample Records

         

2.4.1

   

Sample CONA record

  • The record below is presented in an arrangement suitable for end-users.

Record Type: movable work
Catalog Level:
item
Object/Work Type: painting
Classification:
paintings
European art

TITLES
Title/Name: Irises
Preference: preferred
Type: repository
Language: English

Title/Name: Les Iris
Preference: variant/alternate
Language: French

Title/Name: Piante di iris
Preference: variant/alternate
Language: Italian

Title/Name: Die Irisse
Preference: variant/alternate
Language: German

Title/Name: Irysy
Preference: variant/alternate
Language: Polish

Title/Name: Irissen
Preference: variant/alternate
Language: Dutch

CREATOR
Creator Display: Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890, active in France)
Related Person/Corp.Body Link: Gogh, Vincent van
Role: painter

DATE
Creation Date: 1889
Start Date: 1889 End Date: 1889

LOCATIONS
Flag: current Type: N/A
Location: J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California, United States)
Repository Numbers: 90.PA.20

Flag: Other Type: creation
Location: Saint Rémy de Provence (Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, France)

STYLE/CULTURE
Style:
Impressionist
Post Impressionist

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Material and Technique:
oil on canvas, applied with brush and palette knife
Flag: material Name: oil paint Role: medium
Flag: material Name: canvas Role: support
Flag: technique/implement: Name: impasto Role: technique
Flag: technique/implement: Name: palette knife Role: implement
Flag: technique/implement: Name: brush Role: implement

Dimensions Display: 71 x 93 cm (28 x 36 5/8 inches)
Value: 71 Unit: cm Type: height
Value: 93 Unit: cm Type: width

Inscription: signed lower right: Vincent

DEPICTED SUBJECT

General Subject:
botanical
allegory

Specific Subject:
AAT link: flowers Indexing type: description
AAT link: Iris germanica (species) Indexing type: identification
AAT link: regeneration Indexing type: interpretation

NOTE
Descriptive Note:
This work was painted when the artist was recuperating from a severe attack of mental illness; it depicts the garden at the asylum at Saint Rémy. The cropped composition, divided into broad areas of vivid color with monumental irises overflowing the borders of the picture, was probably influenced by the decorative patterning of Japanese woodblock prints. There are no known drawings for this painting; Van Gogh himself considered it a study. His brother Theo recognized its quality and submitted it to the Salon des Indépendants in September 1889, writing to Vincent of the exhibition: "[It] strikes the eye from afar. It is a beautiful study full of air and life."

Source: J. Paul Getty Museum. Handbook of the Collections. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2008. Page: 129

EVENT
Event Type: exhibition
Event:
Salon des Indépendents of 1889
Display Date: September 1889 Start: 1889 End: 1889

OTHER NOTES
Provenance:

- 1892: Julien Tanguy (Père) [Paris, France], sold to Octave Mirbeau, 1892;
- 1892 - 1905: Octave Mirbeau [Paris, France], sold to Auguste Pellerin, 1905;
1905 - : Auguste Pellerin [Paris, France]; Galerie Bernheim Jeune [Paris, France]
1925 - 1929: Jacques Doucet [Paris, France; Neuilly sur Seine, France], by inheritance to his wife, Mme. Jacques Doucet;
1929 - 1938/1939: Mme. Jacques Doucet [Neuilly-sur-Seine, France], sold to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, 1938/1939;
1938/1939 - 1945/1946: Jacques Seligmann et Fils [Paris, France; New York, New York], sold to M. Knoedler & Co., possibly 1945/1946;
1945/1946 - 1947: M. Knoedler & Co. [London, England; New York, New York; Paris, France], sold to Joan Whitney Payson, 1947;
1947 - 1975: Joan Whitney Payson , by inheritance to her son, John Whitney Payson, 1975;
1975 - 1987: John Whitney Payson (sold, Whitney Payson sale, Sotheby's, New York, November 11, 1987, lot 25, to Alan Bond.);
1987 - 1990: Alan Bond [Perth, Australia], returned to Sotheby's (New York), 1990;
1990: Sotheby's (New York) , sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum by private treaty sale, 1990.


         

 

         

2.5

 

List of Fields

         

2.5.1

   

About the fields

  • There are over 100 "fields" of information in a CONA record. It is unlikely that all fields of information will be available or appropriate for all concepts. However, certain information is considered core, and is required for each minimal CONA record (see also Required fields and minimal records above).

  • For some required fields, the system provides a default value, which means that this value will be used in that field unless you change it.

  • Some fields are display-only fields that are controlled by the system. For example, the Subject_ID may not be changed by the editor. It is supplied by the system according to rules in the VCS program.

  • To view the Data Dictionary, see Addendum Z.
         

2.5.2

   

List of VCS Fields

  • Subject ID
    Unique numeric identification for the CONA record. Note that "subject" in this context is not the same as the depicted subject (e.g., iconography) of the work. The term "subject" has been used to refer to the record as a whole in the AAT, TGN, and ULAN, and thus is used for consistency in CONA.

    Each work in the CONA database is uniquely identified by a numeric ID that serves to link the titles/names and all other pertinent information to the work record. The ID is generally permanent. Occasionally an ID may change due to the record being merged with another record; in such cases, the new IDs are included in the licensed files, and a mapping between defunct and new IDs is provided to licensees.
     
    Example

    Subject ID: 700000007

     
  • Record Type
    Type designation that characterizes the CONA record (facet, guide term, built work, movable work).

    Facet: Refers to the top of a facet, which is the major division of CONA (e.g., Built Work and Movable Work).

    Guide term: Also known as the node label; refers to records that serve as place savers to create a level in the hierarchy under which CONA records can be collocated. It is rarely used in CONA.

    Built Work: Refers to records in CONA that represent architecture, as defined above.

    Movable Work: Refers to records in CONA that represent items that are or could be held in repositories, as defined above.

  • Label
    Brief text identification of the work, concatenated from various fields in the work record. Whereas the Subject ID identifies the concept in the database, the Label serves as an easily legible heading to identify the work for end-users. It is a brief description and credit line that identifies the work and distinguishes it from similar works.
     

    Example

    Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890); Cypresses; 1889; oil on canvas; 93.4 x 74 cm (36 3/4 x 29 1/8 inches); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, New York, USA); Rogers Fund, 1949; 49.30.

     
  • Catalog level
    An indication of the level of cataloging represented by the record, based on the physical form or intellectual content of the material (e.g., item, group, subgroup, volume, collection).

  • Classification
    Placement of a work of art or architecture within a classification scheme that groups other, similar works together on the basis of similar characteristics. (e.g., Pre-Columbian art, ceramics).

  • Object/Work Type
    The kind of object or work described (e.g., refectory table, altarpiece, portfolio, drawing, drinking vessel, basilica, dome).

  • Titles/Names
    Titles, identifying phrases, or names given to a work of art, architecture, or material culture. For complex works, series, or collections, the title may refer to a discrete unit within the larger entity (a print from a series, a photograph in a collection, a panel from a fresco cycle, a building within a temple complex) or it may identify only the larger entity (series, collection, cycle) itself (e.g., Venus and Cupid, Noli me tangere, Portrait of Thomas Jefferson, Ceramic fruit bowl, Untitled, Empire State Building, Album of 65 Studies). Each work may have multiple titles.
     

    Example

    Hagia Sophia
    Church of the Holy Wisdom
    Ayasofya
    Santa Sofia
    Agia Sofia
    Sancta Sophia

     
  • Term ID: Numeric ID that identifies the title/name in the database (e.g., in the example above, Hagia Sophia could have the following Term_ID: 1000000008). Term IDs are unique; homographs have different IDs. The Term_ID may be hidden from end-users.

  • Display order of the titles/names
    Titles/names are arranged in a particular order by the editors. The preferred title or name is positioned first in a list of titles/names for the work. Implementers should sort the titles/names by the Display_order number, which is included in the data files, but typically hidden from end-users.

  • Flags for the titles/names
    In displays for the end-user, titles/names are displayed with various flags.
     

    Preferred Title/Name
    The flag preferred following a title/name indicates that the title/name is the so-called preferred title/name for the record. Non-preferred titles are flagged variant/alternate.

    Each record has one and only one default preferred title/name, flagged in order to provide a default term for displays (see also Language of the Titles/Names below).

    LC Flag
    Also called the AACR Flag. Currently this flag is usually set to N/A in CONA. Where it is used, it flags the title/name that corresponds to Library of Congress Subject Heading, for works that are listed in Library of Congress authorities (e.g., Eiffel Tower).

    NA = Not Applicable
    Y = Yes

    Term Type flag
    Indicates the type of term (title), based on specialized terminology used in thesauri. It is currently set to N/A in CONA.

    Historical flag
    Indicates if the title/name is current or historical.

    C = Current
    H = Historical
    B = Both current and historical
    U = Unknown
    NA = Not Applicable

    Vernacular flag
    Indicates if the title/name is in the vernacular (local) language, or some other language. Currently in CONA, most titles/names are flagged U for Undetermined. See also Language of the Titles/Names below.

    V = Vernacular
    O = Other
    U = Undetermined

    Other flags
    Flag identifying a primary characteristic of the title/name regarding the kind of title/name or its purpose. (This field maps to Title Type in CDWA.)

    descriptive
    repository
    inscribed
    artist's
    former
    translated
    constructed
    original
    brand name
    popular
    published
    series
    manuscript designation

    Display Title/Name
    Currently, this flag is generally set to N/A (Not Applicable) in CONA. When used, it distinguishes titles/names intended for indexing in alphabetical lists from those in natural order intended for displays.

    Part of Speech
    Indicates the category into which the title/name would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context (e.g., noun, past participle). This flag is currently set to Undetermined in CONA.

     
  • Dates for the Titles/Names
    The date on which a particular title or name was assigned to the work, or a range of dates during which a title/name was known to be valid. The date fields comprise a Display Date, which is a note referring to a date of usage of the term, and Start Date and End Date, which are years that delimit the span of time referred to in the Display Date. Start and End Dates index the Display Date for retrieval, but are hidden from end-users.
     

    Examples

    Display Date: 1887
    Start: 1887 End: 1887

    Display Date: late 17th century
    Start: 1675 End: 1699

    Display Date: until 1986
    Start: 1950 End: 1986

     
    Start and End Dates are years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. Dates BCE are expressed as negative numbers. If the date extends to the current time, the End Date is 9999.

  • Language of the Titles/Names
    The languages for the title or name may also be included. A given title/name may have multiple language designations because it may have the same spelling in multiple languages. Languages are derived from a controlled list, which includes the name of the language and a numeric code (e.g., British English / 70053). The code is hidden from end-users.

    Preferred flag for a given language
    A "P" following the language in the examples indicates that this is the preferred title or name in that language.

    Language status
    Indicates if the title/name is a loan word or phrase from another language, meaning the term in one language is used with little or no change in a second language (e.g., Les Demoiselles d'Avignon is a French title that is often used in English).

  • Title/Name Qualifier
    A word or phrase used to distinguish between homographs, which are titles/names that have the same spellings but refer to different works. Qualifiers are currently rarely used in CONA. Distinctions between works with homographic titles is instead made through the use of the Label, described above.

  • Creator
    Set of fields identifying the named or anonymous individuals or corporate bodies responsible for the design, production, manufacture, or alteration of the work. Creators are indexed using Related Person/Corporate Body, which includes a link to ULAN, a Role, and optional Extent and Qualifier.

    Creator Display
    Display field for the named or anonymous creator or creators. If there is no known creator, this is a reference to the presumed culture or nationality of the unknown creator (e.g., Christopher Wren, attributed to Kicking Bear, follower of the Limbourg Brothers, Tintoretto with additions by unknown 16th-century Venetian). Ambiguity and nuance should be expressed in this free-text display field.

    Related Person/Corporate Body
    A link to ULAN, indexing the display Creator field.

    Role
    The role or activity performed by a creator or maker in the conception, design, or production of a work (e.g., artist; painter; designer; draftsman; engraver; muralist; potter; modeller; sculptor; goldsmith; publisher; architectural firm).

    Extent
    The part of a work contributed by a particular creator (e.g., predella; execution; with additions by; figures).

    Attribution Qualifier
    An expression of the certainty with which a work can be attributed to a known artist or group, used when the attribution is uncertain, is in dispute, when there is more than one creator, when there is a former attribution, or when the attribution otherwise requires explanation (e.g., attributed to, formerly attributed to, probably by, possibly by, workshop of, studio of, office of, atelier of, assistant to, associate of, manufactory of, follower of, circle of, school of, style of, after, copyist of, manner of). Definitions of these terms are in the editorial manual.

    Examples

    Creator Display:Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890)
    Role: painter Related Pers./Corp.: Gogh, Vincent van

    Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century)
    Role: printmaker Related Pers./Corp.: Hokusai, Katsushika
    Role: publisher Related Pers./Corp.: Nishimura Eijudo

    Creator Display: unknown Northern Paiute
    Role: weaver Related Pers./Corp.: unknown Northern Paiute

    Creator Display: Sèvres porcelain manufactory (French, established 1740); design: attributed to Jean-Claude Duplessis, le père (French, ca. 1695-1774); painting: attributed to Charles-Nicolas Dodin (French, 1734-1803)
    Role: manufactory Related Pers./Corp.: Sèvres porcelain manufactory
    Role: designer Qualifier: attributed to Related Pers./Corp.: Duplessis, Jean-Claude
    Role: painter Qualifier: attributed to Related Pers./Corp.: Dodin, Charles-Nicolas

    Creator Display: unknown Chinese, with French mounts
    Extent: bowl Role: ceramicist Related Pers./Corp.: unkown Chinese
    Extent: mounts Role: silversmith Related Pers./Corp.: unkown French

  • Creation Date fields
    A set of fields recording the date or range of dates associated with the creation, design, production, presentation, performance, construction, or alteration of the work or its components.

    Creation (Display) Date
    A concise description of the date or range of dates associated with the creation, design, production, presentation, performance, construction, or alteration of the work or its components, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance (e.g., 1667, ca. 1210, 17th century, before 952 BCE, reign of Rameses II).

    Start Date and End Date
    The earliest and latest possible dates when the work of art or architecture was created. For works that were created over a span of time, start date is the year when the work was designed or when execution was begun, and end date is the year when it was finished. For uncertain or approximate dates, these are the earliest possible years when the work could have been begun or designed.

    Date Qualifier
    A clarification of the meaning of the date, including an indication that different creative activities took place on different dates (e.g., design; execution; alteration; addition; performance; restoration; destruction; discovery; bulk; inclusive; coverage; publication). Qualifier, Start Date, and End Date repeat as a set.

    Examples

    Creation Date: ca. 1898
    Start: 1893 End: 1903

    Creation Date: designed 1685/1686; executed 1691
    Start: 1685 End: 1686 Qualifier: design
    Start: 1691 End: 1691 Qualifier: execution

    Creation Date: Middle Minoan Palace period, ca. 1600 BCE
    Start: -1630 End: -1570


  • Measurements
    Set of fields containing information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work. It may include the shape, weight, or other characteristics of the work. It may also include the number of the parts of a complex work, series, or collection (e.g., 23.9 x 35.8 x 8.3 cm, 76 x 41 x 39 feet, 56.8 cm (diameter), sheets range from 20.3 to 49 cm height). The set of fields includes a display field and fields intended to index the display values: Value, Unit, Type, Extent, Qualifier, Scale, Shape, and Format.

    Examples

    Dimensions: 29.85 x 15.88 x 17.15 cm (11 3/4 x 6 1/4 x 6 3/4 inches)
    Value: 29.85 Unit: cm Type: height
    Value: 15.88 Unit: cm Type: width
    Value: 17.15 Unit: cm Type: depth

    Dimensions: comprises 10 panels; overall: 280 x 215 cm (110 1/4 x 84 5/8 inches)
    Extent: components Value: 10 Type: count
    Value: 280 Unit: cm Type: height
    Value: 215 Unit: cm Type: width

    Dimensions: 59.44 x 91.44 cm (23 3/8 x 36 inches); scale: 3/4 inch = 1 foot
    Value: 59.44 Unit: cm Type: height
    Value: 91.44 Unit: cm Type: width
    Scale: numeric Value: .75 Unit: inch Type: base
    Scale: numeric Value: 1 Unit: foot Type: target

  • Materials and Techniques
    Set of fields containing an indication of the substances or materials used in the creation of a work, as well as any implements, production or manufacturing techniques, processes, or methods incorporated in its fabrication. (e.g., oil on canvas, egg-tempera paint with tooled gold-leaf halos on panel, Carrara marble on granite base). The set of fields includes a display field and fields intended to index the display values: Role (medium, support, technique, implement), Material Flag (material, technique/implement), and Extent.

    Examples

    Materials/Techniques (Display)
    : oil paint on linen canvas
    Flag: material Role: medium Name: oil paint
    Flag: material Role: support Name: linen canvas
    Flag: technique/implement Role: technique Name: painting

    Materials/Techniques (Display): ink and tempera on vellum (illuminations), leather and silver (binding)
    Extent: folios/illuminations Flag: material Role: medium Name: ink
    Extent: folios/illuminations Flag: material Role: medium Name: tempera
    Extent: folios/illuminations Flag: material Role: support Name: vellum
    Extent: folios/illuminations Flag: technique/implement Role: technique Name: calligraphy
    Extent: folios/illuminations Flag: technique/implement Role: technique Name: painting
    Extent: binding Flag: material Role: support Name: leather
    Extent: binding Flag: material Role: support Name: silver

  • Watermarks
    A description of marks inherent in or applied to the material before it was fashioned into the work, including watermarks and stationers' stamps or marks (e.g., foolscap, EAL in orb).

  • Inscriptions
    The transcription or description of the content of the inscription, mark, or text, which may include the material or medium in which the inscription or text was executed; its support if it is on a separate piece affixed to the object; the method by which the inscription or text was produced; and a brief description of the content or appearance of the inscription or text.

    Examples

    signed in lower left: GBPiazzetta; inscribed and dated verso, in a later hand: S. Maria dei Servi / 1735

    inscribed lower center: COSMO MEDICI / DVCII / FLORENTINOR.ET.SENESNS. / URBIS ROMAE / AEDIFICIORVM ILLVSTRIVMQVAE / SVPERSVNT RELIQVIAE SVMMA [...]

    rotunda Gothic script, beginning of the last canto of Dante's Inferno, in Italian with the first line of the new section in Latin

  • Typeface
    The name or a descriptive phrase that identifies the typeface or script used in an inscription (e.g., Carolingian minuscule, Helvetica 9 point bold).

  • Marks
    An identification of an inscribed mark type or name (e.g., Sèvres double Louis, Grindley Tunstall).

  • State
    An indication of the relationship of the work to other stages of the same work (e.g., 3rd state, 4th of 5 states, printer's proof).

  • Edition
    A description of the specific edition to which a work belongs, whether expressed as a fractional number or as a name or expression of the context related to prior or later issuances (e.g., 46/500 ; 2nd edition).

  • Current Location and Other Locations
    Set of fields recording the name and geographic location of the repository that is currently responsible for the work, or, for monumental works and architecture, the geographic location of the work. If the work is lost, destroyed, has an unknown location, or in an anonymous private collection, this is indicated. (e.g., Graphische Sammlung Albertina (Vienna, Austria); Columbus (Indiana, USA)).

    Other locations of the work are also recorded here.

    Geographic locations are controlled by TGN. Repositories and other corporate body locations are controlled by ULAN. In addition to the place name or corporate body name, additional fields are the following: Current flag, Location Type (Creation; Discovery; Architectural Context; Lost; Destroyed; Not Applicable), Repository Numbers, Credit Line, and Address Note.

    Examples

    Flag: Current Type: N/A
    Corp. Body Location: National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC, USA)
    Credit Line: Gift of The Mark Rothko Foundation, Inc.
    Repository Numbers: 1986.43.10

    Flag: Current Type: N/A
    Geog. Location: Columbus (Indiana, USA)
    Address Note: 536 Fifth Street

    Flag: Current Type: destroyed
    Flag: Other Type: Creation
    Corp. Body Location: Gedächtniskirche (Berlin, Germany)

    Flag: Current Type: N/A
    Corp. Body Location: J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California, USA)
    Flag: Other Type: Discovery
    Geog. Location: Athens (Greece)

  • Creation Number
    Any numbers or codes assigned to a work of art in the context of its creation (e.g., DAR ; no. 1227Y).

  • Copyright
    A formal statement of the copyright of a work, and/or any restrictions placed on it (e.g., Copyright © 1981 The Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust).

  • Provenance
    The prose description of the provenance or history of the owners or others in possession of a work of art or architecture, or a group.

    Example

    before 1835, Sant'Agostino (San Gimignano, Italy);
    before 1846, Cardinal Fesch [1763-1839] collection (Rome, Italy). then to Campana collection;
    1863-present, Musée du Louvre (Paris, France).

  • Style
    The term or terms identifying a style, historical period, school, or art movement whose characteristics are represented by the work (e.g., Post-Impressionist).

  • Culture
    The name of the culture, people, or nationality from which the work originated (e.g., Celtic, Chinese). This field is used particularly with works by unknown creators (although an appellation referring to the unknown creator is required in the Creator field).

  • Events
    Set of fields for terminology that refers to pertinent events in the history of the work, particularly used for exhibitions in which the work was displayed. An event must always be accompanied by a place and/or a date.

    Event Type
    Identification of the type of event (e.g., exhibition, coronation, dedication).

    Place for the Event
    Location where the event occurred. Place names are taken from TGN (e.g., England (United Kingdom)).

    Dates for the Event
    Dates comprise a Display Date, which is a note referring to a date or other information referring to a date or other information about the work relative to the event and Start Date and End Date to delimit the span of time.

  • Depicted Subject
    Fields recording the subject matter of a work of art (sometimes referred to as its content), which is the narrative, iconographic, or non-objective meaning conveyed by an abstract or a figurative composition. It is what is depicted in and by a work of art. It also covers the function of an object or architecture that otherwise has no narrative content. It maps to "Subject Matter" in CDWA.

    Indexing Type
    Type of indexing represented by this subject term; a classification of the level of subject description indicated by the indexing terms, for use if necessary to distinguish between what a work is "of" and what it is "about," using the terms description, identification, and interpretation.

    Description: Terms flagged description refer to generic elements depicted in or by the work. These are terms reflecting only what you would see in the subject if you did not know the specific people, event, story, or place depicted (e.g., human female, nude, column, train).

    Identification: Terms flagged identification refer to the specific subject, including named historical, mythological, religious, fictional, or literary subjects (e.g., Leiden (Holland), Bodhisattva, Endymion, Three Graces, Madonna and Child).

    Interpretation: Terms flagged interpretation refer to the meaning or themes represented by the subjects and includes a conceptual analysis of what the work is about (e.g., salvation, original sin, sacrifice).

    Subject Extent
    Part of the object on which this particular subject is depicted, using an extensible controlled list (e.g., recto, verso, side A, side B, main panel, predella , general, overall).

    Preference
    Indication if the subject depicted is preferred or a variant for this work (i.e., preferred, variant/alternate).

    Display Order for depicted subjects
    Sort order for the subjects depicted. Implementors should sort subjects according to these numbers within the two sets, General Subject and Specific Subject.

    General Depicted Subject
    Indexing terms that characterize in general terms what the work depicts or what is depicted in it. This subject analysis is the minimum required. It is recommended to also list specific subjects, if possible. The controlled terms for general subject are the following:

    advertising and commercial
    allegory
    animal
    apparel
    architecture
    botanical
    cartographic
    ceremonial object
    cityscape
    didactic and propaganda
    funerary art
    genre
    history and legend
    human figure
    interior architecture
    landscape
    literary theme
    machine
    military
    mixed motif
    nonrepresentational art
    object (utilitarian)
    performance
    portrait
    religion and mythology
    seascape
    still life


    Specific Depicted Subject
    Indexing terms that characterize what the work depicts or what is depicted in it, including generic terms and proper names. These terms are more specific than the general subjects discussed above. They are drawn from several controlled sources, as described below.

    Person or Corporate Body: Links to ULAN provide indexing for people and corporate bodies depicted in the work, including the proper names of sitters and historical characters.

    Geographic Places: Links to TGN provide indexing for geographic locations depicted in the work, such as the proper names of cities or mountains.

    Generic Terms: Links to AAT provide for indexing subjects depicted that are not described by proper names (e.g., loving cups, tents).

    Works: Links to other works in CONA; to be used when one work depicts another, for example, if a drawing depicts a built work that is also documented in CONA.

    Iconography Authority: Links to the Iconography Authority (IA), which contains names/terms and other information for iconography and other subject terminology not contained in the other linked vocabularies. The IA includes proper names for events, religion/mythology, fictional characters, named animals, themes from literature, fictional places, and built works not recorded in CONA. The IA is further discussed below.

    Outside Iconography
    Note fields and link to a source, for subjects taken from some outside source not included in AAT, TGN, ULAN, or the CONA Iconography Authority. Fields include the Term, Code used in the outside source, and a link to the published Source and Page number of the iconography (e.g., Iconoclass or the Library of Congress Authorities).

  • Hierarchical Positions / Parent ID
    The hierarchy in CONA refers to the method of structuring and displaying the works within their broader contexts. All works are placed under a facet, Built Work or Movable Work. In addition, wholes and parts of works may be structured in a hierarchy. In the example below, a print, View of Naples, is displayed in a hiearchy as part of a volume.

    Example

    Top of CONA Hierarchy
    ....Movable Works
    ........Theatrum civitatum nec non admirandorum Neapolis et Siciliae regnorum
    ............View of Naples

  • Multiple parents
    CONA is polyhierarchical. Each Subject_ID may be linked to multiple Parent_IDs. If there are multiple parents, one is marked as preferred. In displays, the preferred parent is listed first or otherwise designated. An example of when this could be used in CONA would be to link a work to its current parent and to a historical parent, of which it was formerly a part.

  • Sort order in the hierarchy
    Siblings in the hierarchies are usually arranged alphabetically. However, they are sometimes arranged by another logical order, for example, in chronological order.

  • Historical flag for the Parent
    Indicates if the link between the child and its parent is current or historical. Most relationships in CONA are flagged Current; however, Historical relationships may exist, as when a print is linked to a volume of which it was formerly a part.
     

    C = Current
    H = Historical
    B = Both current and historical
    U = Undetermined
    NA = Not Applicable

     

  • Dates for the parent
    Dates may indicate the span of time during which a whole/part relationship existed, as when parts of a former work are now disassembled. Dates comprise a Display Date, which is a note referring to a date or other information about the link between a child and its parent, and Start Date and End Date, which are years that delimit the span of time referred to in the Display Date.

  • Hierarchy Relationship Type
    Indicates the type of relationship between a hierarchical child and its parent, expressed in the jargon of controlled vocabulary standards. Relationships in CONA are generally whole/part, as between a print and the volume that contains the print. Another example of a whole/part relationship is in TGN, Tuscany is a part of Italy. An example of genus/species relationship is calcite is a type of mineral (AAT). An example of the instance relationship is Rembrandt van Rijn is an example of a Person (ULAN).
     

    G=Genus/Species (generic) or BTG
    P=Whole/Part (partitive) or BTP
    I=Instance or BTI

     

  • Related Works
    Associative relationships to other works in CONA; they include various types of ties or connections between works, excluding whole/part (hierarchical) relationships, but including links such as those between sketches and finished works. Each reference comprises a relationship type and a link to the Subject_ID of the related work (note that "subject" in this context refers to the record, not the Depicted Subject). For end-users, the related work should be displayed with its Label.

    Relationship Type
    A term or phrase characterizing the relationship between the work at hand and the linked work. Relationship types are reciprocal (that is, linked to both records), drawn from a controlled list that comprises the controlled phrase and a numeric code, as illustrated below. The codes are hidden from end-users.
     

    Code

    Focus Entity

    Related Code

    4000

    related to

    4000

    4010

    distinguished from

    4010

    4111

    preparatory for

    4112

    4112

    based on

    4111

     
    Historical flag for the Related Work
    Indicates if the link between the related works is current or historical. Most relationships in CONA are flagged Current.
     

    C = Current
    H = Historical
    B = Both current and historical
    U = Undetermined
    NA = Not Applicable

     
    Dates for the Related Work
    Dates comprise a Display Date, which is a note referring to a date or other information about the link between the related concepts, and Start Date and End Date, which are years that delimit the span of time referred to in the Display Date. Start and End Dates index the Display Date for retrieval, but are hidden from end-users. Dates are reciprocal, meaning that they are linked to both records in the relationship.

    Start and End Dates are years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. Dates BCE are expressed as negative numbers. If the date extends to the current time, the End Date is 9999.

    Examples

    [for a terrestrial globe]
    Relationship Type: pendant of
    Related Object/Work Label: Celestial Globe; globe; Nicolas Bailleul le jeune (French, active 1740-1750); 1730; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California, United States); 86.DH.705.2

    [for an architectural work]
    Relationship Type: depicted in
    Related Object/Work Label: Pantheon; engraving; design by Giovanni Antonio Dosio (Italian, 1533-after 1609), printmaker Giovanni Battista de'Cavalieri (Italian, ca. 1525-1601); published 1569; in Urbis Romae aedificiorum illustrium quae supersunt reliquiae, Florence (Italy)

    [for a carpet]
    Relationship Type: mate of
    Related Object/Work Label: Ardabil Carpet; Maqsud of Kashan (Persian, active mid-16th century); 1540; Victoria and Albert Museum (London, England); 272-1893

  • Descriptive Note
    A narrative text or prose description and discussion of the work or group of works, including a discussion of issues related to it. Important information in this note should be indexed in other appropriate fields.

    Examples

    [for Adoration of the Magi by Bartolo di Fredi, ca. 1400, Pinacoteca, Siena, Italy]
    The Adoration of the Magi in Siena was produced by Bartolo's workshop but probably executed primarily by Bartolo di Fredi himself. Although it is unknown where the altarpiece originally stood, the quality of the materials, large size, and the influence that the work had on other artists are all evidence of an expensive commission and prominent location, possibly in the cathedral of Siena. It illustrates the artist's late stylistic concerns and was extremely influential in Siena and elsewhere.

    [for a group of works]
    152 design drawings and models for the East Building project that I. M. Pei & Partners gave to the archives of the National Gallery of Art in 1986.


  • Language for the Note
    The language of the Descriptive Note. Most notes in CONA are written in English, however translations in other languages may be included.

  • Contributors
    The institutions or projects that contributed information to the CONA record. In order to give due credit to the contributing institution, it is required that implementers display a reference to the contributor to end-users.

    References to contributors are drawn from a controlled list comprising a numeric ID, a brief name, and a full name. The end-user must have access to the brief name and the full name. The Brief Name is the initials, abbreviations, or acronyms for the contributing projects or institutions. Contributors may be linked to the record in three ways: with the titles, with the record as a whole (called subject in this context; this is not the depicted subject), and with the note (descriptive note).

  • Sources
    The CONA record generally includes the bibliographic sources for the titles/names and the descriptive note. In order to give due credit to published sources, it is required that implementers display a reference to the published source to end-users.

    References to sources are drawn from a controlled list comprising a numeric ID, a brief citation, and a full citation. The end-user must have access to the brief citation and the full citation. Sources may be linked to the record in three ways: with the terms, with the record as a whole, and with the descriptive note.

    Page Number
    A reference to a volume, page, date of accessing a Web site, or heading reference in a hardcopy or online source.

  • Iconography Authority (IA)
    The Iconography Authority (IA) is used to control terminology in the Depicted Subject area of a CONA record (discussed above). IA contains controlled terminology not within scope for AAT, ULAN, or TGN, such as named events (U.S. Civil War), mythological characters not in ULAN (e.g., Venus (Greek and Roman mythology)), iconographical themes (e.g., Adoration of the Magi), etc. This authority is hierarchical in structure. It includes the following fields: Iconography ID; Iconography Parent; Iconography Type (e.g., event, character/person, fictional place, etc.); Descriptive Note; Display Date, Start and End Dates for the iconographical theme; Terms/Names; Display Order, Preference, and Type for terms/names; Language and Language Preference flag for term/name; Source for term/name, Page, and Preference flag; Sources for the record; Associative Relationships and Relationship Type; links to AAT, TGN, and ULAN, and Relationship Types for these links/relationships.

  • Revision History
    The editorial history of each CONA record is captured in the Revision History, which identifies when records and titles/names have been added, edited, merged, etc. When CONA is released, the Revision History will be included with the licensed files, but hidden from end-users. This information allows implementers to update CONA in their system with each new release.

       

Last updated 15 September 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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