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Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.3

 

Terms [1]

Included in this chapter

      • Example

 

 

     

3.3.1

 

 

Term ID (required default)

     

3.3.1.1

 

 

Definition
Number identifying a term in AAT.

     

3.3.1.2

 

 

Values
Numbers are system-generated in the following range: 1000000000 - 1999999999.

     

3.3.1.3

 

 

RULES

  • Term IDs may not be edited by the editors.

  • The system assigns unique, consecutive numbers to terms as they are created or loaded in AAT. Numbers of deleted terms are not re-used.

  • Each term in each subject record has a different term ID. Homographs do not share the same term ID.

 

     

3.3.2

 

 

Term (required)

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.1

 

 

Definition
A word or words used to refer to a definable, unique concept.

      • Examples

columns

stained glass (visual works)

caisson piles

stained glass (material)

acid-free paper

travertine

piles, caisson

orthogonal plan

cathedrals

orthographic drawings

cathedral ceilings

artists

flying buttresses

painters

retouch varnish

artists' colormen

drafting equipment

acrylic paint

Early Renaissance

Buddhism

Macedonian Renaissance

<British Renaissance-Baroque styles>

 

 

 

 

 

    Included in the Term section:
   
     

3.3.2.2

 

 

Values
Terms is a free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.3

 

 

Sources
Sources are discussed in a separate section, Sources for terms below.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.4

 

 

Discussion
The Term in AAT is analogous to the Name in ULAN and the Name in TGN.

   » Descriptors and the preferred term

The preferred term in each AAT record is always a "descriptor." There may be multiple descriptors in a record (generally the descriptors in American English and other languages), but there is only one preferred term.

    • A preferred term is sometimes the only term in the record. The preferred term is the American English term used most often in standard general reference sources. It is the term that is displayed in the default hierarchy display, thus it is sometimes called the "default record-preferred term." Unless the term is spelled differently in British English, flag this term with language English. Include any alternate descriptor. Additional used for terms for the concept should be included if warranted.

    • If the term is the same in both American and British English, flag the language as English for that term. Note that legacy AAT data may have the language flagged as American English when the British and American English spellings are the same; this is being updated over time.

    • If the term is spelled differently in British English, label the American English spelling with the language American English. The preferred British English term (if any) must be flagged with the language British English to allow the construction of a British English hierarchy. Also include and label the Term Type for  Descriptor and Alternate Descriptor in British English.

       » Compound terms

    Multiword or compound terms in natural language are lexemes, that is, words bound together as lexical units. Dictionaries differ in their policies regarding the inclusion of compound terms, and thus they are not always authorities regarding what is and is not a compound term in the AAT. A compound term must express a single concept or unit of thought capable of being arranged in a genus-species relationship within the AAT hierarchy. See the rules at Single word vs. multiword terms below.

       » Precoordinated and postcoordinated terms

    When two or more concepts are combined (e.g., Baroque cathedrals), this is referred to as 1) precoordination when the concepts are combined in the thesaurus, and 2) postcoordination when the concepts are combined in search and retrieval. Precoordination of terms is not allowed in the construction of the AAT, however, end users often precoordinate terms in their own systems for indexing or for creating headings and subheadings for browsing and navigation on a Web site. Postcoordinate retrieval is very useful and may be employed by end users. See also Single-word vs. multiword terms.

    Background: The AAT has been designed for use in either a postcoordinate or a precoordinate system.  Applying the vocabulary in a postcoordinate system means that as many individual descriptors as necessary are assigned by the indexer to a record without making any semantic or syntactic linkages between them.  At the time of searching, the terms are combined, or coordinated, using Boolean search techniques, (e.g., AND, OR, NOT).  Normally, more index entries are required in postcoordinate systems. 

    In precoordinate systems of indexing, individual descriptors are used by the indexer as the building blocks of headings for the physical description of objects, and images, or for the expression of the subjects of documents.  Because descriptors are combined in one heading, fewer index entries are required for each catalog record in precoordinate systems; however, the critical disadvantage is that the power of the links between terms and concepts in  the structure of the thesaurus is typically lost in such systems. Also, updates to the AAT terms over time is more difficult or impossible in such systems.

    Cataloging rules, such as the CDWA and the CCO, recommend using individual indexing terms in a postcoordinate system. To achieve the flow and better legibility of the heading, CDWA and CCO include free text display fields, where terms may be strung together to form phrases or even paragraphs for the end-user to read, while the controlled indexing terms are maintained for powerful retrieval and to allow easy updating of terminology as the vocabulary changes over time.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements
It is required to record at least one term - the preferred term, which is the word or phrase used most often in scholarly literature to refer to the concept. Excluded are proper names of persons, organizations, geographic places, named subjects, and named events.

  • Warrant: You must find the preferred term in at least three authoritative sources. See Sources for Terms below.

  • List as many variant or alternate terms as have at least one legitimate source. It is not required to add variant terms, however, you should consult sources to gather alternate terms as time and editorial priorities allow.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.2

 

 

Alphabet and diacritics

   » Roman alphabet

Use the Roman alphabet to record all terms

  • Transliterations
    For terms in a language that is not written in the Roman alphabet (e.g., Greek or Chinese), record the vernacular term that has been transliterated into the Roman alphabet. For the preferred term, you should ideally use a source that has a transliteration derived by applying pertinent ISO standards.

  • Diacritics
    Do not include diacritics or special characters in the term field. Indicate diacritical marks by using the diacritical codes in Appendix A.
      • Example
 
     
  • If you are cutting and pasting terms from an online source, to avoid accidentally pasting special characters and html codes in the term field, do the following: Paste the term into Notepad text editor, delete diacritics and replace them with the codes from Appendix A, then copy the term and paste it into VCS. (Notepad will automatically remove many special characters, but you will have to manually replace the diacritics.)

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.3

 

 

Capitalization
In general, use all lower case, except for terms based on proper nouns or proper adjectives (German, Ionic). Exceptions include the names of styles and periods (Inuit, Louis XVI) and terms that include a brand name (Kodachrome (TM)).

      • Examples

      • tempera
      • stained glass
      • decorative arts
      • painter
      • watercolorist
      • Angevin Gothic
      • Fome-Cor (TM)
      • Brussels lace
      • Tudor roses
      • Burgundy turpentine

   » Mixed case

Terms and other information should be expressed in lower case or mixed case (i.e., not in all-upper case). If your source lists the term in all caps, translate it to all lower case or mixed case, as appropriate.

  • Use all caps only for an abbreviation, code, or other rare case when the term is commonly or always spelled in all caps (e.g., CD-ROM).

   » German and other languages

For terms in languages other than English, follow the capitalization rules of that language. For example, nouns in German are capitalized (e.g., altarpiece in English, Altarbild in German).

   » Living Organisms

For the scientific taxonomic name, use the conventions of the discipline. Names of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, and Genus are spelled with initial capitals (e.g., Canis). The names of species repeat the capitalized name of the genus, and the distinguishing term for the species is in lower case (e.g., Canis lupus).

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.4

 

 

Punctuation
Avoid all punctuation except commas, hyphens, and apostrophes. Commas may be used for inverted terms. Hyphens may be used for hyphenated words. Apostrophes are allowed for possessives.

  • Use parentheses in the Term field only for the trademark symbol (see Fome-Cor (TM) example above). Use the ampersand (&) only as a symbol in a trademark or a term based on a proper name.

  • Do NOT use parentheses for qualifiers; put qualifiers in the Qualifier field, and the parentheses will be added when the data is published. Do NOT use angled brackets for Guide terms; label the Record Type as Guide term, and angled brackets will be added to the descriptor when the data is published.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.5

 

 

Single-word vs. multiword terms
Each term must represent a single concept or unit of thought. A single concept is frequently expressed by a single-word term, but in many cases a multiword term may be required to represent the concept. A multiword term for a concept is called a compound term. A compound term typically has a focus word and one or more modifiers.

      • Examples
        [examples of valid single and multiword terms]

domes

watercolor

flying buttresses

art historians

stained glass

High Gothic

archival quality

Felis domesticus

  • A quick test: If either of the components of a compound term expresses different concepts when separate than when they are part of a compound term, bind them together in a compound term. If components of a compound term express the same meaning whether they are individual terms or part of a compound term, do NOT make a compound term. When in doubt, consult with your supervisor; also search the AAT to find similar examples and follow precedent.

   » When to create a compound term

Make a compound term when one or more of the following conditions exist:

  • When the meaning of the expression cannot be accurately reconstructed from the constituent independent parts, generally because the modifier or the focus term changes its meaning in the compound expression (e.g., High Gothic).

  • When the modifier suggests a resemblance, as in a metaphor, to an unrelated thing or event (e.g., rose windows, barrel organs, spade money, saddlebag houses).

  • When the modifier defines a specific shape or type of the focus term (e.g., sleigh beds, basket capitals, window seats, ice houses).

  • When the modifier defines the purpose or function of the focus term, and this purpose or function gives the focus term a specific form (e.g., prayer rugs, china cabinets, crib barns, measuring cups).

  • When components of a compound term are too vague to stand on their own (e.g., first drafts, official documents, stone cutters, lost cities).

  • When the compound includes relational parts of speech (e.g., chests with drawers, books of hours, towers of silence, chapels of ease).

  • When the compound term includes a proper noun or adjective (other than a style term) (e.g., Brewster chairs, Usonian houses, Rangeley boats, Schuetzen rifles).

  • When the modifier does not define a subclass of the focus term or when the modifier changes the meaning of the focus term (e.g., paper airplanes, tin soldiers, artificial limbs, Greek fire).

  • When the modifier is the governing administrator of the focus term (e.g., cathedral cities, capital cities, army bases, colonial cities).

  • When one of the components of a compound term is derived from a guide term (e.g., subway cars, research vessels, emergency currency, clothing stores).

  • When one or more of the components of the compound term are not AAT descriptors and are not appropriate to add.

  • Where there may be a problem in retrieval or vocabulary control, as when splitting the compound term would result in confusion in retrieval due to too many false hits (e.g., library science, science library, foreign correspondent, folding rules).

  • When the distinction between two or more compound terms is confused in the discipline and the distinction would be lost if the terms were not bound as compound terms (Hint: If the scope note distinguishes between the terms, make two compound terms) (e.g., log cabins, log houses, business schools, business colleges, military photography, war photography).

  • When the compound term is in a foreign language (e.g., lits à la duchesse, cadavres exquis, p'ai-lous, aes rude).

  • When the compound term has a trade mark (e.g., Conte crayons (TM), Plastic Wood (TM), Zonolite Concrete (TM)).

  • When the compound term has become so familiar in common use or in the discipline, that it is considered for practical purposes to represent a single concept (e.g., data processing, art history).

  

     

 » When to avoid making a compound term

As ISO (International Organization for Standardization) has stated, dealing with compound terms is one of the most difficult areas of thesaurus construction and indexing. Terms in the thesaurus should represent simple or unitary concepts; compound terms or headings should be factored into simpler elements whenever possible. Unless there is precedent and a guide term for the concept already established in the AAT, do not make compound terms in any of the following situations.

  • Do not make a compound term composed of a noun phrase containing an adjective ("modifier") that designates material or style. Doing so would mean that these adjectives would recur in infinite combinations throughout the AAT. End users may join the distinct AAT terms for indexing (see below).

    [examples of what is NOT allowed as compound terms]

Baroque + churches

stone + walls

Baroque + painting

stone + churches

Baroque + sculpture

stone + steps

  • Do not make a compound term when the modifier is a physical attribute or property, including modifiers that imply an action that has been performed on or with the focus term.

round + photographs

red + silk

beaded + jacket

painted + furniture

reinforced + tapestry

corrugated + sheet metal

  • Do not make a compound term when the modifier specifies the scope or content of the focus term.

landscape + photographs

medical + laboratories

Buddhist + temples

war + ration books

  • Do not make a compound term when the modifier indicates the agent who possesses or produces the focus term.

executioners' + swords

artists' + houses

  • Do not make a compound term when the words express a whole/part relationship or when the modifier is otherwise a location or context of the focus term.

airport + lounges

aircraft + engines

coin + inscriptions

book + illustrations

 

     

» "Modified Descriptors" created by end users

End users will ideally have local authorities that are populated by and updated from annual releases of the AAT. Compound terms (modified descriptors) or headings may then be constructed in their local systems in any of three ways.

  • In the first example below, the material red silk is displayed in the free-text field and indexed in controlled fields. The Material and Color are indexed in separate fields that are controlled by the local authority, called the "Concept Authority" in the examples below.
       

 

     
  • Some institutions may not have free-text fields, and thus may need to combine the discrete concepts from the Concept Authority into compound terms in the controlled fields in the Work Record. If so, ideally each part of the phrase, such as red silk in the Materials field, should retain its original links to the discrete parts of the Concept Authority.
       
     
  • Another way to include compound terms in the Work Record is by adding compound terms to the local Concept Authority. This may be necessary for institutions that are building specialized authorities for their local use. In the example below, each color of silk is listed as a separate compound term in the local Concept Authority. If this method is employed, the institution must consider how to effectively flag such terms that are no longer compatible with standard sources of vocabulary, such as the AAT.

 

       
     

» Application protocol for end users re. "Modified Descriptors"

End users may combine separate AAT terms to make headings, called "modified descriptors" for short phrases and "strings" for longer subject headings. This discussion deals with modified descriptors only, not with the construction of longer subject heading strings. Users generally should create modified descriptors whenever the two or more components of their phrase are already in the AAT, rather than submitting new candidate terms. Note that although the topic is called "modified descriptors," the user may combine a modifier with any term in the AAT record, not only the descriptor per se.

  • A modified descriptor consists of a descriptor (or alternate descriptor or used for term, if so dictated by local preference) chosen as the focus term, and other terms serving as modifiers.
  • A modified descriptor must include only one focus term. As many modifiers as necessary may be used.
  • Modifiers should generally precede the focus term. However, alter this rule as necessary to reflect natural language.
  • Do not use punctuation between the focus term and the modifier(s).
  • When multiple modifiers are used, the terms should be arranged in the order of the facets, except when this order is confusing or does not reflect natural language:
    1. Associated Concepts (adjectival form)
    2. Physical Attributes (adjectival form)
    3. Styles and Periods
    4. Agents (possessive form where appropriate)
    5. Activities (past tense form)
    6. Materials
    7. Objects (for an object part, use the alternate singular form of the whole as the modifier for the part, e.g., church doors)
  • The Part of Speech flag was added to the AAT in 2010 in part to guide construction of modified descriptors.
      • Examples
        [Read these modified descriptor terms vertically, top to bottom. Terms reflect the order of the AAT facets. The focus term is underlined. The order may be changed if it is confusing or reads awkwardly in natural language.]

 

Facet Name

#

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Associated Concepts

1

 

 

asymmetrical

Buddhist

 

 

 

Physical Attributes

2

 

 

blue

 

 

large

 

Styles and Periods

3

Victorian

Renaissance

 

 

 

 

ancient

Agents

4

 

 

 

 

 

army

 

Activities (past tense)

5

painted

 

etched

 

galvanized

 

 

Materials

6

wood

tempera

 

 

metal

 

 

Objects

7

bedroom

paintings

glassware

temples

tools

barracks

coin

Objects (part)

7

furniture

 

 

 

 

 

inscriptions

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.6

 

 

Facet and hierarchy names
Do not edit, merge, or move the records for the top levels of the AAT hierarchy, including the facets and hierarchies without the permission of your supervisor. See also Guide terms below.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.7

 

 

Preferred term
For the preferred term, choose the term most often used in standard and scholarly American English sources. The preferred term, and all other descriptors, must be found in at least three sources. For the form of the preferred term in the different AAT Hierarchies, see 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.

  • Flag the preferred term. See Preferred Flag below. Make the preferred term a Descriptor (see Term Type).

  • To determine which term is most commonly used, consult standard dictionaries, encyclopedia, textbooks, and authoritative Web sites. See Sources for terms for a list of standard sources.

  • For terms that are not found in standard sources, consult specialized books, journal articles, and other published sources.

   » Consistency

Within any given section of the hierarchy, for the preferred term, be consistent regarding the singular vs. plural, fullness of the term, spelling style, and punctuation.

  • For Associated Concepts: Descriptors should be nouns. Use of the singular or plural form is decided on the basis of literary warrant and common usage. Provide adjectival forms as alternate descriptors in some cases (e.g., for Buddhism, alternate descriptor = Buddhist). Keep in mind that descriptors and alternate descriptors may be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., Buddhist + monasteries; Inuit + customs).

  • For Physical Attributes: Some descriptors may be adjectives; others should be nouns with an adjective provided as an alternate descriptor. Choose the form based on precedent, together with need and usage. Remember that descriptors and alternate descriptors will be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., handmade + carpets; porous + stone).

  • For Conditions and Effects: Descriptors should be in the noun form, with alternate descriptors provided as appropriate. In some cases the alternate is the singular noun (e.g., defects with the alternate defect) and others are an adjective form (e.g., wear, alternate worn). Remember that end users use descriptors and alternate descriptors in combination with other terms (e.g., paint + cleavage; surface + defects).

  • For Design Elements: Descriptors should be plural nouns except where usage dictates the singular, including most pattern types (e.g., herringbone). For those in the plural, make singular forms as alternate descriptors if appropriate. Note that end users will create terms for motifs based on objects or figures, by using alternate descriptors from other hierarchies with the term motif (e.g., shell + motif; tree + motif).

  • For Colors: Descriptors should be in noun or adjectival form as appropriate. Provide singular forms as alternate descriptors to plural noun descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors other terms (deep greenish blue + silk; warm color + perception; deep purple + tint).

  • For Styles and Periods: Descriptors from the Styles and Periods hierarchy are intended to be used as modifiers and therefore are in adjectival form, where such exists (e.g., Greek). Otherwise they are in noun form to be used as noun modifiers (e.g., Shawnee). In the modern and post-1945 sections, where a descriptor is an adjective derived from the descriptor of an artistic movement, the descriptor of that movement appears as an alternate descriptor (e.g., Cubist, alternate Cubism). End users will create some style names by combining two or more descriptors from this hierarchy (e.g., French + Renaissance). When place names are needed, users will be advised to take them from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, (e.g., Massachusetts + Italianate + houses).

  • For People: Descriptors appear as plural nouns, with the singular, the singular possessive, and the plural possessive provided as alternate descriptors. Descriptors and alternate descriptors may be combined with others (e.g., president's + personal papers; artists' + exhibitions; photograph + librarians).

  • For Organizations: Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular noun as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., democratic + Greek + city-states, librarians' + professional associations).

  • For Living Organisms: Descriptors are the scientific taxonomic name (e.g., Canis lupus); alternate descriptors are the plural and singular common version of the name (e.g., gray wolves and gray wolf). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.


  • For Disciplines: Descriptors appear as singular nouns, except where common usage dictates the plural (e.g., sciences). Include adjectival forms as alternate descriptors where justified by common usage. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., dance + photography; highway + engineering; Canadian + printmaking).

  • For Functions: Descriptors should be in gerund form or in the most commonly used noun form. Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors in some cases as justified by common usage. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., promoting + military personnel; hospital + maintenance; accredited + institutions).

  • For Events: Descriptors are plural nouns, unless common usage dictates the singular. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors to plural descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Micmac + feasts; boat + races; children's + birthdays).

  • For Physical and Mental Activities: Descriptors appear in either noun or gerund form. They may be used in combination with descriptors from this and other hierarchies (e.g., baseball + bats: automobile + racing).

  • For Processes and Techniques: Descriptors are in gerund or noun form according to need and usage (e.g., abrasion, tuning, tapestry). Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., hand-colored + photographs: Medieval + cloisonné; half-timber + cottages).

  • For Materials: Most descriptors are singular nouns, except where common usage warrants the plural form. Where appropriate, the plural forms of singular descriptors are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., stained glass + windows; canvas + sails; archival quality + mounting board; hardwood + shavings).

  • For Objects: Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., postcard + collections: railroad + personnel).

  • For Object Genres: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. Descriptors may be used in combination with other terms (e.g., Sumerian + votive offerings; furniture + reproductions; prototype + houses).

  • For Components: Descriptors appear as plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Ionic + capitals; satin + lapels).

  • For Settlements and Landscapes: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. Users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., city + streets; protected + wetlands; Medieval + towns).

  • For Built Complexes and Districts: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., district + zoning; prefabricated + housing; Shaker + cemeteries; rehabilitated + inner cities).

  • For Single Built Works: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Georgian + saltbox houses; three-story + parking garages; modular + houses; fieldstone + cottages).

  • For Open Spaces and Site Elements: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., concrete + bollards; carved + boundary stones; Renaissance + gardens).

  • For Furnishings: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., blockfront + desks; upholstered + chairs; hooked + rugs; Baroque + frames).

  • For Costume: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users will use descriptors with other terms (e.g., fur + coats; Greek + jewelry; wedding + veils).

  • For Tools and Equipment: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., pen + drawings; cast iron + bench anvils).

  • For Weapons and Ammunition: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Japanese + engraved + steel + swords; security guards' + handguns).

  • For Measuring Devices: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Renaissance + brass (alloy) + astrolabes).

  • For Containers: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., enameled + snuff boxes; coiled + pots; creamware + teacups).

  • For Sound Devices: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., alto + flutes, American colonial + church + bell).

  • For Recreational Artifacts: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. Descriptors and alternate descriptors are available for use in combination with others (e.g., tin + toys; round + sandboxes).

  • For Transportation Vehicles: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., oak + carts; yellow + taxicabs).

  • For Visual Works: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Byzantine + icons; ink + drawings; garden + sculpture; portrait + photographs).

  • For Exchange Media: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., gold + coins; French + francs; Canadian + dollars).

  • For Information Forms: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., plastic + relief maps; furniture + pattern books; newspaper + advertisements).

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.8

 

 

Non-Preferred terms
At minimum, endeavor to include important alternate and variant terms that appear in major published sources and represent significant differences from the preferred term in form or spelling. As time and editorial priorities allow, check additional dictionaries, encyclopedia, text books, and LC Subject Headings (see AACR2 Flag below); include additional alternate and variant terms, even if the differences in spelling and punctuation are minor.

  • Include non-preferred terms as described below. Be certain that all the non-preferred terms are flagged as Non-preferred. See also the discussion at Term Type and Preferred Flag below.

   » Descriptors

There is only one preferred term per record, but there may be multiple descriptors (flagged with Term Type = descriptor). Descriptors are the terms that will be used by default in displays and in indexing (i.e., when end users have a policy of using one single term consistently).

  • The descriptor in American English is required and must be flagged as the preferred term in the record (see Preferred term above). Also include the descriptor in British English if it differs from American English; include descriptors in any other languages, if known or as instructed by your supervisor.

  • For each descriptor in various languages, mark its language as preferred. A Descriptor is the preferred term for an AAT concept in a given language; in other words, it is the term used most often to refer to that concept in the language.

   » Alternate Descriptors

Alternate descriptors have a different grammatical form than the descriptor. Include all appropriate Alternate Descriptors (AD) for the preferred term Descriptor (D). Refer to the following list for guidance in adding Alternate Descriptors in American English.

  • Singular AD for plural D: Objects Facet, all hierarchies; Events hierarchy; Organizations hierarchy; People hierarchy: Include a singular form of the plural descriptor (e.g., cathedral is the alternate descriptor for the descriptor cathedrals; christening for the descriptor christenings; society for the descriptor societies). You do not need to include singular forms for all used for terms, unless the spelling is unusual. For example, include the singular form if the plural spelling is not formed by the simple addition of an "s" for English words and for all words in languages other than English, if known.

  • Plural AD for singular D: Materials hierarchy, Object facet: Include a plural form of singular noun descriptors (e.g., clays is the alternate descriptor for the descriptor clay; embroideries for the descriptor embroidery).

  • Past participle AD for verbal noun or gerund D: Processes, Techniques, Physical and Mental Activities hierarchies, Functions: Include the past participle of a verbal noun or gerund (e.g., carved is an alternate descriptor for carving; maintained for the descriptor maintenance).

  • Adverbial AD for noun D: Disciplines hierarchy: Include the adverbial form of a noun descriptor (e.g., the alternate descriptor mathematical for the descriptor mathematics).

  • Possessive AD for noun D: People hierarchy: Include the singular noun form, and the singular and plural possessives as alternate descriptors (e.g., for the descriptor deacons, alternate descriptors are painter, painter's, and painters' ).


  • Common name AD for scientific D: Living Organisms hierarchy: Include the plural and singular noun forms of common terms for the scientific term descriptor (e.g., for the descriptor Canis lupus, alternate descriptors are gray wolves and gray wolf).

  • Noun AD for adjectival D: Styles and Periods hierarchy: Include an alternate descriptor that is the noun form of an adjective (e.g., include Impressionist for the descriptor Impressionism).

  • Adjectival AD for noun D: Associated Concepts hierarchy: Include an alternate descriptor that is the adjectival form of a noun descriptor whenever appropriate in the Associated Concepts hierarchy (e.g., include Buddhist for the descriptor Buddhism).

    • Add adjectives as alternate descriptors in other hierarchies where appropriate, and when time and editorial priorities allow.

  • No AD: Physical Attributes facet: Terms in this facet tend to be adjectives and have no Alternate Descriptors.

  • Other languages: Include alternate descriptors for descriptors in other languages as your own expertise and your sources warrant.

   » Used For terms

Add used for terms that are 1) spelling or grammatical variants of the descriptor or 2) have true synonymity with the descriptor.

  • No "upward posting": In many thesauri it is acceptable to include used for terms that are not true synonyms, but are actually narrower contexts to the descriptor. This is called upward posting; it is forbidden in the AAT. If a term represents a valid child of the concept, add it as a child.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.9

 

 

Spelling variants
Include variants that differ in spelling, diacritics, capitalization, or punctuation (e.g., bird's eye views is a spelling variant for the descriptor bird's-eye views).

      • Example
      • still lifes (preferred)
        still life
        still-lifes
        still lives

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.10

 

 

Lexical variants
Include different forms of speech for a descriptor, as appropriate. Lexical variants are often alternate descriptors (see Non-Preferred Terms: Alternate Descriptors above). You may include lexical variants as used for terms, if warranted.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.11

 

 

Synonyms
Include all true synonyms for the concept. Synonyms are terms that have meanings that are the same or virtually the same in a wide range of contexts. True synonyms are relatively rare in natural language. The following types of synonyms should be included:

    • Terms of different linguistic origin (e.g., sodium and natrium).
    • Popular and scientific names (e.g., house cat and Felis domesticus).
    • Generic and trade name synonyms (e.g., photocopies and Xeroxes). Note that trade names are included only under rare conditions; see Trademarks below.
    • Outdated terms or historical terms (e.g., airports and aerodromes).
      Slang or jargon synonyms (e.g., helicopters and whirlybirds).
    • Dialectical or language variants (e.g., elevators and lifts).

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.12

 

 

Abbreviations
For the preferred term, avoid abbreviations, initialisms, acronyms, and codes, unless the abbreviation is better known and more often used than the full term.

  • For used for (variant) terms, include commonly used abbreviations, codes, acronyms, and initials.

      • Example
      • Saint Andrew's crosses (preferred, descriptor)
        St. Andrew's crosses (used for)

  • Choose an abbreviation, code, initials, or acronym as the preferred term only in the rare case where the usage is well established and the abbreviation is consistently the preferred or only form in major sources. Include the spelled out versions of such terms as used for terms.

      • Examples
      • HVAC (preferred, descriptor)
        heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (used for)
        heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (used for)
        indoor climate control (used for)

      • CD-ROMs (preferred, descriptor)
        CD-ROM (alternate descriptor)
        CDROM (used for)
        Cd Roms (used for)
        compact discs read-only memory (used for)
        compact disk read-only memory (used for)
        compact disks read-only memory (used for)

  • Do not use the abbreviation as the preferred term if both the abbreviation and the fuller form are used with equal frequency, or if the abbreviation can be confused with another common abbreviation, even if the other abbreviation is not in the AAT. In the example below, AI could refer to artificial intelligence, but also to army intelligence, artificial insemination, active ingredient, recommended average daily nutrient intake, etc.

      • Example
      • artificial intelligence (preferred, descriptor)
        AI (used for)

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.13

 

 

Brand names
For brand names of materials and techniques, generally place them in the Brand Names facet. if the term is an established trademark, spell it with an initial uppercase letter and follow with the code "TM" in parentheses (e.g., Diasec (TM)).

      • Example
      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Brand Names
        ........ <brand name techniques and processes>
        ............ Diasec (TM)

  • Trademarks or brand names may be included in the other facets only if the term is found in common usage to refer to a generic material, object, or process. It will typically be a Used For term for the generic Descriptor.


      • Example
      • diffusion transfer prints (preferred, descriptor)
        diffusion transfer print (alternate descriptor)
        Polaroid (TM) transfer prints (used for)

      • gypsum board (preferred, descriptor)
        gypboard (used for)
        Sheetrock (TM) (used for)

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.14

 

 

Singular vs. plural
If the term is a descriptor, and if it can exist as both singular and plural, generally include both forms in the record. Follow the guidelines below in determining whether the singular or plural should be the preferred term.

   » Count nouns

For the preferred term, use the plural for count nouns, that is, for nouns that would be quantified by "how many?" If the preferred term is a plural, make an alternate descriptor in the singular form.

      • Examples
      • chairs (preferred, descriptor)
        chair (alternate descriptor)

      • essays (preferred, descriptor)
        essay (alternate descriptor)

   » Mass nouns

For the preferred term, use the singular for mass nouns, that is, for those nouns that would be quantified by "how much?"

      • Examples
      • iron (preferred, descriptor)
      • additive (preferred, descriptor)
      • correspondence (preferred, descriptor)

  • If the concept is generally quantified by "how much," but could also occasionally be quantified by "how many," include the plural as an alternate descriptor.

      • Example
      • embroidery (preferred, descriptor) Qualifier: visual works
        embroideries (alternate descriptor)

   » Processes, properties, and conditions

For the preferred term, use the singular for processes, properties, and conditions.

      • Examples
      • absorbtion (preferred, descriptor)
      • boiling point (preferred, descriptor)
      • color shift (preferred, descriptor)
      • radiocarbon dating (preferred, descriptor)

   » Materials

For the preferred term, use the singular for materials. Add a plural form of the term as an alternate descriptor.

      • Examples
      • stone (preferred, descriptor)
        stones (alternate descriptor)

      • paint (preferred, descriptor)
        paints (alternate descriptor)

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.15

 

 

Only one term per field
Caveat: A term is a unique concept (although it may comprise multiple words). A single Term field should not contain multiple terms or headings, as is sometimes found in terms contributed from other databases and in LC Subject Headings.

  • Qualifiers: Do not include a second word or term in parentheses. Put qualifiers in the Qualifier field, NOT in the term field. See the section on Qualifiers below.

      • Example
     

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.16

   

Homographs
A homograph is a term that is spelled like another term, but the meanings of the terms are different. When adding a term, always check to see if there is homograph for the term in the AAT. If so, you are required to add qualifiers for both terms.

  • You are also required to add qualifiers for terms that do not have homographs in the AAT but for which there are homographs in common language. See 3.3.4 Qualifiers below.
   

 

3.3.2.5.17

   

Guide terms and node labels
Guide Terms and node labels provide structure to the hierarchy, forming levels below which groups of AAT records may be collocated. To indicate that guide terms and node labels cannot be used as indexing terms, they are enclosed in angle brackets when published. Both guide terms and node labels are flagged "guide term" in the AAT.

guide term: A record representing a concept that serves as a place saver to create a level in the hierarchy under which the AAT can collocate narrower concepts (e.g., <planographic printing processes>). Guide terms should not be used for indexing or cataloging. In AAT displays, guide terms are enclosed in angled brackets.

node label: A label indicating a division of a hierarchy that contains a characteristic of division (e.g., <photographs by form>). Node labels do not represent concepts and therefore have no semantic relationships with concepts. In the AAT, their appearance is the same as guide terms, being enclosed in angled brackets. They should not be used for indexing or cataloging.


      • Examples
      • <photographs by technique>
      • <single built works by location or context>
      • <single built works by function>
      • <restorative processes and techniques>

  • Note that the angled brackets appear in displays. Do NOT type angled brackets in the term field. Indicate that a record is a Guide terms by using the Record Type field (see 3.2 Identifying numbers, status flags, and subject sources); implementers will add the brackets when they process and display the data.

      • Example
 
     
  • Check with your supervisor before adding or editing guide terms or node labels. Create a guide term or node label only 1) to be consistent with other hierarchies in the AAT or 2) when a valid concept record will not suffice to mark the level.

  • Three recurrent nodel label forms are <...by form>, <...by function>, and <...by location or context>; others are used where necessary (e.g., <…by method of representation>).

  • Caveat: Do not create guide terms or node labels if there will be fewer than 10 narrower concepts. Avoid making overly complex divisions that cause unnecessary complexity in the structure; such divisions hinder the ability of end users to access the data through browsing the hierarchies, in addition to making displays difficult to read.

  • Records for guide terms and node labels generally have only a preferred term (descriptor); do not add used for terms or alternate descriptors for guide terms unless told to do so by your supervisor. Guide term descriptors in other languages may be added by translation projects.

  • If you compose a guide term or node label, create a term that will represent the characteristics of division by which a listing of narrower terms is clustered. Follow precedent in the same or similar areas of the AAT hierarchies. For further discussion of Guide Terms, see 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.
   

 

3.3.2.5.18

   

Language of the terms
For the record-preferred term, record the term most commonly used in American English. Label the language "English" unless there is also a British equivalent. Include variant terms (synonyms) in British English when the spelling differs. If the spelling is the same in British and American English, use the language English. See British English below for further discussion.

Synonyms in other languages may also be included.

      • Examples
      • rocking chairs (preferred, descriptor, English-P)
        rocking chair (alternate descriptor, English)
        rockers (chairs) (used for term, English)
        schommelstoelen (descriptor, Dutch-P)
        schommelstoel (alternate descriptor, Dutch)

      • elevators (preferred, descriptor, American English)
        lifts (descriptor, British English)

      • artists' colormen (preferred, descriptor, American English)
        artists' colour-men (descriptor, British English)

      • amphitheater artists' colormen (preferred, descriptor, American English)
        amphiteatre (descriptor, British English)
        anfiteatro (descriptor, Italian)

   » Loan terms

Loan terms or loanwords are terms borrowed from other languages that have become naturalized in American English. If such terms are well established, include them in the AAT record. Flag authentic loan terms using the Language Status flag, discussed below.

  • If such terms are commonly used instead of an English translation in authoritative American English sources, or if no English translation exists, make the loanword the preferred term. Use the term most commonly found in authoritative American English publications. Use diacritics as required. List languages for both English and the original language, if known.

      • Examples
      • papier-m$03ach$00e (preferred, descriptor, English, French)
      • Schnitzaltars (preferred, descriptor, German)
      • santos (preferred, descriptor, Spanish)

  • If the loanword is sometimes used - but it is not predominantly used - for the concept in American English sources, include it as a non-preferred term.

      • Examples
        ["allées couvertes" in the example below]
      • gallery graves (preferred, descriptor, English, French)
        gallery grave (alternate descriptor, English)
        graves, gallery (used for, English)
        all$00ees couvertes (used for, English, French)
       

3.3.2.5.19

   

Translations of terms in various languages
Include terms in various languages only if provided by a reliable source.

Always defer to the contributions of the official contributing projects, if any. Do not work on terms in another language unless you are familiar enough with the language to read it and to distinguish singulars and plurals.

      • Examples
      • Coptic (preferred, descriptor, English-preferred)
        Copte (descriptor, French-preferred)
        Koptisch (descriptor, German-preferred, Dutch-preferred)
        Copto (descriptor, Italian-preferred, Portuguese-preferred, Spanish-preferred)
        Copt (used for, English)

      • preservative (preferred, descriptor, English-preferred)
        fang fu ji (preferred, descriptor, Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-preferred)
        conserveringsmiddel (preferred, descriptor, Dutch-preferred)
        agent de conservation (preferred, descriptor, French-preferred)
        conservante (preferred, descriptor, Spanish-preferred)

  • Descriptors in other languages: The descriptor should be the term most often used for the concept in the authoritative published sources of that language. NOTE: Each language may have only one descriptor and one alternate descriptor. The descriptor for that language should have the language cited and the preferred flag set to Preferred. Each language may have only one Preferred flag associated with a given language; for example, there may NOT be two terms labeled as Preferred for French.


  • In brief, unless stated otherwise below, descriptors, alternate descriptors, and used fors should be established according to the analogous rules for plural and singular used for English terms. For example, for objects, the descriptor for the term in another language should be the plural; the alternate descriptor should be singular for objects.


  • If two contributors have submitted Descriptors for the same language, but the terms are not the same, consult with your supervisor. The procedure will be to contact one or more of the contributors to ask them which is correct. If the situation cannot be resolved through negotiation, your supervisor will make the decision.


  • Both singular and plural: Note that a single term may be both singular and plural in a single language. (Conflict between singular and plural in different languages is discussed below.) If the fact that a single term is both singular and plural causes a situation where that term should be flagged both Descriptor and Alternate Descriptor, flag it as Descriptor (since you cannot flag a single term with two term types). You may use the Display Date to explain the situation (e.g., German plural and singular); since they are required, fill in very broad dates for Start and End Date.

  • In the example below, the term ending in "s" is both plural and singular in French. When used in a sentence, the distinction in this case would be made with a plural and singular article, but the article is not included in the thesaurus, so there is no distinction. The Term Type is set to Descriptor, the Preferred flag is set on the French language, and the Display Date explains: French plural and singular. Set the Part of Speech flag to Both singular and plural noun.
       
     

» Translations should be true synonyms

  • Inexact translations: All terms in the record must have true synonymity, even when there terms in other languages. Do not include inexact translations or near-matches in the same AAT record. For terms that do not have an exact match in English, enter them as separate records in their original language; they will be treated as loan words. Consult with your supervisor before making such a decision.

  • Overlapping meaning: Use Associative Relationships, as necessary, to make links between terms that are not exact matches in meaning, but that may have overlapping meaning. Use the Relationship Type 2110 meaning/usage overlaps with. This may occur between terms in different languages, as well as for records where both descriptors are in English.

  • Do not invent translations. All translations require literary warrant in a source that indicates that the term has the same meaning as described in the scope note. For example, if you want to enter a French term for tin mines, do not invent a translation by looking up the word"tin" and the word "mines" in a French dictionary. You must find warrant in a French source where the two words are combined in a term with the same meaning as the English tin mines; e.g., your source must list the term mines d'étain (entered in VCS as mines d'$00etain).


  • Rules of the language: For terms in other languages, be certain to include the correct diacritics and punctuation (such as hyphens). Respect the rules of capitalization for other languages; for example, nouns are capitalized in German.


  • Conflicts between languages: If there is a conflict between the term type for a term that is spelled the same in multiple languages, label the term type for the Descriptor. Explain in the Display Date (and estimate a broad span for Start and End Dates).


  • In the example below, filigrane is the Descriptor (plural) for Italian, but it is the Alternate Descriptor (singular) for French. Term Type and Part of Speech correctly flag the Italian plural and French singular.
   

 

 

   
  • If you notice another problem arising from homographs in different languages, please consult your supervisor.


  • Qualifiers: Apply qualifiers to terms in other languages according to the same rules used for English terms. If the term is a homograph of another term in the AAT, or if the term is a common term that has multiple meanings in the language - even if those homographs are not actually in the AAT - the term must have a qualifier.


  • For the term in another language, the qualifier should be in the language of the term. Occasionally editors may use English qualifiers for terms in other languages as a temporary measure, when a qualifier is needed but language expertise is lacking. Such terms should be collected and submitted to the original contributor or to language specialists at a later date.

  • The language designation for terms may refer to a transliterated language; labeling a term "Chinese" means that the term is written in Chinese script. If the Chinese term has been transliterated, use the language Chinese (transliterated) or a more specific designation, if known (e.g., Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles).

 
     

   » Variant transliterations

For terms from languages using non-Roman alphabets, include variant transliterations, if known. See Roman alphabet above.

   » Preferred British English term

In addition to the preferred term (which is in American English), it is required to record a preferred British English term for the concept, if the British English spelling differs from the American English term.

NOTE that spelling differences in British and American English are increasingly fewer, generally now restricted to "z" and "s" (cozy and cosy), "ter" and "tre" (theater and theatre), "m" and "mme" (program and programme), "or" and "our" (color and colour), and a few other examples. Generally, terms having differences in use of the hyphen are English, no longer considered a distinction between British and American English (earth sheltered buildings and earth-sheltered buildings are both English), because either variation can typically be found in both American English and British English texts

  • The preferred British English term should be the term used most often in standard authoritative sources in British English, only where the spelling consistently differs from modern texts in American English.

  • Most American English and British English terms are the same: flag the language as English. Note that in almost all cases in current literature, the spelling is the same; this has changed in the past few decades.

  • Mark the preferred term in British English as a descriptor. Use the language field and the preferred language flag to mark the preferred British English term. See the sections on Languages and Term Type below.

      • Examples
      • theaters (preferred, descriptor, American English-Preferred)
        theater (alternate descriptor, American English)
        theatres (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
        theatre (alternate descriptor, British English)
        playhouses (used for, English)

      • base color (preferred, descriptor, American English-Preferred)
        base colour (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
        base-colour (used for, British English)
        color, base (used for, American English)
     
   

 

3.3.2.5.20

   

Possessives
Include the possessive form as an alternate descriptor, where appropriate (in the People hierarchy). Include both the singular and plural forms.

      • Examples
      • cabinetmakers (preferred, descriptor, American English)
        cabinetmaker (alternate descriptor, American English)
        cabinetmaker's (alternate descriptor, American English)
        cabinetmakers' (alternate descriptor, American English)
        cabinet-makers (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
        cabinet-maker (alternate descriptor, British English)
        cabinet makers (used for, American English)
        cabinet-workers (used for, American English)

  • With a compound term, use the plural possessive and the singular possessive as appropriate.

      • Examples
        [the possessive is plural, "deacons' "]
      • deacons' benches (preferred, descriptor)
        deacon's bench (alternate descriptor)

        [the possessive"bird's" is singular, even when the term is plural]
      • bird's-eye views (preferred, descriptor)
        bird's-eye view (alternate descriptor)
   

 

3.3.2.5.21

   

Natural order and inverted terms
For a multiword term (compound term), generally record it in natural order. Compound terms typically have two components, the focus word and the modifier of that word (e.g., deacons' benches, for which benches is the focus). In English, the modifier typically precedes the focus in natural order; do not use a comma in the natural order form of the term.

  • When the preferred term comprises a compound term in which the focus word is not the first word of the term, include a used for term in inverted order, with the focus word first. Add an inverted term for alternate descriptor(s) if time and editorial priorities allow. It is not necessary to record inverted order terms for used for terms.

      • Example
      • deck chairs (preferred, descriptor)
        deck chair (alternate descriptor)
        chairs, deck (used for)
        deck-chairs (used for)
        steamer chairs (used for)

  • If the compound term descriptor includes relational parts of speech, generally create an inverted used for term, with the noun of the modifying phrase first.

      • Examples
      • books of hours (preferred, descriptor)
        book of hours (alternate descriptor)
        hours, books of (used for)

      • aids to navigation (preferred, descriptor)
        aid to navigation (alternate descriptor)
        navigation, aids to (used for)

  • Label the inverted term with the Display Flag set to Index. See Display Term Flag below.

   » Syntax

For the natural order form of the term, record the term in natural word order, that is, the way the term is spoken or written in natural language (e.g., composite drawings).

  • For the preferred term, make a used for term by inverting the term, that is, by recording the focus of the term first, followed by a comma and the modifier (e.g., drawings, composite). Use commas consistently.

      • Examples
      • composite drawings (preferred, descriptor)
        composite drawing (alternate descriptor)
        drawings, composite (used for)

    [example from VCS]

   
 

3.3.2.5.22

   

Initial articles
Avoid including initial articles in terms except in the rare case where the initial article is consistently used in authoritative sources as a part of the term itself.

  • If the descriptor has an initial article, invert the term; make a used for in natural order.

      • Example
      • Sublime, the (preferred, descriptor)
        the Sublime (alternate descriptor)
   

 

3.3.2.5.23

   

Historical terms
Include historical terms, if warranted. Given the nature of the standard sources that are most often used in constructing the AAT, it is relatively unusual to run across synonyms that historically were spelled differently from the modern term; however, you should add them if your source mentions them. If you have any doubts, consult with your supervisor before adding the historical term. If you add historical terms, explain the meaning and timeframe of usage in the Display Date for the term or in the Descriptive/Scope Note, if known.

  • Historical terms are always used for terms; do not make a historical term a descriptor or alternate descriptor.

      • Example
        [for the "still lifes" record]
 
     
  • If the historical term is now used in another sense as a descriptor in another record, clearly explain this in the Display date and add qualifiers for both homographs (see Qualifiers below).
   

 

3.3.2.5.24

   

Neologisms
Include neologisms, if appropriate. A neologism is a newly created or coined term that was recently introduced in professional or popular discourse, and which can sometimes be attributed to a specific individual, publication, date, or event.

      • Examples
      • televillages (preferred, descriptor)
      • recharging stations (preferred, descriptor)

  • Such terms are typically not yet included in standard dictionaries and it may therefore be difficult to find three sources of warrant. However, three sources are required for a published AAT term; for neologisms, rather than requiring dictionaries, encyclopedia, and text books as sources, you may use journal articles, authoritative Web sites, and museum databases for all of the sources, if necessary. If you still cannot find the term in three such sources, put the record in a temp.parent pending the discovery of further warrant.
     

3.3.2.5.25

   

Slang and jargon
Slang is casual or informal language. Jargon is specialized technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject. Include slang terms and jargon as used for synonyms, if warranted. Generally, do not make slang or jargon terms the preferred terms, unless the term has been widely accepted and is used more often than the more traditional term.

      • Example
      • helicopters (preferred, descriptor)
        helicopter (alternate descriptor)
        whirlybirds (used for)

  • Flag the slang or jargon term with the Other Flags set to Slang and jargon. See Other Flags below.
   

 

3.3.2.5.26

   

Pejorative terms
For the preferred term, avoid using pejorative or objectionable terms. If two terms are used to refer to the same concept, and one of them is pejorative, choose the neutral term for the preferred term, but include the pejorative as a used for term. Explain that the term is pejorative in the Display Date or Descriptive/Scope Note.

      • Example
        [Hottentot is considered offensive by the native peoples to whom it refers]
      • Terms: Khoikhoi (preferred, descriptor)
        Hottentot (used for)
        Display Date: considered pejorative, probably invented by the Dutch colonists in imitation of the clicking sounds of the native language
   
3.3.2.5.27    

Popular and scientific terms
If a popular term and a scientific term refer to the same concept, make the scientific term the preferred term. The plural and singular versions of the common term most often used in authoritative sources should be alternate descriptors.

      • Example
      • Terms:
        Felis domesticus (species) (preferred, descriptor) [scientific name]
        domestic cats (alternate descriptor) [common name]
        domestic cat (alternate descriptor)
        cats, domestic (used for)
        Felis catus (used for)
        house cat (used for)

      • Example
      • Terms:
        Lepisma saccharina (species) (preferred, descriptor) [scientific name]
        silverfish (alternate descriptor) [common name]
        fishmoths (used for)
  • Flag the scientific term with the Other Flags set to Scientific term. See Other Flags below.

 

   

   » For the Living Organisms hierarchy

  • The Living Organisms hierarchy terms for animals and plants, including their scientific names as well as common names. This hierarchy is under development and will grow over time through contributions.

  • In general, records in this hierarchy comply with overall rules for scientific terms: If a common term and a scientific term refer to the same concept, make the scientific term the preferred term. The plural and singular versions of the common term most often used in authoritative sources should be alternative descriptors.

  • Regarding other hierarchies
    Records for animals or plants may be linked through Associative Relationships to records for the products derived from them, particularly when the product is unique and used to produce architecture or art (e.g., vellum).

  • Compound terms: Users may combine the name of the animal or plant with the name of the part or product in local indexing (e.g., birch + bark, ostrich + egg). Do not pre-coordinate these compound terms in the AAT.

  • Organization
    The basic underlying structure is arranged according to the most recent available taxonomies of animals and plants in standard, general reference sources.

  • Compared to scientific taxonomies: Note that this hierarchy does not duplicate scientific taxonomies: it includes levels and records that are inappropriate for a scientific taxonomy but are necessary for the target audience of the AAT, which is the art and architectural history cataloging community. The hierarchy combines living and extinct animals and plants, animals or plants by location and context (e.g., waterfowl), common names (e.g., zebras) that have no direct counterpart in a scientific taxonomy because they do not correspond to a single species or genus, groups of animals (e.g., flocks), components of animals (e.g., paws), and other divisions that are not part of a scientific taxonomy.

  • The preferred scientific names and the basic underlying structure of the AAT hierarchies are usually derived from encyclopedia and other authoritative general reference sources rather than the most recent scientific taxonomies: taxonomic classifications have been in flux since the 1980s and many competing classifications exist, some based on traditional morphological evidence and others on analyses of molecular data. It is out of scope for the AAT to reflect the most current developments in this field.

  • Required levels: The hierarchies to the level of order should already be established. If you need an order that is missing, consult with your supervisor. If you are adding a new species, you must enter all relevant levels up to order. To determine the appropriate levels for a particular area of the hierarchy, consult other nearby or analogous sections of the hierarchy. The minimum hierarchical levels for a species are the following:

  • Kingdom
    .... Phylum (Division for plants)
    ........Class
    ............Order
    ................Family
    ....................Genus
    ........................Species

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are the scientific taxonomic name (e.g., Canis lupus); this is true for English and all other languages. Alternate descriptors are the plural and singular common version of the name (e.g., gray wolves and gray wolf). The preferred common name in any language is an AD, however the language flag is Non-preferred (because the Latin name would be preferred for all languages). All additional synonymous names in a given language are UFs (e.g., timber wolves).

    • Expression of descriptors should follow the conventions of the discipline. Names of kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, and genus are spelled with initial capitals (e.g., Canis). The names of species repeat the capitalized name of the genus, and the distinguishing term for the species is in lower case (e.g., Canis lupus).

  • Alternate Descriptors and Used For terms: Provide the common plural and singular forms of the descriptor as an alternate descriptors if and only if they are exact synonyms for the descriptor (e.g., domestic cats is a synonym of the D Felis domesticus, but wolves is not a synonym to either species D Canis lupus (gray wolf) or to the next higher level, genus D Canis (because wolves refers multiple species, not only Canis lupus, but Canis includes various canids besides wolves; thus wolves matches neither).

  • UF terms may be added if they are exact synonyms for the descriptor.
  • Other Flags: Flag the scientific term with the Other Flags set to Scientific term. Flag the common terms with the flag Common term.
  • Language: Flag the scientific term with two languages: Latin and English. Remember that the English flag refers to the term used by English speakers, not to the etymological derivation of the word. As the record is translated, the Latin term will be flagged with other languages.

  • Alternate Descriptors should be flagged with Language = English for English terms. Other languages should be flagged as necessary.

  • Qualifiers: The qualifiers should be in the language of the term. For the scientific term, include a qualifier in the Qualifier field indicating the level of the term: in English, family, genus, species. For extinct animals and plants, qualifiers should be extinct genus or extinct species.
  • In the example below, qualifier, language, term type, and part of speech are linked at the language level. A single term has multiple languages. “Other flag” (e.g., Scientific term, Common term) is linked at the term level.
       
 
   
  • Common names as AD or UF must be true synonyms for the Descriptor: Be absolutely certain that the scientific term and the common term are synonyms. For Living Organisms, the common term may be a synonym at any of various levels, usually but not always one of the following three levels: Family, Genus, or Species. For example, domestic cats is a synonym for the scientific term at the species level Felis domesticus; however, the common term chimpanzees is a synonym for the scientific term at the genus level, Pan.
  • When a common term has no scientific equivalent: If the common term does not match a level in the hierarchy of the scientific taxonomy, make a separate record for the common term, and make hierarchical or associative relationships to the related records with scientific descriptors, as necessary. For example, zebras is a common term referring to any of three species of in the genus Equus, however all members of the genus Equus are not zebras. Thus, zebras becomes a descriptor for an independent record, to which species of zebras are linked as non-preferred children.
  • When sources use the common name at various levels: In the AAT, a single common term may apply to only one level of the scientific hierarchy. For example if an order has only one family, you may find sources in which the same common term may be used for both the order and family. In the AAT, the common term should be applied at the narrowest level where it is appropriate. If you believe that the term may apply to multiple levels, consult with your supervisor.

      • Example
        [partial, abbreviated hierarchical display]
      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Agents Facet
        ....... Living Organisms
        [...]
        .................... Equidae (family)
        ........................... Equus (genus)
        ........................... Equus asinus (species)
        ........................... Equus burchellii (species)
        ........................... Equus caballus (species)
        [...]
        ........................... zebras (mammals)
        ................................ Equus burchellii (species) [N]
        ................................ Equus grevyi (species) [N]
        ................................ Equus quagga (extinct species) [N]
        ................................ Equus zebra (species) [N]
  • Sources for Living Organisms: Preferred sources for this hiearchy are listed with sources below.
  •    

    3.3.2.5.28

       

    Misspellings
    Variant terms may occasionally include an apparent misspelling, if the term is found in a major published source. If you are absolutely certain that the term is a misspelling, note this in the Display Date for that term (Display Date is a free-text field; in order to use this field, you must also have dates in mind for Start and End Dates; see Dates for Terms below).

    • Do not refer to historical terms as "misspellings" in the Display Date. Be sure to flag them as Historical.
       

     

    3.3.2.5.29

       

    Constructed terms
    A constructed term is a term created by the editor, rather than being transcribed from a source. Given that all terms in the AAT must have literary warrant, the only constructed terms allowed in the AAT are 1) the guide terms, names of facets, and hierarchy names, 2) inverted versions of natural order terms or natural order of inverted terms when the source lists only one or the other, and 3) plural terms, when the source lists only the singular (or vice versa).

    • The source for a constructed term is the following:

      Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
      Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.
       

     

    3.3.2.5.30

       

    Language
    Flag the language of the term, if known, by choosing a language from the controlled list of languages. See Language for terms below.

     

    3.3.2.5.31

       

    Order of the terms
    The terms must be organized according to a set of rules. Number the terms as instructed in Sequence Number below.

       

     

    3.3.2.5.32

       

    Editing contributed terms
    Editors should not edit terms that have been loaded into VCS from a contributor's database or the online contribution form, except for minor punctuation typos. If you add a date or a source to the term, add the initials VP as a contributor for the term and its related information.

    • If directed to do so by your supervisor, you may occasionally delete contributed terms that are inappropriate for the AAT.

     

         

    3.3.3

       

    Preferred Flag (required-default)

         

    3.3.3.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating whether or not the term is the preferred term for its subject record.

         

    3.3.3.2

     

     

    Values
    The flags are controlled by a pick list in VCS: P - Preferred, V - Variant

         

    3.3.3.3

       

    Sources
    For a discussion of how to determine which term should be the preferred term, see Preferred Term above.

         

    3.3.3.4

       

    Discussion
    Every record must have one preferred term to use as a default in displays. Note that the preferred term is always a descriptor (i.e., the Term Type = descriptor). However, there may be multiple descriptors in a record; if there are terms in multiple languages, there may be a descriptor for each language. Only the descriptor in American English is the Preferred term for the record. For further discussion, see Preferred terms above.

         

    3.3.3.5

       

    RULES

    • The term in sequence number 1 is automatically flagged "preferred" by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag and sequence numbers accordingly.

     

         

    3.3.4

       

    Qualifier

         

    3.3.4.1

       

    Definition
    Word or phrase used primarily to distinguish between homographs.

         

    3.3.4.2

       

    Values
    Qualifier is a free-text field.

         

    3.3.4.3

       

    Discussion
    A homograph is a term that is spelled like another term, but the meanings of the terms are different. In a dictionary, homographs are listed under a single heading, with several definitions listed (e.g., in a dictionary, drum would be listed as a noun, with several definitions). In a thesaurus, each homographic term is in a separate record. The use of homographic terms in a thesaurus requires clarification of their meaning through use of a qualifier (a gloss in linguistic jargon). A qualifier is a word or words used with the term to make the specific meaning unambiguous.

    • In the AAT, the qualifier is recorded in a separate Qualifier field. The qualifier is displayed in parentheses to the right of the term when the AAT is published.

      [in VCS]
     
         

    [in a published display]

         

    3.3.4.4

       

    RULES

           

    3.3.4.4.1

       

    Minimum requirements
    Where necessary as described below, create a qualifier to disambiguate homographs or to clarify an ambiguous term (the latter is rarely needed).

       » Qualifiers for homographs

    If a term is a homograph to another AAT term, it is required to add a qualifier for both terms to distinguish them. Qualifiers may refer to the broader context of the term or another significant distinguishing characteristic. In the examples below, scope notes are included to explain the differences in meaning.

        • Examples
        • Term: drums Qualifier: walls
          Descriptive/Scope Note: The vertical walls, circular or polygonal in plan, that carry a dome.

        • Term: drums Qualifier: column components
          Descriptive/Scope Note: Cylinders of stone that form the shaft of a column.

        • Term: drums Qualifier: membranophones
          Descriptive/Scope Note: Membranophones with a resonating cavity covered at one or both ends by a membrane, which is sounded by striking, rubbing, or plucking.

    • If the terms differ in capitalization or punctuation but are otherwise spelled the same, add qualifiers.

        • Examples
        • Term: Mbulu Qualifier: Central Tanzanian styles
        • Term: mbulu Qualifier: reliquary figures

    • Homographs and their qualifiers may occur with descriptors, alternate descriptors, or used for terms.
     
           
         

       » Qualifiers for clarification

    Add qualifiers if the term has a homograph that is a common term in general usage, even if the homograph does not appear in the AAT. If you suspect that such a qualifier is necessary, consult with your supervisor.

        • Example
        • Terms:
          developing Qualfier: photograph
          developed Qualifier: photography
          development Qualifier: photography
           
       
    • Do not use a qualifier to represent a compound concept. For example, NOT records (phonograph); instead, make the term phonograph records. NOT pipes (plastic), instead pipes (conduits) and plastic are two separate AAT terms that may be combined by end users in a local precoordinated or postcoordinated term.
           

    3.3.4.4.2

       

    Creating a qualifier
    In creating a qualifier, remember that the purpose of the qualifier is to clarify an ambiguous term for the user; it is not intended to define or give more specificity to the term.

       » Brevity

    Make the qualifier as brief as possible, ideally consisting of one word. Two or more words may be used if necessary.

       » Language

    Make the qualifier in the language of the term, if known. Qualifiers may be expressed in English as a temporary solution if language expertise is lacking.

    Exceptions where a permanent qualifier is in one language and the term is in another include the case when the source of the qualifier term (parent or the descriptor, when appropriate) is a loan word in another language (e.g., for miracolos, Qualifier: ex-votos).

       » Grammatical form

    If possible, create a qualifier with the same grammatical form as the term.

        • Examples
          [noun]
        • Term: workshops Qualifier: seminars

          [gerund]
        • Term: pickling Qualifier: woodworking

       » Broader term

    For descriptors, use the broader term as the qualifier, if possible. If the immediate broader term is too long, not clear, or otherwise inappropriate, choose a term or a word in a term higher up in the hierarchy.

        • Examples



    • If the homograph has multiple parents, include a reference to both in the qualifier, if necessary.

        • Example
          [for chapels, which is under both rooms/spaces and single built works]
        • Term: chapels Qualifier: rooms or structures

       » Descriptor qualifier for UF

    For used for terms, qualify the term with its descriptor, if appropriate.

        • Example
        • Terms:
          maps (preferred, descriptor)
          charts (used for) Qualifier: maps
         
           
       

       » Other types of qualifiers

    Always be clear and unambiguous. If using a word or words from a parent or the descriptor will not result in the homographs being unambiguously distinct when displayed together, create another qualifier that will disambiguate them. Use the scope note to find a distinguishing characteristic of the two terms.

    • In the first example below, if the descriptor (reredoses, which is a term unknown to most users) or a parent (altarpieces, but the second rebablos also can be an altarpiece) were made the qualifier, the UF retablos would still be confused with the second record, where the descriptor is retablos. Therefore, the qualifier screens has been chosen, because this characteristic is what makes the homographs distinct: one is a screen, while the other is a smaller scale panel painting.
        • Example

     

       » Living Organisms

    For the scientific term of a living organism, include a qualifier in the Qualifier field indicating the level of the term: family, genus, species (e.g., Felis domesticus (species)). For extinct animals and plants, qualifiers should be extinct genus or extinct species.

     

         

    3.3.5

       

    Sequence Number (required-default)

         

    3.3.5.1

       

    Definition
    The Display Order number (or Sort Order number) indicating the sequence of the term in relation to the other terms of a subject record.

         

    3.3.5.2

       

    Values
    System generated, but the numbers may be changed by the editor. Values begin with 1 and are numbered sequentially; there is no upper limit imposed by the system.

         

    3.3.5.3

       

    Discussion
    Most records have only 1 to 5 terms. It would be highly unusual to require more than 15 terms for an AAT concept. If you need to add more than that, consult your supervisor.

         

    3.3.5.4

       

    RULES

    • Number the terms in sequence. Do not skip numbers. Arrange the terms in a logical order.

    • The term in sequence number 1 must be the subject default Preferred term and a descriptor.

    • After the Preferred term, list the American English alternate descriptor, if any.

    • Then list the inverted form of the preferred term descriptor, if any.

    • Position all of the natural order American English terms at the top.

    • Next, position the terms in British English, if any.

    • Next, position the terms in other languages, if any. Descriptors of any language should go above all other terms in that language. After the descriptor in a language, position the alternate descriptor. After that, place used for terms in alphabetical order. Keep terms for any one language together.

    • Next, position historical terms, if any. Historical terms, if any, should always follow all of the current terms. Place historical terms in reverse chronological order, if known.

    • Position other inverted-order terms, if any, at the bottom of the list.
     
         

    [as displayed in term data entry and term sort windows in VCS]

     

     

       

     

    3.3.6

       

    Historical Flag (required-default)

         

    3.3.6.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating the historical status of the term.

         

    3.3.6.2

       

    Values
    Values are derived from a controlled list: B - Both, C - Current, H - Historical, NA ? Not Applicable.

         

    3.3.6.3

       

    Sources
    Editors should use standard, authoritative sources in determining whether or not a term is historical.

         

    3.3.6.4

       

    RULES

    • Current: The default flag is Current. Most terms in the AAT will be current. If the term is currently in use, the flag should be set to Current. terms found in dictionaries and encyclopedia are almost always Current, unless otherwise indicated.

    • Historical: If the term was used in the past but is not used currently, set the flag to Historical.

    • Both: A term may occasionally be Both historical and current, generally when a loanword or obsolete spelling was formerly used in English, and this same spelling is now a current spelling in another language. If you feel you have such a situation, consult with your supervisor.
        • Example
     
         
    • Not Applicable: This is used only for facets or temp.parents and other non-published records. Do not use it in any other situation.

    • Unknown: This is used primarily for data loaded from contributors. Editors should avoid using it if possible.

     

         

    3.3.7

       

    Term Type (required-default)

         

    3.3.7.1

       

    Definition
    Indicates the type of term, described with specialized terminology used in thesauri.

         

    3.3.7.2

       

    Values
    Values are derived from a controlled list: D - Descriptor, AD - Alternate Descriptor, UF - Used for term.

         

    3.3.7.3

       

    RULES

    • Descriptor: The descriptor is the term that will be used by default in displays. The preferred term, in term position number 1, must be a Descriptor; every record must have a preferred term descriptor. The preferred term is the term used most often in American English (see Preferred term above).

      • If there are terms in British English or other languages, flag the preferred term in that language as a Descriptor (if you know which term is preferred in that language). There may be only one descriptor per language in the record. If you do not have enough information to know if the foreign language term is a descriptor for that language, flag it as a used for term.

    • Alternate descriptor: If the term has a different grammatical form than the descriptor, such as a singular noun (when the descriptor is plural) or possessive, or otherwise as described above under Non-preferred terms: Alternate descriptors, flag it as an Alternate Descriptor.

    • Used for term: For all terms that are not descriptors or alternate descriptors, flag them as used for terms.

     

    3.3.8

       

    Part of Speech (required-default)

           

    3.3.8.1

       

    Definition
    Indicates the category into which the term would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context.

           

    3.3.8.2

       

    Values
    Values are derived from a controlled list:

    U = Undetermined
    N = Noun
    PN = Plural Noun
    SN = Singular Noun
    B = Both Singular and Plural
    PP = Past Participle
    VN = Verbal Noun/Gerund/Verb
    A = Adjectival/Possessive

           

    3.3.8.3

       

    RULES

    • The primary purpose of this flag is to distinguish plural noun descriptors from singular noun alternate descriptors; the highest priority in using this field is to flag plural and singular nouns. These flags allow end-users to extract via algorithm plural terms for indexing (used by libraries) and singular terms for displays (used by museums, who also often index with the singular form too).

    • Flagging adjectival forms is encouraged, as time and editorial priorities allow, since this may assist end-users in constructing modified descriptors (e.g., Baroque costume). Other parts of speech may also be flagged.

    •  Even though some values in this controlled list are not actually parts of speech (e.g. plural noun), per se, the field is called Part of Speech.

    • For discussion concerning which parts of speech should be used in which facets, see 3.1.1.6.5: Determining levels of the hierarchy.

    • Undetermined: Undetermined is the default value for this field. The Descriptor and Alternate Descriptor must have a correct part of speech flagged, however, other terms may have the value Undetermined. If you are not certain of the part of speech of a given term, leave the value set to undetermined. New bulk-loaded data often has the part of speech flag set to Undetermined.

    • Noun: If you know the term is a noun but are uncertain if it is a plural or singular noun, set the value to Noun.

    • Plural Noun: Use this value for Descriptors or Alternate Descriptors that are plural nouns, such as paintings or rhyta. You may also flag UFs, if time and editorial priorities allow. A term may be the singular in one language, but the plural in another language; for example filigrane is the Italian plural but the French singular for watermarks.

    • Singular Noun: Use this value for Descriptors or Alternate Descriptors that are singular nouns, such as painting or rhyton. You may also flag UFs, if time and editorial priorities allow. A term may be the singular in one language, but the plural in another language.

    • Both Singular and Plural Noun: Use this value where the Descriptor or another term is used for both the singular and plural nouns, for example, the French term chassis is both singular and plural.

    • Past Participle: Do not use this value without first checking with your supervisor. This value will rarely be used, but if at all, is most likely to apply in Attributes and Properties. If a term is a past participle that is used as an adjective, such as hand-painted, flag it as Adjectival/Possessive, because this indicates that the term may be combined with other terms in post-coordinated compound terms.

    • Verbal Noun/Gerund/Verb: Use this value for terms that are verbal nouns, including gerunds, such as polishing. Even if the verbal noun may be combined with other terms in post-coordination and modified descriptors, flag it as Verbal Noun/Gerund rather than Adjectival/Possessive (we must make this choice because each term may have only one value assigned for part of speech, although two may actually apply). Verbs may also be marked with this flag, typically used with certain terms in languages other than English.

    • Adjectival/Possessive: The purpose of this value is to flag terms that may be combined with other terms in post-coordinated compound terms (modified descriptors), such as Renaissance or painter’s (as in Renaissance cathedral and painter’s smock). Flag such terms if time and editorial priorities allow.  

           

    3.3.9

       

    Vernacular Flag (required-default)

         

    3.3.9.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating whether or not the term is in the "vernacular" language. Most terms in the AAT are set to Undetermined.

         

    3.3.9.2

       

    Values
    Values are derived from a controlled list: V - Vernacular, O - Other, U ? Undetermined.

         

    3.3.9.3

       

    RULES

    • Vernacular: Currently not used in the AAT.

    • Other: Currently not used in the AAT.

    • Undetermined: This is the default setting for AAT terms. Do not change it without consulting your supervisor.

     

         

    3.3.10

       

    Language for terms (required-default)

         

    3.3.10.1

       

    Definition
    The language of the term. Most terms in the AAT are in English, however if British English spelling differs, American and British spellings should be distinguished. Terms in other languages may also be included. A single term may be spelled the same in multiple languages.

         

    3.3.10.2

       

    Fields

    • 1. Language: Word or words referring to the language of the term.

    • 2. Language Code: Unique code for the language in VCS. Related languages have codes within a given range, to allow retrieval of related languages.

    • 3. Language Preferred Flag: Indicates whether or not this term is the preferred way to refer to the concept in that language.

        • Examples
          [in VCS, term #3 is highlighted]


     
         

    [in an end-user display]
    theaters (preferred, C,U,D,American English-P) 
    theater (C,U,AD,American English)
    theatres (C,U,D,British English-P) 
    theatre (C,U,AD,British English) 
    teatros (C,U,D,Spanish-P)
    teatro (C,U,AD,Spanish)

         

    3.3.10.3

       

    Values
    Controlled by the Languages file (see example below)

        • Example
         

    3.3.10.4

       

    Sources
    New languages may be added to the controlled list only as absolutely necessary. Be certain that the language you need is not already entered in a synonymous form in the controlled list. If you still feel you need to add a language, consult with your supervisor.

    • The primary source for language names in AAT is the following:

        • Brief Citation: Ethnologue (2000)
          Full Citation: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 14th edition. Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2000.

    • If you wish to add a language found in another source, consult with your supervisor.

    • Sources providing information regarding which language the term represents are the following:

      • Language dictionaries, including Cassell's.
      • Encyclopedia Britannica or another authoritative general information resources.
      • Books in a given language, covering the topic described by the term.
         

    3.3.10.5

       

    RULES

    • Flag the appropriate language for every term as your expertise, time, and editorial priorities allow.

    • American and British English: Flag both the American English and British English spellings, if they differ. The preferred term should be the American English spelling. If American and British spellings are identical, flag the terms simply English.

    • Loanwords: For loanwords, which are foreign language words that are used in English rather than an English translation, flag the term as both English and the original language of the term. If the term is the descriptor, flag it as American English or English.

    • Other languages: For terms in other languages that are not loanwords, flag them with the name of the correct language. Note that the term may be spelled the same in multiple languages, and thus there may be multiple languages linked to one term.

      • The Descriptor in a given language should be flagged with the preferred language flag, if known.

    • Data clean up: Note that when the data was loaded into VCS from the old system, all terms not flagged as "UK" terms in the old data were by default flagged as American English in VCS. While this was generally correct, there are many cases where it was incorrect. If you are working on a record where this is an issue, correct the American English used for terms and add the original language for loanwords.
         

    3.3.10.5.1

       

    Uncertainty
    Label a language only if your source indicates what it is. Do not guess.

    • If you are uncertain regarding a specific language, use the broader designation. For example, if your source does not specify if the term is Ancient Latin, Medieval Latin, or Liturgical Latin, but you are positive that it is Latin, use the more general designation Latin.

    • If the term is slang, jargon, or another non-standard word in a given language, explain this in the Display Date and flag it in Other Flags, if appropriate.

        • Example
         

    3.3.10.5.2

       

    Preferred British English term
    It is required to flag the preferred British English term when the spelling differs from American English. Make it a descriptor as well.

        • Example
         

    3.3.10.5.3

       

    Transliterated terms
    Flag the term as representing a particular language, even if the term has been transliterated into the Roman alphabet but the local language is written in another alphabet or writing method.

     

     

         

    3.3.11

       

    Preferred Flag for Language (required-default)

         

    3.3.11.1

       

    Definition
    Flag designating whether or not the term is preferred in that language.

         

    3.3.11.2

       

    Values
    Controlled by a pick list: N - Non Preferred, P - Preferred, U - Undetermined

         

    3.3.11.3

       

    RULES

    • The default for this field is Undetermined. If you have enough information to know, change the flag to Preferred the most commonly used form of the term in a particular language; flag the other terms in that language as Non-preferred.

    • The preferred term for any language must have the Term Type descriptor.

    • There may be only one preferred term per language.

     

    3.3.12

       

    Language Status (required-default)

           

    3.3.12.1

       

    Definition
    Indicates if the term is a loan term from another language, meaning the term in one language is used with little or no change in a second language (e.g., trompe-l'oeil is a French term used in English).

           

    3.3.12.2

       

    Field

    • LanguageStatus: Flag indicating the status of the term as a loan term.
           

    3.3.12.3

       

    Values

    • Controlled values: U = undetermined, N/A = not applicable, L = Loan term. In AAT, the default for this field is Undetermined.
           

    3.3.12.4

       

    RULES

    • This flag is most often used in translations of the AAT, to indicate why there is not a translation for the English term into the second language. You may also use it as appropriate for true loan terms in the existing AAT.

    • Caveat: Do not use this flag for English words that are derived from another language, because common English employs many words that are of French, Latin, or another language derivation. Such words become part of the English language over time, and are no longer loan words. A clue in recognizing true loan terms is that they are generally printed in italics in texts, while English words that were originally derived from another language are not italicized in texts. In some cases, the singular may be a loan word, but the plural in English is formed according to the rules of the other language, but by adding an “s” to the term; this plural with an “s” is NOT a loan term.

    • For example, rhyta is a loan term (English descriptor), the transliterated plural of a Greek word; rhyton, the singular (English AD),is  also a loan term. However, sometimes in English the plural is formed with an “s,” rhytons (English UF); rhytons is NOT a loan term, but being used as an English word. Another example is the German term Sturzbecher. The term is also spelled in English with a lower case initial “S”, sturzbecher, with the lowercase “s” is no longer a German loan term, because in German nouns must be capitalized.

    • When in doubt, do NOT flag the term as a loan term.

    3.3.13

       

    Contributor for Term (required-default)

         

    3.3.13.1

       

    Definition
    A reference to the institution or project that contributed the Term.

         

    3.3.13.2

       

    Fields

    • Brief Name: An acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution.

    • Full Name: A full version of the name of the contributing institution or project.
         

    3.3.13.3

     

     

    Values
    Controlled by a link to a file of controlled terminology; the list changes as new contributors are added.

        • Example
         

    3.3.13.4

       

    Sources
    Use correspondence with an official representative of the institution or current, official publications of the contributing institution, including the official Web site of the institution.

    • If the institution does not have an official acronym, consult with your supervisor when creating a Brief Name.

    • Make sure that the Brief and Full Names for the same contributor are the same in all three Vocabularies. Give the contributors the same or similar numeric codes in all three vocabularies (the AAT codes are a different range than ULAN or TGN, but the last 3 or 4 digits should be the same in all three databases).
         

    3.3.13.5

       

    Discussion
    The Brief Name (acronym, initials, or abbreviated term of the institution) appears in the place record. The Full Name is linked to the Brief Name in displays for the end users.

    • Currently in the AAT, the Vocabulary Program (VP) is the contributor for most of the records, because prior to the installation of the new Loader of VCS, the VP entered all of the data by hand.
         

    3.3.13.6

       

    RULES

    • The following are rules for assigning a contributor to a term (not for adding contributors' names to the controlled Contributor list).

    • The default Contributor is VP (Vocabulary Program). Editors may change contributors' initials only in very rare cases. If you feel it is necessary to change a link from one contributor to another, consult with your supervisor.

    • If you are adding data by hand, even if the data was given to you in a printout or other form by an institution or project that is a "contributor," the contributor for the term should be VP because the Vocabulary Program is actually entering the data (and thus some amount of interpretation is going on). To give credit to the contributing project, for the Source of the term, link to a citation for the contributing institution or project.

        • Example
          [Contributor for term #16 is VP, not BHA; this is because VP editors entered the term by hand into VCS; the data was not "loaded"]
     
         
    • For data that is loaded into VCS, contributors' names will be linked to the term and other data in the record at the time when the data is loaded into VCS; the link to the contributors' acronym in such cases virtually never needs to be changed.

     

         

    3.3.14

       

    Preferred Flag for Contributor (required-default)

         

    3.3.14.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating whether the term is the one preferred by the contributor or a non-preferred term from the contributor.

         

    3.3.14.2

       

    Values
    The values are derived from a controlled list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred.

         

    3.3.14.3

       

    Discussion
    In the legacy data (i.e., the data ported from the old AAT system), all preferred terms are flagged Preferred for the contributor VP.

         

    3.3.14.4

       

    RULES

    • Flag one and only one VP-preferred term for each record. Each contributor may have only one preferred term per subject record.

    • The VP-preferred term should be the same term as the overall Preferred term (American English descriptor) for the record.

    • The default flag for a new variant term in VCS is Non-preferred. If you are adding the preferred term for VP, change the flag to Preferred (which swaps the term to the Preferred position, sequence no. 1).

    • For contributed data, the flag is set when the data is loaded. Editors rarely have to change this flag on data loaded from contributors. If you feel you should do so, please consult with your supervisor. Note that there may be one and only one preferred term for each contributor per record.

     

         

    3.3.15

       

    Sources for Terms (required)

         

    3.3.15.1

       

    Definition
    A reference to the sources used as warrant for the term, typically a published source.

         

    3.3.15.2

       

    Fields

    • Brief Citation: A brief reference to the source. See Appendix C: Citations.

    • Full Citation: A full citation for the source, including the author's name, title, and place and date of publication. See Appendix C: Citations.
         

    3.3.15.3

       

    Values
    Sources for the citations are the title pages of the works.

    • Values are controlled by the Sources file in VCS. A source must be added to the Source file in order to be used in (linked to) the Subject (place) record. For a discussion of how to add sources to the Sources file, see Appendix C: Citations.

    • For a discussion of which sources are considered authoritative as warrant for specific types of terms, see terms above.

        • Examples
         

    3.3.15.4

       

    Discussion
    The source file is linked to terms, the Descriptive (Scope) Note, and the Subject (refers to "subject as a whole," meaning for any information in the record other than term or Descriptive/Scope Note).

    • Sources for terms include authoritative publications, museum and university Web sites, and contributor databases. Other sources may be other published thesauri and vocabulary lists, books on the history of art and architecture, journal articles, newspaper articles, and catalog records of repositories of art objects.
         

    3.3.15.5

       

    RULES

    • It is required to cite the sources used for the term.

    • The preferred term must have three sources. Other terms require one authoritative source. Terms in inverted order may be constructed by the Vocabulary Program editor as necessary; you need not find sources for both the natural order and inverted order forms of the same term.

    • In the Page Field, it is required to cite the page number, volume, date of accessing a Web site, or other appropriate indication of the specific location where the term was found in the source.

    • If there are multiple editions or multiple publication dates for a source, link to the specific source that you are using.

    • Link to the source only if the term is transcribed exactly as found in that source, including word order and punctuation.

      • In specific rare cases, as when the term in the source contradicts AAT editorial rules (e.g., in the source, the term is inverted or in all caps, or the source lists a heading instead of a term per se), the source may be linked even though the term entered in AAT does not match it exactly (but do not mark this term as the preferred term for that source). See instructions at Terms above and Preferred Flag for Source below.

        • For rules for constructing Brief and Full Citations, see Appendix C: Citations. The Brief Citation should be a short reference to the source. The Full Citation is full reference to the published or unpublished work.
         

    3.3.15.5.1

       

    Preferred sources
    Published sources of information for concepts in this authority include the following:

      • Major dictionaries and encyclopedia.

      • Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress Authorities. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, http://authorities.loc.gov/.

      • Library of Congress. Thesaurus for Graphic Materials 2, Genre and Physical Characteristics. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm2/.

      • Chenhall, Robert G., Revised Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging : A Revised and Expanded Version of Robert G. Chenhall's System for Classifying Man-Made works . Edited by James R. Blackaby, Patricia Greeno, and the Nomenclature Committee. Nashville, Tennessee: AASLH Press, 1988.

      • Genre terms. Prepared by the Bibliographic Standards Committee of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section (ACRL/ALA). 2nd ed. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 1991.

      • Paper terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. Prepared by the Bibliographic Standards Committee of the Rare Book and Manuscripts Section (ACRL/ALA). Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 1990.

      • Mayer, Ralph, Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. 5th ed., rev. and updated by Steven Sheehan. New York: Viking, 1991.

      • Oxford Companion to Art. Harold Osborne, ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996 (17th impression, originally published in 1970).

       » How to choose the preferred source

    Typically, sources for terms in AAT should be chosen in the following general order of preference:

    • Standard general reference sources
      • major authoritative dictionaries of the English language, including Webster's, Random House, American Heritage, and the Oxford English Dictionary (for the OED, be aware that words may be spelled differently in American English).
      • encyclopedia
      • dictionaries in languages other than English
      • LC term Authority Headings

    • Other authoritative sources
      • other authoritative thesauri and controlled vocabularies
      • textbooks, such as Gardner and Janson

    • Other material on pertinent topics
      • books, journal articles, and newspaper articles
      • archives, historical documents, and other original sources (for historical terms only)

    • Other sources
      • databases of contributors
      • articles or databases on museum or university Web sites

    • For the preferred term and other information, prefer the most current and authoritative sources in a given situation.

       » Sources for Color

    Preferred terms for color names are drawn from the Universal Color Language (UCL), as found in Kenneth L. Kelly and Deane B. Judd, Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Color Names, (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1976).

    • Variant color names from other well-known color-order systems and methods of designating color are provided as non-preferred terms to their corresponding UCL color names. Centroid color numbers, which refer the user to the appropriate color-blocks on the Inter-Society Color Council and National Bureau of Standards color-name charts given in the Dictionary of Color Names are also provided as non-preferred descriptors. The charts supply the range of Munsell notations for each block; however, a user who needs to describe the color of an item in hand very precisely is advised to consult the Munsell Book of Color, (Baltimore: Munsell Color Company, 1976) to make comparison with the given samples in order to determine the specific notation.

       » Sources for Living Organisms

    Editors should not add levels above family. If an order (the level above family) is missing, consult with your supervisor. Sources for the preferred scientific names of family, genus, and species should be standard general reference works, not necessarily the latest specialist literature of the discipline. Reason is, the classification of animals and plants is constantly in flux among professionals in the field, and it is out of scope for the AAT to keep up to date with the latest research in this area; the AAT focuses on terms necessary to catalog art.

    Always prefer the Encyclopedia Britannica Online for the structure of the hierarchy at the levels of family-genus-species. If various articles in the EB disagree, consult with your supervisor.

    Use the following for the names of plants, listed in order of preference:

    • Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
      www.britannica.com/
    • National Center for Biotechnology Information (2008)
      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi
    • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (2005-)
      www.itis.gov/
    • International Plant Names Index (2005-)
      www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do
    • Index to Organism Names
      www.organismnames.com/
    • USDA Plants (2008)
      plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASA10
    • Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) (common names)
      www.oed.com/

    Use the following for the names of animals, listed in order of preference:

    • Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
      www.britannica.com/
    • National Center for Biotechnology Information (2008)
      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi
    • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (2005-)
      www.itis.gov/
    • Animal Diversity Web (1995-)
      animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/
    • Index to Organism Names (2001-)
      www.organismnames.com/
    • Wilson and Reeder, Mammal Species of the World. John Hopkins University Press (2005)
    • Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) (common names)
      www.oed.com/

    Note that Animal Diversity Web is a wiki product; however, it is constructed and monitored by university professors and students, which makes it more reliable than most wikis. Do not use Wikipedia as a source. You may use Wikipedia to clarify information you have found elsewhere or provide citations to authoritative sources.

       » Unpublished sources

    If there is no published source for a preferred term, place the record under a temp.parent pending further documentation of the term in the future. Remember that there must be two published sources for any descriptor, and the third source may be the contributor's database.

       » Constructed terms

    Occasionally, terms are constructed by the Vocabulary Program in order to create terms that conform to certain editorial rules (e.g., for creating inverted terms, such as "towers, clock"). The linked source for constructed terms should be the following:

    Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program.
    Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.

       » Terms from a database

    If terms are taken out of a contributor's database, special citations are used to refer to the database. Generally, these citations are attached to terms when the records are loaded, thus the editors need not be concerned with them. However, if you are entering terms by hand that have been derived from a contributors' data base, consult with your supervisor regarding which citation to use to refer to the database. (Note that the Contributor in this situation will be VP, not the contributing project's acronym. See Contributor above.)

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: BHA, Authority file (1973-)
          Full Citation: J. Paul Getty Trust. Bibliography of the History of Art. Authority file. [unpublished database] Los Angeles, 1973.
         

    3.3.15.5.2

       

    Citing Sources
    Brief rules for citing sources appear below. For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Citations.

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: Swank, Pennsylvania Germans (1983)
          Full Citation: Swank, Scott T. Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans. 1st ed. New York: Published for the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum by W. W. Norton and Company, 1983.

        • Brief Citation: USBGN Bulletin, no. 22 (2000)
        • Full Citation: United States Board on Geographic terms. Foreign terms Information Bulletin: 22. Washington, DC: National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2000.

       » Full Citations

    For the Full Citations, follow Chicago Manual of Style, 13th edition citation style for the humanities and social sciences. Consult the style sheet in Appendix C.2 for more detailed information.

       » Brief Citations

    A brief citation is a shortened form of the full citation, used for display in the term record (e.g. Webster's 9th New Collegiate Dictionary (1985); Janson, History of Art, 3rd ed. (1986)). It must be unique so as to accurately identify one particular source as distinct from all others, including different works having the same title and different editions of the same work. A brief citation generally consists of the author's last name (if any), a shortened form of the title that includes enough keywords to indicate what the source is about, and the year of publication in parentheses.

       » No author or editor

    If there is no author or editor, record the title as the first element in the Full Citation and Brief Citation.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Anatolian Studies (1951-)
          Full Citation: Anatolian Studies. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1951-.

       » Citing periodical articles

    The order of citation elements for articles is the following: author, article title, periodical title, volume, issue number (if any), page number range, and date. Volume and number are expressed in Arabic numerals, even if Roman numerals are used on the work. Since the volume, number and pages are given in the full citation in the source file, the Page field generally should be left blank.

    » Punctuation

    Volume and issue number are separated by a forward slash (/). Pages are preceded by a colon (:).

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: O'Fahey, Tunjur. Sudan Notes (1980)
          Full Citation: O'Fahey. "The Tunjur: A central Sudanic mystery." Sudan Notes and Records 61:47-52 (Spring 1980).

        • Brief Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Stately homes of Wales. Architectural Planning Research (1993)
        • Full Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Emlyn. "Stately homes of Wales: Their architects and landscapists." Journal of Architectural Planning Research 34/3:18-21 (Fall 1993).

       » Multi-volume works

    For multi-volume works, such as encyclopedias, the brief citation consists of a condensed version of the title of the complete work, followed by the date of publication of the complete work.

    • In the Page field of the AAT concept record, cite the individual essay or article title, volume and page number (see below).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Wilkes and Packard, Encyclopedia of Architecture (1989-1990)
          Full Citation: Wilkes, Joseph A. and Robert T. Packard, eds. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering, and Construction. 5 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989-1990.
          Page: "Apartment buildings, high-rise," 1:219

    • For online encyclopedias, include the URL followed by the date of first access in parentheses at the end of the full citation. Note the article and date of access in the Page Number field (see below).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1994-2002)
          Full Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1994-2002. http://www.eb.com (1 July 1994).

     

         

    3.3.16

       

    Page Number for term Source (required)

        • Examples

    459

    12-34

    title page

    276 ff.

    211-213

    inscription

    6:97

    7:89 ff.

    folio 21, verso

    fiche 2

    index

    accessed 24 April 1998

    map 17

    23, note 2

    10; all-white quilts

    plate 88

    A-54

    "Roman Republic and Empire," accessed 9 July 2002

    glossary

    illustration, 115

    "filet lace," example in usage note, accessed 7 April 2005

         

    3.3.16.1

       

    Definition
    A reference to the volume (if applicable) and page number where the term was found in the source. It may also include other information describing the precise place in the source where the term was found (e.g., title of an article or a URL for an online source).

         

    3.3.16.2

       

    Values
    A free-text field; values may be any ASCII character. No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

         

    3.3.16.3

       

    Discussion
    Page Numbers are also discussed under Page Number for Subject Source and Page Number for Descriptive/Scope Note Source.

         

    3.3.16.4

       

    RULES

    • Although VCS will allow you to save a record without page numbers, it is required to record them when known.

         

    3.3.16.4.1

       

    Pages
    For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, NOT 691-3).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Cambridge World Gazetteer (1988)
          Full Citation: Cambridge World Gazetteer: A Geographical Dictionary. David Munro, ed. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
          Page: 850-852
         

    3.3.16.4.2

       

    Glossaries, indexes, etc.
    "Page" is assumed unless otherwise stated. Therefore, in printed sources, for any reference to a location other than page, clearly indicate the area of the book, using the syntax in the following examples: glossary, title page, index, table of contents, inscription, plate 9, note 132.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Niles, Fancy Work Recreations (1885)
          Full Citation: Niles, Eva M. Fancy Work Recreations: A Complete Guide to Knitting, Crochet, and Home Adornment. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Buckeye Publishing Co., 1885.
          Page: title
         

    3.3.16.4.3

       

    AACR terms/LCSH
    For terms taken from the Library of Congress Subject Headings and flagged with AACR2 flag set to Yes (see AACR2 Flag below), include the full heading in the Page field and the date on which the site was accessed.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Library of Congress Subject Headings
          Full Citation: Library of Congress Authorities. Subject Headings (LCSH). http://authorities.loc.gov/ (13 March 2003).
          Page: Kabre (African people), accessed 8 June 2004
         

    3.3.16.4.4

       

    Multiple pagination schemes
    If a source uses multiple schemes of pagination within the same volume, use the numbering convention of the source, even if this means using Roman numerals or other idiosyncratic pagination systems.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Times Atlas of the World (1999)
          Full Citation: Times Atlas of the World. 10th comprehensive ed. New York: Times Books, 1999.
          Page: xvi
         

    3.3.16.4.5

       

    Folios
    In the rare case when the source has folio numbers instead of pages, include recto or verso (e.g., folio 2, verso).

         

    3.3.16.4.6

       

    Volumes
    If a work is published in volumes, include the volume number and page number. Use Arabic numerals, even if the cited volume actually bears Roman numerals. Note that volumes are listed using the following format: volume number, colon, page numbers (e.g., for volume 3, page 568, it would be 3:568).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967-1979)
          Full Citation: Catholic University of America. New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Publishers Guild in association with McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967-1979. 17 vols.
          Page: 3:568
         

    3.3.16.4.7

       

    Articles
    For newspaper and journal articles, the page number should appear in the Full Citation and need not be repeated in the Page field (e.g., in the example below, the Full Citation includes page number "A3," so the Page Number field is empty).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Cotter, Buddhas of Bamiyan, New York Times (2001)
          Full Citation: Cotter, Holland. "Buddhas of Bamiyan: Keys to Asian History." New York Times (3 March 2001), A3.
          Page:
         

    3.3.16.4.8

       

    Online sources
    Record the date when you consulted the web site in the Page field (e.g., accessed 30 March 2001, illustrated below). For newspapers on the web, cite the date of publication in the Full Citation ("4 April 2002" in the example below), not the Page field. In the Full Citation, include the designation [online], [online database], [online edition], or a similar phrase if the word online does not appear in the title of the document. You generally do not need to include [online] in the Brief Citation, unless necessary to distinguish between two otherwise identical citations.

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: Seized towns, New York Times (2002)
          Full Citation: Agence France-Presse. "Seized Towns: Nablus Makes 8." New York Times [online] (4 April 2002). http://www.nytimes.com (10 April 2002).
          Page: accessed 2 May 2002

        • Brief Citation: Jones, Anzick Site (1997)
          Full Citation: Jones, J. Scott. " Anzick Site: Analysis of a Clovis Burial Assemblage." Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, Department of Anthropology, 1997. [online]. http://osu.orst.edu/dept/anthropology (1 July 1999).
          Page: accessed 30 March 2001
         

    3.3.16.4.9

       

    Encyclopedia and dictionaries
    If the term was the entry form term in the encyclopedia or dictionary do the following: for hard-copy books cite the volume (if applicable) and page number; for online sources, note the access date.

        • Examples
          [for a hard copy source, volume and page number ]
        • Brief Citation: New Encyclopedia Britannica (1988)
          Full Citation: New Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1988 printing. 29 vols. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
          Page: 5:303

          [for an online source]
        • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
          Full Citation: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. http://www.eb.com/ (1 July 2002)
          Page: accessed 2 May 2004

    • If the term you are sourcing is not the entry-form term in the source, in order to unambiguously refer to the entry, do the following:

      • For hard-copy sources (e.g., books), include the entry form term, heading, or title of the entry or article, volume number (if applicable), and page number.

      • For online sources, include the entry form term, heading, or title of the entry or article, and access date.

        • Examples
          [for a hard copy source]
        • Brief Citation: Oxford Companion to Art (1996)
          Full Citation: Oxford Companion to Art. Harold Osborne, ed. Melbourne; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
          Page: "Villes Neuves," 1192

          [for an online source]
        • Brief Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002)
          Full Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art (online edition). Jane Turner, ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1999-2002. http://www.groveart.com (3 December 1999).
          Page: "Egypt, ancient: Canopic jars," accessed 5 August 2002
         

    3.3.16.4.10

       

    When the page number field may be left empty
    The Page Number field may be left empty when an article and page are fully cited in the full citation, when the entry-form term in a hard-copy encyclopedia or dictionary entry is the same as the preferred term in the AAT record, and for references to contributors' databases (unless an access date is applicable) or to the Vocabulary Program's "Term warranted…" reference (below):

        • Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
          Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.
          Page:

     

         

    3.3.17

       

    Preferred Flag for Source (required-default)

         

    3.3.17.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating whether or not this term is the preferred form of the term for this concept in the source.

         

    3.3.17.2

       

    Values
    Controlled by a pick list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred, A - Alternate Preferred, U - Unknown

         

    3.3.17.3

       

    RULES

    • The non-preferred setting is the default for new terms created in VCS. Change this flag if necessary, as described below.

    • Preferred: If the term is preferred by the source, mark the term Preferred for that source. There may be only one term preferred by the source per record. A term is preferred by the source when one of the following is true: it is the primary entry in an index, title, glossary, or table of contents; it is an entry-form term or title term for an entry or article in a dictionary or encyclopedia; it is the term predominantly used in a text.

    • Non-Preferred: Flag the term as a non-preferred term if it is a variant or alternate form of the term for the concept in that source. Sources may indicate this in various ways, including placing the variant term in parentheses after the preferred term, using a phrase such as "also called" or "also spelled" or the like, or noted with a "see" reference back to the preferred term.

    • Alternate Preferred: Flag the term as an Alternate Preferred term if it is apparently preferred equally by the source, for example, if a source is bilingual and both French and English term forms are treated with equal preference.

    • Unknown: Editors should typically not use this flag, because they should be able to make a judgment regarding the term preferred in the source at hand. This flag is primarily used for data loaded from contributors' systems in which the preference was not captured.

     

         

    3.3.18

       

    Dates for terms

         

    3.3.18.1

       

    Definition
    Dates delimiting the time period when the term was used or is still used.

         

    3.3.18.2

       

    Fields

    • 1. Display Date: A free-text field to express nuances of the date to the user; it is indexed by the two indexing fields representing the Start and End Dates implied in the free-text date.
    • 2. Start Date: The exact or estimated earliest year implied in the Display Date.
    • 3. End Date: The exact or estimated latest year implied in the Display Date.

        • Example
          [from the VCS Subject Edit window]
         

    3.3.18.3

       

    Values
    Display Date is a free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

    • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, as controlled by VCS.
         

    3.3.18.4

       

    Sources
    The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the term.

         

    3.3.18.5

       

    Discussion
    There may be a Display Date associated with the term. Although it usually refers to a period or date, the Display Date field may contain notes that do not reference dates per se.

    • Display Dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.
         

    3.3.18.6

       

    RULES

    • In the free-text Display Date field, record a phrase referring to a year, a span of years, or period that describes the specific or approximate date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Index this free-text date with Start and End Dates delimiting the appropriate span.

    • Dates are not required. However, if you enter data in any of the three fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

    • A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Dates, see Appendix B.
         

    3.3.18.6.1

       

    Display Date

       » State only what is known

    Precise date spans for terms are rarely known. Where ambiguity exists, use natural word order to clearly state what is known (and only what is known; do not surmise). Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

        • Example

       
        • Examples
          [for the term "papermarks" in record for descriptor "watermarks"]

        • Display Date: term used prior to ca. 1790
          Start Date: 1285 End Date: 1810

          [for the term "forzieri" in the record for descriptor "cassoni"]
        • Display Date: plural form of the 15th-century term
          Start Date: 1300 End Date: 1900

          [for the term "angel beds," in the record for descriptor "lits d'ange"]
        • Display Date: English 18th-century term
          Start Date: 1700 End Date: 1850

          [for the term "aeronautical views" in the record for descriptor "bird's eye views"]
        • Display Date: term is seldom used now, since it can be confused with "aerial views"
          Start Date: 1800 End Date: 1920

          [for the term "tapissery" in record for descriptor "tapestries"]
        • Display Date: early form of the term, now obsolete
          Start Date: 600 End Date: 1800

          [for the term "Cristes Maesse" in the record for descriptor "Christmas"]
        • Display Date: documented in 1038
          Start Date: 800 End Date: 1400

       » Punctuation

    Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation. If the Display Date could be ambiguous because it contains more than one phrase, separate phrases with a semi-colon for clarity.

        • Example
          [for the term "vie coya," from the record for descriptor "still lifes"]
        • Display Date: French for "silent life"; this French term was later replaced by "nature morte"
          Start Date: 1300 End Date: 1800

       » Capitalization and abbreviation

    Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with the word circa (ca.), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

       » Calendar in Display Date

    Display Dates should generally be listed by reference to years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. If indicated in a source, dates may be expressed according to systems other than the proleptic Gregorian calendar (e.g., Julian, Napoleonic, Islamic, or other calendars). This should be clearly designated, also noting the year in the proleptic Gregorian calendar to avoid end-user confusion (e.g., 946 anno Hegirae (1540 CE)). All dates should be indexed in the Start and End Dates using the proleptic Gregorian calendar for consistency in retrieval.

       » Span of years

    If a precisely delimited span of dates is applicable, list the beginning year of the span first, followed by the end of the span, with the years separated by a hyphen. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., 1921-1924, not 1921-24).

      • Caveat: In the AAT it is unusual for such specific dates to be known. Do not state specific dates in the Display Date if there is broadly defined information, ambiguity, or uncertainty. For example, instead of 1500-1599, use 16th century if that is what is meant.

       » BCE in Display Dates

    Dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar should be indicated as Before Common Era, which should be abbreviated BCE. For dates after the year 1, it is generally not necessary to include the designation CE (Current Era) except where confusion may occur. For example, for very early years CE, especially if a span of dates begins BCE and ends CE, include both BCE and CE in the free-text date (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE). Avoid using BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). Dates BCE should be indexed with negative numbers in Start and End Dates (see below).

       » Uncertain dates

    If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient in the example below) or words such as documented, ca., and probably. Note that the first year when a term was documented is not necessarily the year when the term was first used; therefore, you must create a sufficiently early Start Date.

        • Example
          [for the term "stilleven" in the record for descriptor "still lifes"]
        • Display Date: in use from ca. 1650
          Start Date: 1600 End Date: 9999

       » Periods and dynasties

    For the names of dynasties and other precisely defined periods, include the dates for the period, when known, in parentheses. In the example below, the dates of the Dynasty are the broadest possible dates for the term; parentheses in the Display Date indicate that the dates refer to the dynasty, not specifically to the term.

        • Example

        • Display Date: term used during the Chou Dynasty (1122-255 BCE)
          Start Date: -1122 End Date: -255

       » Acceptable scope of information in the Display Date

    Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date. However, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the term, often referring to the derivation of the term (see the examples above and below); occasionally, it may not even refer to a date per se. However, given that Start and End dates are required for Display Dates, you should have a period or date in mind when you write the Display Date.

        • Examples
          [for the term "Ferris wheels"]
        • Display Date: named for creator George W. Ferris
          Start Date: 1890 End Date: 9999

          [for the term "Copt," in the record for descriptor "Coptic"]
        • Display Date: refers to a person
          Start Date: 1500 End Date: 9999

          [for the term "bureaus" in the record for descriptor "chest of drawers"]
        • Display Date: American usage, European "bureaus" have a surface for writing
          Start Date: 1700 End Date: 9999

       » Dates refer to the term, not to the concept

    Caveat: Note that the dates represent the dates of the usage of the term, not the date of the usage or invention of the object or other concept referred to by the term (e.g., if you were giving dates for the term amphora, the dates would refer to the usage of the term, not to dates of the invention or use of amphorae as objects).

         

    3.3.18.6.2

       

    Start Date and End Date

       » Delimiting the span

    Record years that delimit the span of time when the term was in use, as referenced in the Display Date. It is better to delimit the span too broadly than too narrowly.

    • Start Date must represent some year earlier than or equal to End Date.

       » Do not use punctuation

    Express years without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers (dates BCE).

       » Gregorian calendar

    Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

       » Current terms

    For a term currently in use, use the End Date 9999.

        • Example
          [for term "First Nations" in the record for descriptor "Native Americans"]

        • Display Date: term used by Canadian tribes to refer to the native peoples of the Americas
          Start Date: 1900 End Date: 9999

       » Month and day

    If a specific month and day are referenced in the Display Date, index with the year. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation. The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

        • Example
          [for the term "hormone"]
        • Display Date: coined 20 June 1905 by Ernest Starling, professor and physiologist at University College, London, during a lecture to the Royal College of Physicians
          Start Date: 1905 End Date: 9999

       » Dates BCE

    Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

        • Example
        • Display Date: Roman
          Start Date: -300 End Date: 500

       » Estimating Start and End Dates

    Use available information to estimate Start and End Dates. In many cases, the years will be approximate. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See the Date Authority in Appendix B for approximate dates of historic events and entities; you should also consult other, related records in AAT to establish dates.

    • If a display date is qualified by ca., early in a century, probably, etc., estimate Start and End Dates accordingly.

        • Example
        • Display Date: Roman, used ca. 50 BCE to 5th century CE
          Start Date: -75 End Date: 499

        • Display Date: used from the mid-18th century
          Start Date: 1730 End Date: 9999

    • For a broad designation in the Display Date (e.g., medieval, ancient, or Roman), estimate Start and End Dates based on available information or by referring to Appendix B: Date Authority.

        • Example
          [for the term "kylichnides," in the record for descriptor "pyxides"]

        • Display Date: probably ancient Attic term
          Start Date: -700 End Date: 9999

    • It is rare that the exact date is known for when a term came into use. Use information gathered from authoritative sources to estimate Start and End Dates. Dictionaries such as the OED may provide usage notes documenting the earliest known use of the term.

     

         

    3.3.19

       

    Display term Flag (required-default)

         

    3.3.19.1

       

    Definition
    Flag designating whether or not the term is to be used in natural order displays or in permuted indexes.

         

    3.3.19.2

       

    Values
    Controlled by a pick list: I - Index, NA - Not Applicable, Y - Yes, N - No

         

    3.3.19.3

       

    RULES

    • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if necessary. Most terms in the AAT are currently flagged NA.

    • Index: For the inverted form of the preferred term (the American English descriptor), flag it as Index to indicate that this term may be used in permuted indexes

        • Example
     
         
    • Yes: Whereas display names are common in TGN and ULAN, use of this flag set to Yes is rare in the AAT. Use this flag in the extremely rare event when the AAT term is a display term, that is a term constructed in order to be used in horizontal displays, because when the descriptor (plus qualifier, if any) is used as a parent in horizontal displays, it would be confusing or ambiguous. If you feel you have such a situation, consult with your supervisor. There may be only one term marked Yes per record.

    • No: Do not use this flag unless instructed to do so by your supervisor.

     

           

    3.3.20

       

    AACR Flag (LC heading)

         

    3.3.20.1

       

    Definition
    Flag indicating if the term is the authorized heading in the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

         

    3.3.20.2

       

    Values
    Controlled by a pick list: Y - Yes, NA - Not Applicable

         

    3.3.20.3

       

    Sources
    Library of Congress Authorities. http://authorities.loc.gov/.

         

    3.3.20.4

       

    Discussion
    In a limited number of cases, it is appropriate to consult LC Authorities in finding warrant for certain AAT terms. Note that AAT terms and LC Subject Headings are not identical things, so interpretation is required by AAT editors. Library of Congress subject headings are headings, not terms; they contain a term or terms, but are formed as a heading, not fielded terms per se. In contrast, AAT puts each term in a distinct field (and builds headings by using qualifiers and stringing parents together using algorithms). Therefore, when the AACR2 flag is used, it simply means that the term is the form found in an LC heading, not that the term is the LC heading.

    • When you search the LC Subject Headings, you will typically retrieve many headings that are not terms at all. You must figure out which is the primary heading that contains the term you are trying to verify.

      • For example, the heading Kabre (African people) indicates that the LC Authorities preferred term for this concept is Kabre, and that Kabre are a type of African people (which may be a broader context in the AAT).
         

    3.3.20.5

       

    RULES

    • It is not required to look up the term in LC Subject Authority. However, it is highly recommended to search LC Authorities and set this flag to Yes for the appropriate term.

    • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if the term is the authorized LC heading.

    • Yes: Flag the term as the AACR2 form if the heading in which you found it is noted as an "authorized heading" on the LC Authorities Web site (note that the AACR2 flag indicates the authorized heading, not simply a term formulated using AACR). There should be one and only one term with the AACR2 flag in each record.

        • Example
     
         
    • In the Page field, put the full heading in which you found the term (see Page for term Source above) and the date when you accessed the information (e.g., Kabre (African people), accessed 1 December 2004). Be sure that you are citing the heading for the concept itself, not a heading for some other topic that contains the term (e.g., the heading for the place is Kabre (African people), NOT Kabre (African people) Agriculture, even though the latter heading happens to contain the term in addition to the term "agriculture."

    • If you find other variant terms in the full LC Authority Record and those terms are not already in AAT, add them to AAT, citing the source as Library of Congress Subject Headings, but do not flag the term as the AACR2 form.

     

           

    3.3.21

       

    Other Flags

         

    3.3.21.1

       

    Definition
    Flags designating various special characteristics of the term.

         

    3.3.21.2

       

    Values
    Controlled by a pick list: N/A - Not Applicable
    F - Full term, A - Abbreviation, N - Neologism, J - Jargon, S - Scientific term, C - Common term

         

    3.3.21.3

       

    Sources

    • For Scientific terms, use the name in the approved scientific source for the topic at hand.

    • Neologisms may be found in journal and newspaper articles, as well as in more authoritative sources.
         

    3.3.21.4

       

    RULES

    • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if any of the following apply.

    • Full term: Use for the full form of the term, when the descriptor is a shorter form of the term and/or when the record also contains an abbreviation (e.g., digital versatile discs, compact disks read-only memory).

    • Abbreviation: Use for any abbreviation, initialism, or acronym (e.g., DVD, CD-ROM).

    • Neologism: Use to flag a term that is new to the language, generally having been coined due to new technology (e.g., televillages, recharging stations, cell towers).

    • Jargon: Use to flag a term that is slang or jargon for the descriptor (e.g., whirlybirds is slang for helicopters).

    • Scientific term: Use to flag the preferred scientific term in the record, as appropriate (e.g., Felis domesticus).

    • Common term: Use for records that contain a Scientific term, to flag the preferred common language term for the record (e.g., domestic cat).

     

         

    3.3.22

       

    Assigned To

         

    3.3.22.1

       

    Definition
    Indication of the person assigned to research this term. (Currently not used.)

         

    3.3.22.2

       

    Values
    Free text.

         

    3.3.22.3

       

    Sources
    Editor logins.

             

    3.3.22.4

       

    RULES

    • Do not use this field unless otherwise instructed by your supervisor.

    • See also Assigned To flag for the entire subject record: Chapter 3-8.

     

             
       

    [1] Some of the rules and examples in this chapter are derived from ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005. Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies. Draft Standard. Bethesda, Maryland: NISO Press, February 2005.

    [2]"Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the editor as necessary. Some required-default values are system-generated and may not be edited.

           

    Last updated 11 February 2013
    Document is subject to frequent revisions




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