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Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.5

 

Associative Relationships

Included in this chapter

  • Example
    [from VCS, for "travertine"]
       
   

[from an end-user display, for "travertine"]

 

 

     

3.5.1

 

 

Related Concepts

     

3.5.1.1

 

 

Definition
Associative relationships between one concept record to other concept records in the AAT. It includes various types of ties or connections between concepts, excluding genus/species (hierarchical) relationships. Related Concepts are also called Related Terms (RT) in the jargon of thesaurus construction.

     

3.5.1.2

 

 

Values
Values for the Related Entity are concatenated automatically by the system, using the preferred name and other information from the linked record.

     

3.5.1.3

 

 

Sources: Warrant for linking the concepts
The same standard general references that are appropriate for the Scope Note may be used to determine which concepts are related. See 3.4 Scope Note.

     

3.5.1.4

 

 

Discussion
A Related Concept is an associative relationships between the AAT record at hand and another AAT record. Only clear and direct relationships should be recorded. These direct relationships are typically current, but occasionally may be historical.

  • Associative relationships are used primarily for retrieval. Make links between Related Concepts only when the concepts are directly and uniquely related, but where hierarchical relationships are inappropriate. If a thesaurus is bound together by too many associative relationships between entities that are only loosely or indirectly related, the value of the relationships in retrieval is lost.

  • Consider this question: If the end-user is interested in retrieving Concept X, will he or she also want to retrieve Concept Y? Is this a unique and important relationship? In general, if making one link could logically mean that more than 10 other links could be made to this concept, do not make the link: probably this is not a direct relationship.

  • For example, linking brushes to the hundreds of activities that could involve a brush should be avoided. However, linking watercolor brushes to watercolor painting (technique) would be a direct, unique, and appropriate Associative Relationship.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.5

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements
Adding a Related Concept is required when necessary, as described under Relationship Type below.

  • Link concepts that contain terms that are semantically or conceptually linked, but are neither equivalents (synonyms) nor hierarchically related.
           

3.5.1.5.2

   

When to make Associative Relationships
Link Related Concepts when it is useful to the end-user to have a cross-reference to the other concepts, and when the concepts are uniquely and directly related to each other but they do not have a hierarchical relationship. Think in terms of retrieval: Would such a link be useful in a search engine?

If the concept records are clearly related but they are not linked via the hierarchy, create an associative relationship to prevent the conceptual link from being lost. In the examples below, the Related Concepts are in different hierarchies from the record for watercolors.

   
  • Examples
    [for "watercolors" paintings]
  • Relationship Type: 2212 produced by
    Related Concept: watercolor brushes (<artists' brushes by function>, artists' brushes, ... Furnishings and Equipment)

    Relationship Type: 2501 made of/require
    Related Concept: watercolor (water-base paint, <paint by composition or origin>, ... Materials)

    Relationship Type: 2501 made of/require
    Related Concept: watercolor paper (drawing paper, <paper by function>, ... Materials)

    Relationship Type: 2325 created by
    Related Concept: watercolorists (<painters by technique, implement, or material employed>, implement, ... People)

    Relationship Type: 2427 produced by
    Related Concept: watercolor painting (technique) (<painting techniques by medium>, painting techniques, ... Processes and Techniques, Activities Facet)
   
  • Do children inherit associative relationships from parents?
    Link Associative Relationships at the most specific level appropriate, of equal specificity on both sides of the relationship. Do not link a general relationship to all of the specific children on the other side of the relationship, because this would be contrary to the rule of making only direct and unique relationships.

    For example, painting equipment - 2211 produce(s) - paintings (visual works). However, do not link the general term painting equipment to specific types of paintings (e.g., do not link the general painting equipment to the specific oil paintings (visual works)).

 

   
  • Guide terms
    Avoid making associative relationships between Guide Terms. Such relationships may be made when this is the most efficient or only way to make the link; however, we endeavor to avoid it. If you feel you need to make such a relationship involving a Guide Term, please consult your supervisor.

  • Confusion between two concepts
    If there is a significant possibility that two concepts may be confused by knowledgeable AAT users, link them as Related Concepts.
      • Example
        [for "airfields"]

 

 

 

    • See the list of Relationship Types below for further examples of when to make Related Concepts.

  • Homographs
    If the only cause of potential confusion is that the descriptors or other terms are homographs or have similar spelling, do not link them as Related Concepts. Make a Qualifier for both terms to distinguish them from each other (see Chapter 3.3: Terms).

    • In the rare event that the historical meanings of the terms have changed, explain it in the Scope Note and link the terms as Related Concepts.

      • Example
        [for "dinoi"]
      • Scope Note: Used by modern scholars to refer to ancient Greek large, round-bottomed bowls that curve into a wide, open mouth, and that often stood on a stand. Metal vessels of this shape were probably used for cooking and those made of terracotta were used for mixing wine and date from the mid-seventh through the late fifth centuries BCE. They are distinguished from "lebetes" by their larger size. Ancient literary evidence suggests that the term was originally applied to drinking cups rather than bowls, and that such bowls were at that time called "lebetes."
      • Relationship Type: 2100 distinguished from
        Related Concept: lebetes (vessels, <containers by form>, ... Furnishings and Equipment)

  • Hierarchical vs. Associative Relationships
    Do not make associative relationships when genus/species hierarchical relationships are more appropriate. Generally, concept records that have the same parent or grandparent, or that have a parent/child relationship themselves, should not be linked as Related Works. An exception is for the Relationship Type distinguished from (see discussion of Relationship Types below). See also 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.

    • If you are tempted to make an associative relationship, but none of the Relationship Types seems to fit, you probably have an invalid associative relationship (generally because a hierarchical relationship would be more appropriate).

    • Note that hierarchical relationships in AAT are genus/species; they usually do not include whole/part or instance. In some cases, Associative Relationships may be used for such relationships. Consult your supervisor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2

 

 

Relationship Type

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.1

 

 

Definition
A phrase characterizing the relationship between the concept at hand and the linked concept.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.2

 

 

Values
Values are chosen from a controlled list comprising a code and phrase. Each code-plus-phrase is linked to another code, which is the reciprocal relationship.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.3

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.3.1

   

Appropriate Relationship Types
It is required to include a Relationship Type for each Related Concept.

  • Choose a specific suitable Relationship Type, based on examples and rules outlined in the crosswalk and matrix.

  • Crosswalk for AAT Relationship Types, by Concepts (PDF, 232 KB, 10pp)
  • Full Matrix of AAT Relationship Types, by Code (PDF, 64 KB, 9pp)
  • Full Matrix of AAT Relationship Types in Excel (XLSX, 30 KB)

  • Link to the correct side of the relationship
    Remember that Relationship Types are reciprocal (that is, linked to both records). When you choose a Relationship Type, make sure that the Relationship Type and its counterpart will work from the points of view of both linked records. Be very careful! It is critical that the relationships are logically represented.

    • For example, if you are in the record for naive artists and you want to link to naive art, you should use 2326 create: that is, naive artists - 2326 create - naive art. But from the point of view of the other record: naive art - 2325 [is] created by - naive artists.

2325

created by

2326

2326

create

2325

  • Avoid Redundant Relationships
    Link a concept to another concept only once. If multiple relationships apply, choose the predominant or best one.
     
  • Relationships mentioned in the Scope Note
    Important relationships having to do with the meaning or usage of the term should be mentioned in the Scope Note and often linked as an associative relationship. This relationship is often distinguished from, but you should use whatever Relationship Type is compatible with the description in the Scope Note. See also 3.4 Scope Note.

      • Examples
        [in the record for "rock-cut churches"]
      • Scope Note: Churches comprising spaces that have been cut into the living rock. They are distinguished from "cave churches," which utilize natural cavities in the earth's surface.
      • Relationship Type: 2100 distinguished from
        Related Concept: cave churches

        [in the record for "eaves"]
      • Scope Note: Refers to the horizontal portions of a sloping roof that project beyond the walls. For portions of the roof projecting beyond the gable, use "verges."
      • Relationship Type: 2100 distinguished from
        Related Concept: verges
       
     
  • Definitions of Relationship Types
    Apply Relationship Types according to the definitions and examples in the crosswalk and the list below. It will be easier to use the crosswalk in your daily work (rather than the list below), since the crosswalk is arranged by entity types rather than by code; searching for correct relationship types by entity type is more suited to your working process than scanning by code.

    • For some relationships, the relationship type is the same on both sides of the link; however, for most it is different depending upon which record you are in. Be very careful to choose the correct relationship for the focus record (i.e., the record you are in when you make the relationship).

   » List of relationship types:

     

2000

related to

2000



  • Any to any. Use for a generic relationship that is not explained. Usually limited to data loaded without correct relationship types.

  • Example
  • 2000 any - related to - any
  • [same]

    gulf red - 2000 [is] related to - light red (pigment)
    light red (pigment) - 2000 [is] related to - gulf red

2001

formerly referred to

2001



    • Any to any. Use for relationships that no longer exist because language or the state of scholarship has changed.

    • Example
    • 2001 any - formerly referred to - any
    • [same]

      gigues - 2001 formerly referred to - fiddles
      fiddles - 2001 formerly referred to - gigues


2100

distinguished from

2100



    • Any to any. Use when there is a significant risk that two or more concepts could be confused or misused.

    • Examples
    • 2100 any - distinguished from - any
    • [same]

      historic farms - 2100 [are] distinguished from - abandoned farms
      naive art - 2100 [is] distinguished from - outsider art


      abandoned farms - 2100 [are] distinguished from - historic farms
      outsider art - 2100 [is] distinguished from - naive art


2110

meaning/usage overlaps with

2110



    • Any to any. Use when the terms are not synonyms (UFs) and thus are recorded in separate concept records, but a significant part of the meaning or usage of the concepts overlaps.

    • Examples
    • 2110 any - meaning/usage overlaps with - any
    • [same]

      chimney hoods - 2110 [has] meaning/ usage [that] overlaps with - chimney caps
      scribes - 2110 [has] meaning/usage that overlaps [with] - copyists

      chimney caps - 2110 [has] meaning/ usage that overlaps [with] - chimney hoods
      copyists - 2110 [has] meaning/usage that overlaps [with] - scribes

2203

associated with

2203



    • Activity/event to activity/event. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. Excludes cause/effect relationships.

    • Examples
    • 2203 activity/event/ [process/ function] - [is] associated with - activity/event/ [process/ function]
    • [same]

      Easter - 2203 [is] associated with - Lent
      cavalry exercises - 2203 [are] associated with - dressage

      Lent - 2203 [is] associated with - Easter
      dressage - 2203 [is] associated with - calvary exercises

     

2205

causes/is required

2206

2206

caused by/requires

2205


     
    • Activity/event to activity/event. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. One activity causes another.

    • Examples
    • 2205 activity/event/ [process/ function] - causes/is required for - activity/event/ [process/ function]
    • 2206 activity/event/[process/ function] - [is] caused by/dependent upon - activity/event/ [process/ function]

      on-demand printing - 2205 causes/ is required [for]- on-demand publishing
      preserving - 2205 causes/is required [for]- preservation

      on-demand publishing - 2206 [is] caused by/requires - on-demand printing
      preservation - 2206 [is] caused by/requires -preserving

       
     

2208

locus/setting for

2209

2209

used/located in

2208


     
    • Locus/setting to things. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2208 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - things
    • 2209 things -used/located in - locus/setting

      glassworks (buildings) - 2208 [are the] locus/setting for - glassware
      caves - 2208 [are the] locus/setting for - cave paintings

      glassware - 2209 [is] used/located in - glassworks (buildings)
      cave paintings - 2209 [are] used/located in - caves
       
     

2211

produce

2212

2212

produced by

2211


     
    • Things to things. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2211 things/[equipment] - produce - things
    • 2212 things - [are] produced by - things/ [equipment]

      stereoscopic cameras - 2211 produce - stereoscopic photographs
      punches (marking tools) - 2211 produce - punchwork

      stereoscopic photographs - 2212 [are] produced by - stereoscopic cameras
      punchwork - 2212 [is] produced by - punches (marking tools)

       
     

2215

required for

2216

2216

require

2215


     
    • Things to things. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Excludes things used to create other things, but includes things required for the second thing to exist.

    • Example
    • 2215 things - [are] required for - things
    • 2216 things - require - things [in order to exist or work]

      eyelets - 2215 [are] required for - broderie anglaise
      compact discs - 2215 [are] required for - compact disc players

      broderie anglaise - 2216 require[s] -eyelets
      compact disc players - 2216 require - compact discs

       
     

2218

used/function as

2219

2219

have form

2218

     
    • Things to things. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2218 things - [are] used/function as - things
    • 2219 things - have form [of] - things

      arc lamps - 2218 [are] used/function as - lighthouse lamps
      toile peinte - 2218 [is] used/function[s] as - cartoons (working drawings)

      lighthouse lamps - 2219 have [the] form [of] - arc lamps
      cartoons (working drawings) - 2219 have [the] form [of] - toile peinte
       
     

2222

act upon

2223

2223

is acted upon

2222

     
    • Role to genus/species. Role includes the roles of people and organizations in Agents, but excluding living organisms. Genus/species Includes genus/species or others from Living Organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2222 [actors having] role - act upon - genus/species
    • 2223 genus/species - is acted upon [by] - [actors having] role

      jockeys - 2222 act upon - Equus caballus(species)
      tappers - 2222 act upon - Acer saccharum(species)

      Equus caballus(species) - 2223 is acted upon [by] - jockeys; Acer saccharum(species) - 2223 is acted upon [by] - tappers
       
     

2281

have counterpart

2281


     
    • Role to role. Role includes the roles of people and organizations in Agents, but excluding living organisms. Note: This relationshihp is used only for special cases; typical gender counterparts are ADs within the same record, in all languages.

    • Examples
    • 2281 role - [is] counterpart to - role
    • [same]

      duchesses - 2281 have counterpart - dukes
      godesses - 2281 have counterpart - gods

      dukes - 2281 have counterpart - duchesses
      gods - 2281 have counterpart - goddesses
       
     

2285

practiced / studied by

2286

2286

practice / study

2285


     
    • Field/discipline to role. Includes field/discipline from Activities - Disciplines. Role includes the roles of people and organizations in Agents, but excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2285 field [of study, genre]/ discipline - [is] practiced/studied by - a role
    • 2286 [actor having] role - practice/study - field [of study, genre]/ discipline

      Egyptology - 2285 [is] practiced/studied by - Egyptologists; architectural history - 2285 [is] practiced/studied by - architectural historians

      Egyptologists - 2286 practice/study - Egyptology
      architectural historians - 2286 practice/study - architectural history
     
     

2291

locus/setting for

2292

2292

work/live in

2291


     
    • Locus/setting to role. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes. Role includes the roles of people and organizations in Agents, but excluding living organisms.

    • Example
    • 2291 locus/setting - [is] locus setting for - [actor or institution having] role
    • 2292 [actor or institution having] role - work/live/ [exist] in - locus/setting

      roperies - 2291 [are the] locus/setting for - rope-makers
      convents (built complexes) - 2291 [are the] locus/setting for - nuns
      libraries (buildings) - 2291 [are the] locus/setting for - libraries (institutions)

      rope-makers - 2292 live/work in - roperies
      nuns - 2292 live/work in - convents (built complexes)
      libraries (institutions) - 2292 live/work in - libraries (buildings)
     
     

2311

performed by

2312

2312

perform

2311


     
    • Activity/event to role. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Example
    • 2311 activity/event/ [process/ function] - [is] performed by - [actors having] a role
    • 2312 [actors having] a role - perform - activity/event/ process

      clockmaking - 2311 [is] performed by - clockmakers
      curating - 2311 [is] performed by - curators

      clockmakers - 2312 perform - clockmaking
      curators - 2312 perform - curating
     
     

2315

used by

2316

2316

use

2315


     
    • Material to role. Includes all materials from Materials. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2315 material - [is] used by - [actors having] role
    • 2316 [actors having] role - use - material

      precious stone - 2315 [is] used by - lapidiaries
      brass (alloy) - 2315 [is] used by - braziers (metalworkers)

      lapidaries - 2316 use - precious stone
      braziers (metalworkers) - 2316 use - brass (alloy)
       
     

2318

involved in

2319

2319

involves

2318

     
    • Role to activity/event. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. Excludes creation activities.

    • Examples
    • 2318 [actors having] role -[are] involved in - activity/event
    • 2319 activity/event - involves - [actors having] role

      bridegrooms - 2318 [are] involved in - weddings
      martyrs - 2318 [are] involved in - martyrdoms

      weddings - 2319 involve - bridegrooms
      martyrdoms - 2319 involve - martyrs
       
     

2321

used by

2322

2322

use

2321


     
    • Things are used by role. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2321 things/equipment - [are] used by - [actors having] role
    • 2322 [actors having] role - use - things/equipment

      violoncellos - 2321 [are] used by - violoncellists
      surveying instruments - 2321 [are] used by - surveyors

      violoncellists - 2322 use - violoncellos
      surveyors - 2322 use - surveying instruments

     
     

2325

created by

2326

2326

create

2325


     
    • Things to role. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2325 things - [are] created by - [actors having] role
    • 2326 [actors having] role - create - things

      drawings - 2325 [are] created by - draftsmen
      poems - 2325 [are] created by - poets

      draftsmen - 2326 create - drawings
      poets - 2326 create - poems

       
     

2328

involved with

2329

2329

involves

2328

     
    • Role to things. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Excluding using things or creating things.

    • Examples
    • 2328 [actors having] role - [are] involved in- things
    • 2329 things - involve - [actors having] role

      sitters - 2328 [are] involved with - portraits
      actors (performing artists) - 2328 [are] involved with - motion pictures (visual works)

      portraits - 2329 involve - sitters
      motion pictures (visual works) - 2329 involve - actors (performing artists)
       
     

2332

affiliated with

2333

2333

have affiliates

2332

     
    • Role to role [organizations]. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2332 [actors having] role - [are] affiliated with - role [organization]
    • 2333 role [organizations] - have affiliates - [actors having] role

      students - 2332 [are] affiliated with - schools (organizations)
      dukes - 2332 [are] affiliated with- duchies

      schools (organizations) - 2333 have [as] affiliates - students
      duchies - 2333 have [as] affiliates - dukes
       
     

2335

associated with

2336

2336

has associates

2335

     
    • Role to style/period/culture. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2335 [actors having] role - [are] associated with - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • 2336 style/period/ culture/ [relgion] - has associates - [actors having] role

      abstract artists - 2335 [are] associated with - Abstract (fine arts style)
      popes - 2335 [are] associated with - Roman Catholicism

      Abstract (fine arts style) - 2336 has associates - abstract artists
      Roman Catholicism - 2336 has associates - popes
       
     

2397

focus of

2398

2398

focuses on

2397


     
    • Any to field/discipline. Includes field/discipline from Activities - Disciplines.

    • Example
    • 2397 any - [is] focus of - field [of study]/discipline
    • 2398 field [of study]/discipline - focuses on - any

      manuscripts - 2397 [are the] focus of - codicology
      music - 2397 [is the] focus of - musicology
      Plantae (kingdom) - 2397 [is the] focus of - botany

      codicology - 2398 focuses on - manuscripts
      musicology - 2398 focuses on - music
      bontany - 2398 focuses on - Plantae (kingdom)
       
     

2408

locus/setting for

2409

2409

takes place in

2408

     
    • Locus/setting to field/discipline. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes. Includes field/discipline from Activities - Disciplines.

    • Example
    • 2408 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - field of study/discipline
    • 2409 field of study/discipline - takes place in - locus/setting

      schools (buildings) - 2408 [are the] locus/setting for - education
      hospitals (buildings) - 2408 [are the] locus/setting for - medicine (discipline)

      education - 2409 takes place in - schools (buildings)
      medicine (discipline) - 2409 takes place in - hospitals (buildings)
       
     

2411

involved in

2412

2412

involves

2411


     
    • Activity/event to field/discipline. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Example
    • 2411 activity/event/ [process/ function] - [is] involved in - field/discipline
    • 2412 field/discipline - involves - activity/event/ [process/ function]

      journalistic photography - 2411 [is] involved in - photojournalism (discipline)
      gardening - 2411 [is] involved in - horticulture


      photojournalism (discipline) - 2412 involves - journalistic photography
      horticulture - 2412 involves - gardening

       
     

2415

required for

2416

2416

requires

2415


     
    • Material to activity/event. Includes all materials from Materials Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Example
    • 2415 material - [is] required for - activity/event/ [process/ function]
    • 2416 activity/event/ [process/ function] - requires - material

      dye - 2415 [is] required for - dying
      pewter - 2415 [is] required for - pewtersmithing

      dying - 2416 requires - dye
      pewtersmithing - 2416 requires - pewter

       
     

2421

locus/setting for

2422

2422

takes place in

2421


     
    • Locus/setting to activity/event. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Example
    • 2421 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - activity/event/ [process/ function]
    • 2422 activity/event/ [process/ function] - takes place in - locus/setting

      smelters (metalworking plants) - 2421 [are the] locus/setting for - smelting
      pilgrimage centers - 2421 [are the] locus/setting for - pilgrimages

      smelting - 2422 takes place in - smelters (metalworking plants)
      pilgrimages - 2422 take place in - pilgrimage centers

       
     

2424

produced by

2425

2425

produces

2424

     
    • Material to activity/event/process. Includes all materials from Materials. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Example
    • 2424 material - [is] produced by - activity/ event/process
    • 2425 activity/event/ process - produces - material

      wire - 2424 [is] produced by - wiredrawing
      paper - 2424 [is] produced by - papermaking

      wiredrawing - 2425 produces - wire
      papermaking - 2425 produces - paper
       
     

2427

produced by

2428

2428

produces

2427


     
    • Things produced by activity/event/process. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Examples
    • 2427 things - [are] produced by - activity/ event/process
    • 2428 activity/event/ process - produces - things

      vase paintings (visual works) - 2427 [are] produced by - vase painting (image making)
      forgeries - 2427 [are] produced by - forging (copying)

      vase painting (image making) - 2428 produces - vase paintings (visual works)
      forging (copying) - 2428 produces - forgeries

       
     

2431

required for

2432

2432

requires

2431


     
    • Things to activity/event/process. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Examples
    • 2431 things/equipment - [are] required for - activity/event/ process
    • 2432 activity/event/ process - requires - things/equipment

      painting equipment - 2431 [is] required for - painting (image making)
      dowels - 2431 [are] required for - doweling

      painting (image making) - 2432 requires - painting equipment
      doweling - 2432 requires - dowels

       
     

2434

contextualized in

2435

2435

context for

2434

     
    • Things to activity/event/process. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Examples
    • 2434 things - [are] contextualized in - activity/event/process
    • 2435 activity/event/ process - [is] context for - things

      funeral books - 2434 [are] contextualized in - funerals
      Christmas trees - 2434 [are] contextualized in - Christmas

      funerals - 2435 [are the] context for - funeral books
      Christmas - 2435 [is the] context for - Christmas trees
       
     

2501

made of/require

2502

2502

material for

2501


     
    • Things to material. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes all materials from Materials.

    • Examples
    • 2501 things - [are] made of/require - material
    • 2502 material - [is] material for - things

      obsidian mirrors - 2501 [are] made of/require - obsidian
      ivories (sculptures) - 2501 [are] made of/require - ivory

      obsidian - 2502 [is] material for - obsidian mirrors
      ivory - 2502 [is] material for - ivories (sculptures)
       
     

2504

used/located in

2505

2505

locus setting for

2504

     
    • Material to locus/setting. Includes all materials from Materials. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes.

    • Examples
    • 2504 material - [is] used/located in - locus/setting
    • 2505 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - material

      tephra - 2504 [is] used/located in [at] - volcanoes
      brick (clay product) - 2504 [is] used/located in - brickworks (factories)

      volcanoes - 2505 [are the] locus/setting for - tephra
      brickworks (factories) - 2505 [are the] locus/setting for - brick (clay product)
       
     

2507

produce/process

2508

2508

produced/processed by

2507

     
    • Things to material. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes all materials from Materials.

    • Examples
    • 2507 things/ [equipment] - produce/process - material
    • 2508 material - [is] produced/ processed by - things/ [equipment]

      cotton gins - 2507 produce/process - cotton (fiber)
      waterwells - 2507 produce/process - groundwater


      cotton (fiber) - 2508 [is] produced/processed by - cotton gins
      groundwater - 2508 [is] produced/processed by - water wells
       
     

2551

reflect/produced by

2552

2552

reflected in/produces

2551


     
    • Things to style/period/culture. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2551 things - reflect/[are] produced by - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • 2552 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - [is] reflected in/produces - things

      Nasca lines - 2551 reflect/[are] produced by - Nasca [culture]
      Judaica - 2551 reflects/[is] produced by - Judaism


      Nasca [culture] - 2552 [is] reflected in/produces - Nasca lines
      Judaism - 2552 [is] reflected in/produces - Judaica
       
     

2554

reflects

2555

2555

reflected in

2554

     
    • Activity/event to style/period/culture. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2554 activity/event - reflects - style/period/ culture /[religion/ ideology]
    • 2555 style/period/ culture /[religion/ ideology] - [is] reflected in activity/event

      dhokra (casting technique) - 2554 reflects - Dhokra (culture)
      red-figure vase painting - 2554 reflects - Red-figure [style]


      Dhokra (culture) - 2555 [is] reflected in - dhokra (casting technique)
      Red-figure [style] - 2555 [is ]reflected in - red-figure vase painting
       
     

2557

reflects

2558

2558

reflected in

2557

     
    • Field/discipline to style/period/culture. Includes field/discipline from Activities - Disciplines. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2557 field/discipline - reflects - style/period/ culture / [religion/ ideology]
    • 2558 style/period/ culture /[religion/ ideology] - [is] reflected in field/discipline

      bugatu [dance discipline] - 2557 reflects - Buddhism
      church history - 2557 reflects - Christianity
      classics (discipline) - 2557 reflects - Ancient Greek [culture]


      Buddhism - 2558 [is] reflected in - bugatu [dance discipline]
      Christianity - 2558 [is] reflected in - church history
      Ancient Greek [culture] - 2558 [is] reflected in - classics (discipline)
       
     

2562

locus/setting for

2563

2563

located/reflected in

2562

     
    • Locus/setting to style/period/culture. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2562 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • 2563 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - is located/ reflected in - locus/setting

      First Nations reserves - 2562 [are the] locus/setting for - First Nations (culture)
      agraharas - 2562 [are the] locus/setting for - Brahmanism


      First Nations (culture) - 2563 [is] located/reflected in - First Nations reserves
      Brahmanism - 2563 [is] located/reflected in - agraharas
       
     

2601

possessed by/existing in

2602

2602

possess/exist in

2601


     
    • Attributes / associated concepts to role. Includes attributes/ associated concepts from Physical Attributes and Associated Concepts. Includes as role all generic terms for people and organizations in Agents; excluding living organisms.

    • Examples
    • 2601 attributes / associated concepts - [is] possessed by/existing in - role [of actors]
    • 2602 role [of actors] - possess/exist in - attributes / associated concepts

      adulthood - 2601 [is] possessed by/existing in - adults
      nomadism - 2601 [is] possessed by/existing in - nomads


      adults - 2602 possess/exist in - adulthood
      nomads - 2602 possess/exist in - [state of] nomadism
       
     

2604

possessed by/existing in

2605

2605

possess/exist in

2604

     
    • Attributes / associated concepts to things. Includes attributes/ associated concepts from Physical Attributes and Associated Concepts. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2604 attributes / associated concepts - [is] possessed by/existing in - things
    • 2605 things - possess/exist in - attributes / associated concepts

      boudoir (photograph size) - 2604 [is] possessed by/existing in - boudoir photographs
      ruined [condition]- 2604 [is] possessed by/existing in - ruins


      boudoir photographs - 2605 possess/exist in - boudoir (photograph size)
      ruins - 2605 possess/exist in - ruined [contition]
       
     

2607

caused by/requires

2608

2608

causes/ required for

2607

     
    • Attributes / associated concepts to activity/event. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. Includes attributes/ associated concepts from Physical Attributes and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2607 attributes / associated concepts - [is] caused by/requires - an activity/ event/ [process/ function]
    • 2608 activity/event/ [process/ function] - causes/[is] required for - [a] state/condition/ attributes

      watertightness - 2607 [is] caused by/requires - waterproofing
      creases (condition) - 2607 [is] caused by/requires - creasing (process)


      waterproofing - 2608 causes/[is] required for - watertighness
      creasing (process) - 2608 causes/[is] required for - creases (condition)
     

2612

possessed by/existing in

2613

2613

possesses/exists in

2612

     
    • Attributes / associated concepts to material. Includes attributes/ associated concepts from Physical Attributes and Associated Concepts. Includes all materials from Materials.

    • Examples
    • 2612 attributes / associated concepts - is possessed by/existing in - material
    • 2613 material - possesses/exists in - condition/ state/ [property]

      dry rot - 2612 [is] possessed by/ existing in - wood (plant material)
      dielectric properties - 2612 [are] possessed by/ existing in - dielectric (material)


      wood (plant material) - 2613 possesses/ exists in - [condition of] dry rot
      dielectric (material) - 2613 possesses/exists in - dielectric properties
       
     

2801

conjuncted with

2801

     
    • Things to things. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. This relationship is used only with direct relationships, where both items typically exist together and are of equal or near-equal size and importance.

    • Examples
    • 2801 things - [are] conjuncted with - things
    • [same]

      cups - 2801 [are] conjuncted with - saucers
      dining tables - 2801 [are] conjuncted with - dining chairs

      saucers - 2801 [are] conjuncted with - cups
      dining chairs - 2801 [are] conjuncted with - dining tables

 

       
     

2802

exemplified by

2803

2803

example of

2802

     
    • Material to brand name. Includes all materials from Materials. Brand names are only those brand names in the Brand Name facet; trademarked names found as D or UF in other records will gradually be moved to the Brand Name facet.

    • Examples
    • 2802 material - [is] exemplified by - brand name
    • 2803 brand name - [is] example of - material

      petrolium jelly - 2802 [is] exemplified by - Vaseline (TM)
      polytetrafluoroethyelene - 2802 [is] exemplified by - Teflon (TM)

      Vaseline (TM) - 2803 [is an] example of - petrolium jelly
      Teflon (TM) - 2803 [is an] example of - polytetrafluoroethyelene
       
     

2805

contextualized in

2806

2806

provide context

2805

     
    • Things to things. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2805 [smaller] things - [are] contextualized in - [larger] things
    • 2806 [larger] things - provide context [for] - [smaller] things

      predellas - 2805 [are] contextualized in - altarpieces
      chapters - 2805 [are] contextualized in - books

      altarpieces - 2806 provide context [for] - predellas
      books - 2806 provide context [for] - chapters
       
     

2807

derived from common source

2807

     
    • Material to material. Includes all materials from Materials. Use for materials derived from a common source. If the source object or material is also in the AAT, and the two things are already linked to it, it is not necessary to redundantly link them to each other. However, you may do so for clarity or to emphasize this relationship, in some cases.

    • Examples
    • 2807 material - [is] derived from common source [as] - material
    • [same]

      malachite (mineral) - 2807 [is] derived from common source [with]- azurite (mineral)
      mustard(material) - 2807 [is] derived from common source [with] - mustard oil

      azurite (mineral) - 2807 [is] derived from common source [with] - malachite (mineral)
      mustard oil - 2807 [is] derived from common source [with] - mustard (material)
       
     

2809

coexisted with

2809

     
    • Style/period/culture to style/period/culture. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts. Use when the the concepts are related, but the relative chronological relationship between the style/period/cultures is not apparent in the genus/species structure of the hierarchy, as when they are placed in different hierarchies.

    • Examples
    • 2809 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - coexisted with - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • [same]

      Sangoan - 2809 coexisted with - Fauresmith
      Early Minoan - 2809 coexisted with - Prepalatial

      Fauresmith - 2809 coexisted with - Sangoan
      Prepalatial - 2809 coexisted with - Early Minoan
       
     

2811

preceded

2812

2812

followed

2811


     
    • Style/period/culture to style/period/culture. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts. Use when the concepts are related, but the relative chronological relationship between the style/period/cultures is not apparent in the genus/species structure of the hierarchy, as when they are placed in different hierarchies.

    • Examples
    • 2811 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - preceded - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • 2812 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - followed - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]

      Impressionist - 2811 preceded - Abstract Impressionist
      Acheulian - 2811 preceded - Micoquian

      Abstract Impressionism - 2812 followed - Impressionist
      Micoquian - 2812 followed - Acheulian
       
     

2814

constituent of

2815

2815

composed of

2814

 

     
    • Material to Material. Includes all materials from Materials. Use for materials that comprise another material. Do not use if there is already a hierarchical relationship between the materials.

    • Examples
    • 2814 material - [is] constituent of - material
    • 2815 material - [is] composed of - material

      titanium white - 2814 [is a] constituent of - composite white
      iron oxide - 2814 [is a] constituent of - desert varnish

      composite white - 2815 [is] composed of - titanium white
      desert varnish - 2815 [is] composed of - iron oxide
       
     

2817

derived/made from

2818

2818

source for

2817

     
    • Material to material. Includes all materials from Materials. Use for materials that are transformed into another material, whether by natural or artificial process. Do not use if there is already a hierarchical relationship between the materials.

    • Examples
    • 2817 material - [is] derived/ made from - material
    • 2818 material - [is] source for - material

      gypsum - 2817 [is] derived/made from - anhydrite
      wood board - 2817 [is] derived/made from - timber (lumber)

      anhydrite - 2818 [is the] source for - gypsum
      timber (lumber) - 2818 [is the] source for - wood board
       
     

2821

based on

2822

2822

basis of

2821


     
    • Any to any. Use when one thing, material, style/period, etc. is based on another, and the records are not linked through the hierarchy. Do not use when both records are in the same segment of the hierarchy. Do not use when one thing or style/period simply influenced another. A relationship characterized by "influenced by" is not significant enough to warrant an associative relationship.

    • Examples
    • 2821 any - [is] based on - any
    • 2822 any - [is] basis of - any

      Neo-Gothic - 2821 [is] based on - Gothic (Medieval)
      curved [form attribute] - 2821 [is] based on - curves (geometric figures)
      pencils - 2821 [are] based on - plummets


      Gothic (Medieval) - 2822 [is the] basis of - Neo-Gothic
      curves (geometric figures) - 2822 [are the- basis of - curved [form attribute]
      plummets - 2822 [are the] basis of - pencils

 

 

 

 

 

     

2824

has parallels with

2824

     
    • Style/period/culture to style/period/culture. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts. Use to link two cultures, styles etc. that exhibit parallels accepted by the scholarly community, but the concepts are not tied as preceded/followed or coexisted with.

    • Examples
    • 2824 style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology] - has parallels with - style/period/ culture/ [religion/ ideology]
    • [same]

      Lagozza [culture] - 2824 has parallels with - Chasseen [culture]
      Gnathian (pottery style) - 2824 has parallels with - West Slope (pottery style)

      Chasseen [culture] - 2824 has parallels with - Lagozza [culture]; West Slope (pottery style) - 2824 has parallels with - Gnathian (pottery style)

 

 

 

 

 

     

2826

used with

2826

     
    • Material to material. Includes all materials from Materials.

    • Examples
    • 2826 material - [is] used with - material
    • [same]

      watercolor paper - 2826 [is] used with - watercolor (paint)
      arriccio - 2826 [is] used with - intonaco

      watercolor (paint) - 2826 [is] used with - watercolor paper
      intonaco - 2826 [is] used with - arriccio
       
     

2828

use/require

2829

2829

used/required for

2828

     
    • Things to material. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes all materials from Materials. Not for materials of which things are made.

    • Examples
    • 2828 things - use/require - material
    • 2829 material - [is] required/used for - things

      oil paintings - 2828 use/require - varnish
      wine glasses - 2828 use/require - wine

      varnish - 2829 [is] used/required for - oil paintings
      wine - 2829 [is] used /required for - wine glasses
       
     

2831

associated with

2831

     
    • Genus/species to genus/species. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Excludes the relationship describing genus/species descended from another genus/species.

    • Examples
    • 2831 genus/species/ [other living organism term] - [is] associated with - genus/species
    • [same]

      Anthonomus grandis (species) [boll weevil] - 2831 [is] associated with - Gossypium (genus) [cotton]
      Amphiprioninae (subfamily) [clown fish] - 2831 [is] associated with - Actiniaria (order) [sea anemone]

      Gossypium (genus) [cotton] - 2831 [is] associated with - Anthonomus grandis (species) [boll weevil]
      Actiniaria (order) [sea anemone] - 2831 [is] associated with - Amphiprioninae (subfamily) [clown fish]
       
     

2833

ancestor of

2834

2834

descendant of

2833

     
    • Genus/species to genus/species. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Use to link one species or variety that evolved from another, whether by natural or artificial selection, when this relationship is not otherwise apparent from the hierarchy; the relationship should be the next known evolutionary ancestor, but it need not be an immediate ancestor, given that in the study of evolution, there are often gaps.

    • Examples
    • 2833 genus/species - [is] ancestor of - another genus/species
    • 2834 genus/species - [is] decendant of - genus/species

      Felis silvestris (species) - 2833 [is the] ancestor of - Felis domesticus (species)
      Equus asinus (species) - 2833 [is the] ancestor of - donkeys

      Felis domesticus (species) - 2834 [is the] descendant of - Felis silvestris (species)
      donkeys - 2834 [are the] descendents of - Equus asinus (species)
       
     

2836

derived/made from

2837

2837

source for

2836

     
    • Things to genus/species. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Use this relationship to link a genus/species together with the generic part to a concept. For example, for ostrich-egg cups, you would link both egg from Materials and the ostrich species Struthio camelus to ostrich-egg cup: reason is, we wish to avoid adding to AAT the potentially hundreds of thousands of possible combinations of species-plus-part.

    • Examples
    • 2836 things - [are] derived/made from - genus/species [or its parts]
    • 2837 genus/species [or its parts] - [is] source for - things

      kākaku - 2836 [are] derived/made from - Phormium tenax (species)
      ostrich-egg cups - 2836 [are] derived/made from - Struthio camelus (species)

      Phormium tenax (species) - 2837 [is the] source for - kākaku
      Struthio camelus(species) - 2837 [is the] source for - ostrich-egg cups
       
       
     

2841

derived/made from

2842

2842

source for

2841

     
    • Material to genus/species. Includes all materials from Materials. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Use to link a genus, species, or variety of animal or plant to the material derived from it. Link to the broadest applicable taxonomic level.

    • Examples
    • 2841 material - [is] derived/made from - genus/species
    • 2842 genus/species - [is] source for - material

      alpaca (wool) - 2841 [is] derived from - Vicugna pacos (species)
      maple (wood) - 2841 [is] derived from - Acer (genus)

      Vicugna pacos (species) - 2842 [is] the source for - alpaca (wool)
      Acer (genus) - 2842 [is] the source for - maple (wood)
       
     

2845

used/located in

2846

2846

locus/setting for

2845

     
    • Genus/species to locus/setting. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Includes as locus/setting any built work, settlement, or feature in the Built Environment and natural landscapes.

    • Examples
    • 2845 genus/species - [is] used/ located in - locus/setting
    • 2846 locus/setting - [is] locus/setting for - genus/species

      Elephantidae (family) - 2845 [is] used/located in - elephant houses
      Vitaceae (family) - 2845 [is] used/located in - vineyards

      elephant houses - 2846 [are the] locus/setting for - Elephantidae(family)
      vineyards - 2846 [are the] locus/setting of - Vitaceae (family)
       
     

2848

involved in

2849

2849

involves

2848

     
    • Genus/species to activity/event. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities.

    • Examples
    • 2848 genus/species - is involved in - activity/event
    • 2849 activity/event - involves - genus/species

      bulls (animals) - 2848 [are] involved in - bullfighting
      Equus caballus (species) - 2848 [is] involved in - polo (field sport)

      bullfighting - 2849 involves - bulls (animals)
      polo (field sport) - 2849 involves - Equus caballus (species)
       
     

2852

involved with

2853

2853

involve

2852

     
    • Genus/species to things. Includes genus/ species or others from Living Organisms. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Not for things made from the genus/species or its parts.

    • Examples
    • 2852 genus/species - [is] involved with - things/ [equipment]
    • 2853 things/ [equipment] - involve - genus/species

      Rosa (genus) - 2852 [is] involved with - rose bowls
      Camelus (genus) - 2852 [is] involved with - camel saddles

      rose bowls - 2853 involve - Rosa (genus)
      camel saddles - 2853 involve - Camelus (genus)
       
     

2875

characteristic of

2876

2876

characterized by

2875

 

     
    • Language to style/period/culture. Includes language in Associated Concepts. Includes style, period, culture, and also religion and ideology, from Styles and Periods and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2875 language - [is] characteristic of - style/period/ culture
    • 2876 style/period/ culture - [is] characterized by - language

      Afar (language) - 2875 [is] characteristic of - Afar (culture)
      Celtic (language) - 2875 [was] characteristic of - Celtic (culture)

      Afar (culture) - 2876 [is] characterized by - Afar (language)
      Celtic (culture) - 2876 [is] characterized by - Celtic (language)

 

 

 

 

 

     

2878

preceded/source for

2879

2879

followed/ developed from

2878

     
    • Language to language. Includes language in Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2878 language - preceded/[is] source for - language
    • 2879 language - followed/ developed from - language

      Ancient Greek (language) - 2878 preceded/[is] source for - Greek (modern language)
      Ancient Egyptian (language) - 2878 preceded/[is] source for - Egyptian, Coptic (language)

      Greek (modern language) - 2879 followed/developed from - Ancient Greek (language)
      Egyptian, Coptic (language) - 2879 followed/developed from - Ancient Egyptian (language)
       
     

2881

reflected in

2882

2882

reflect

2881

     
    • Language to things. Includes language in Associated Concepts. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2881 language - [is] reflected in - things
    • 2882 things - reflect - language

      Greek (language) - 2881 [is] reflected in - Greek alphabet
      Sanskrit - 2881 [is] reflected in - Vedas

      Greek alphabet - 2882 reflect[s] - Greek (language)
      Vedas - 2882 reflect - Sanskrit
       
     

2884

involved with

2885

2885

involves

2884

     
    • Attributes / associated concepts to any. Includes attributes/ associated concepts from Physical Attributes and Associated Concepts.

    • Examples
    • 2884 attributes / associated concepts - [are] involved with - any
    • 2885 any - involves - attributes / associated concepts

      climate - 2884 [is] involved with - climate change
      insect damage - 2884 [is] involved with - infestation
      Celtic crosses (design motif) - 2884 [are] involved with - Celtic culture

      climate change - 2885 involves - climate
      infestation - 2885 involves - insect damage
      Celtic culture - 2885 involves - Celtic crosses (design motif)
       
     

2891

exemplified by

2892

2892

example of

2891

     
    • Things to brand name. Things include things and equipment from Objects, but also art genres from Associated Concepts. Brand names are only those brand names in the Brand Name facet; trademarked names found as D or UF in other records will gradually be moved to the Brand Name facet.

    • Examples
    • 2891 things - [are] exemplied by - brand name
    • 2892 brand name - [is] example of - things

      photothermographic transfer prints - 2891 [are] exemplified by - Pictrography (TM) prints

      Pictrography (TM) prints - 2892 [are] examples of - photothermographic transfer prints
       
     

2894

exemplified by

2895

2895

example of

2894

     
    • Activity/event to brand name. Includes activities, events, processes, functions in Activities. Brand names are only those brand names in the Brand Name facet; trademarked names found as D or UF in other records will gradually be moved to the Brand Name facet.

    • Examples
    • 2894 activity/event/[process/ function] - [is] exemplified by - brand name
    • 2895 brand name - [is] example of - activity/event/ [process/ function]

      deacidification [process/ function]- 2894 [is] exemplified by - Papersave Process (TM)

      Papersave Process (TM) - 2895 [is] example of - deacidification [process/ function]
       
     

2900

miscellaneous relationship

2900

     
    • Any to any. Avoid using this relationship type. In the legacy data, there may be examples where this relationship was used to link hierarchies to hierarchies (which in itself should be avoided).

    • Examples
    • 2900 any - [has] miscellaneous relationship [to] - any
    • [same]

      Conditions and Effects - 2900 [has] miscellaneous relationship [with] - Processes and Techniques

      Processes and Techniques - 2900 [has] miscellaneous relationship [with] - Conditions and Effects
       

3.5.2.3.2

 

 

Adding new Relationship Types
Most of the necessary Relationship Types should already be included in the controlled list. If you feel that you wish to add another Relationship Type to this list, consult with your supervisor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3

 

 

Historical Flag

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.1

 

 

Definition
Flag indicating the historical status of the relationship of this AAT record to the Related Concept.

      • Example

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.2

 

 

Values
C - Current, H - Historical, B - Both, N/A - Not Applicable, U - Unknown

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.3

 

 

RULES

  • The default flag for the relationship is Current. In the AAT, it will rarely be necessary to use any flag other than Current. If you feel you should use another flag, discuss it with your supervisor.

    • Current: For relationships that still exist, even though they may have been established long ago, use Current. Most relationships in the AAT are current.

    • Historical: For a relationship that no longer exists because the meaning of the terms has changed. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • Both: For a relationship that is both current and historical. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • N/A: When Current or Historical are not appropriate to the situation. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • Unknown: This flag is used primarily for data that is loaded into VCS. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4

 

 

Dates for Related Concepts

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.1

 

 

Definition
Dates delimiting the relationship between the two concepts.

      • Example
        [for "First Dynasty (Egyptian)"]

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.2

 

 

Fields
There are three fields: Display Date, Start Date, and End Date.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.3

 

 

Values
Display Date is a free-text field; values may be any ASCII character; no special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

  • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, as validated by VCS.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.4

 

 

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.5.4.5

 

 

Discussion
The Display Date for the relationship usually refers to a period or date, however, it may sometimes contain notes that do not explicitly make reference to a date. In such cases, the note should implicitly refer to a date or datable condition or event, because you are required to include a Start Date and End Date with every Display Date.

  • Display dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.

 

 

 

3.5.4.6

 

 

RULES

  • Dates are not appropriate for most associative relationships in the AAT
    .
  • When dates are appropriate, keep in mind that if you enter data in any of the three fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

  • The dates appear on reciprocal links. That means that the same dates will appear in BOTH records. Write the Display Dates and assign Start and End Dates so that they will be correct and unambiguous in both records. Repeat the names of the concepts in the Display Date when necessary to avoid ambiguity.

      • Example
        [in the record for "rapiers"]
      • Relationship Type: 2806 provide context [for]
        Related Concept: cup-hilts
        Display Date: cup-hilts were found on rapiers beginning in the 17th century
        Start Date: 1600 End Date: 9999

  • A brief set of rules for Dates appears below. See also Appendix B and Dates for Names in Chapter 3.3 Names.

 

 

 

3.5.4.6.1

   

Display Date
A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Display Dates, see Appendix B.

  • Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: pertinent after 1520
        Start Date: 1520 End Date: 9999

      • Display Date: since the mid-18th century
        Start Date: 1730 End Date: 9999

      • Display Date: first used in Baroque paintings
        Start Date: 1590 End Date: 9999

  • Do not use an initial capital, unless the word is a proper name.

  • Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation.

  • Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date associated with the link between the Related Concepts.

  • If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or other terms such as ca. and probably to express uncertainty (e.g., ca., in the example below).

      • Example
      • Display Date: from ca. 1810 through 1940
        Start Date: 1800 End Date: 1940

  • In some cases, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the Related Concept relationship (see the example below), but not referring explicitly to a date. However, dates should be implicit in the condition or event mentioned and you should have a period or date in mind, because - if you record a Display Date - Start and End dates are required.

      • Example
      • Display Date: pertinent for native inhabitants along the seacoast from Niantic Bay to the Connecticut River
        Start Date: 1400 End Date: 1900
   

 

3.5.4.6.2

   

Start Date and End Date
Use dates that most broadly delimit the span of time of the relationship referred to in the display date. In many cases, the years will be approximate years. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See the Date Authority in Appendix B for approximate dates of historic events and entities; you should also consult other, related records in the AAT to establish dates.

  • Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

  • Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

      • Example
      • Display Date: relevant only for Banshan urns
        Start Date: -2800 End Date: -2300

  • For current relationships, use the End Date 9999.

      • Example
      • Display Date: from 1810
        Start Date: 1810 End Date: 9999

  • For very ancient dates, expressed as years ago or before present in the Display Date, translate these dates into approximate years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar for the Start and End Dates.
   

 

Last updated 10 February 2014
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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