1. Controlled Vocabularies in Context
2. What Are Controlled Vocabularies?
3. Relationships in Controlled Vocabularies
4. Vocabularies for Cultural Objects
5. Using Multiple Vocabularies
6. Local Authorities
7. Constructing a Vocabulary or Authority
8. Indexing with Controlled
9. Retrieval Using Controlled Vocabularies
Appendix: Selected Vocabularies and Other Sources for Terminology
Selected Bibliography
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Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies

Selected Bibliography

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Aitchison, Jean, Alan Gilchrist, and David Bawden. Thesaurus Construction and Use: A Practical Manual. 4th ed. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2002.

American Library Association. ALA Filing Rules. Chicago: American Library Association, 1980.

Anderson, James D. Guidelines for Indexes and Related Information Retrieval Devices: A Technical Report. Bethesda: National Information Standards Organization, 1997.

ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005: Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies. Bethesda: National Information Standards Organization, 2005.

ANSI/NISO Z39.50-2003: Information Retrieval: Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification. Bethesda: National Information Standards Organization, 2003.

ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2001: Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. Bethesda: National Information Standards Organization, 2001.

Association for Library Collections and Technical Services, Association of College and Research Libraries, and American Library Association. Gearing Up for the Future: The "Art & Architecture Thesaurus" Model for Subject Access. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992.

Baca, Murtha. "Making Sense of the Tower of Babel: A Demonstration Project in Multilingual Equivalency Work." Terminology 4, no. 1 (1997): 105–16.

———. "Practical Issues in Applying Metadata Schemas and Controlled Vocabularies to Cultural Heritage Information." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 36, nos. 3–4 (2003): 47–55.

Baca, Murtha, ed. Introduction to Art Image Access: Issues, Tools, Standards, Strategies. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2002.

———. Introduction to Metadata. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2008. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/.

Baca, Murtha, and Patricia Harpring. Categories for the Description of Works of Art. Rev. ed. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2009. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/cdwa/.

———. "The Getty Vocabularies and Standards: Describing, Cataloging, and Accessing Information about Architecture and Architectural Documents." COMMA: International Journal on Archives (forthcoming).

Baca, Murtha, Patricia Harpring, Elisa Lanzi, Linda McRae, and Ann Baird Whiteside. Cataloging Cultural Objects: A Guide to Describing Cultural Works and Their Images. Chicago: American Library Association, 2006.

Baker, Thomas. "A Grammar of Dublin Core." D-Lib Magazine 6, no. 10 (2000). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october00/baker/10baker.html.

Bales, Kathleen. "The USMARC Formats and Visual Materials." Art Documentation 8, no. 4 (1989): 183–85.

Barry, Randall K., ed. ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for Non-Roman Scripts. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1997.

Bates, Marcia J. "Indexing and Access for Digital Libraries and the Internet: Human, Database, and Domain Factors." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49 (1998): 1185–1205.

Beebe, Caroline. "Image Indexing for Multiple Needs." Art Documentation 19, no. 2 (2000): 16–21.

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Benedetti, Joan M. "Words, Words, Words: Folk Art Terminology—Why It (Still) Matters." Art Documentation 19, no. 1 (2000): 14–21.

Besser, Howard. Introduction to Imaging. 2nd ed. Edited by Sally Hubbard and Deborah Lenert. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2003. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/introimages/.

Blum, F. "Art & Architecture Thesaurus." Book review. Choice 28 (1990): 603.

Bold, John, and Robin Thornes. Documenting the Cultural Heritage. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 1998.

Borgman, Christine L. From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000.

BS 1749:1985: British Standard Alphabetical Arrangement Filing Order of Numerals and Symbols. London: BSI Group, 1985.

BS 8723-1:2005, BS 8723-2:2005, BS 8723-3:2007, BS 8723-4:2007: Structured Vocabularies for Information Retrieval. London: BSI Group, 2005–7.

Canow, Joanne, David Kerr, and Patricia Whittaker. Faceted Classification, A Group Perspective: History, Current and Future Applications. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia, 2002.

CDWA Lite: XML Schema Content for Contributing Records via the OAI Harvesting Protocol. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2005. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/cdwa/cdwalite.html.

Chen, Hsin-Liang, and Edie M. Rasmussen. "Intellectual Access to Images." Library Trends 48 (1999): 291–302.

Craven, Tim. Thesaurus Construction: An Introductory Tutorial. London, Ont.: Univ. of Western Ontario, 2002.

Dewey, Melvil. Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index. Edited by Joan S. Mitchell et al. 4 vols. Albany, N.Y.: Forest, 1996.

Getty Vocabulary Program. Editorial Guidelines. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2003–. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/editorial_guidelines.html.

Greenberg, Jane. "Intellectual Control of Visual Archives: A Comparison between the Art & Architecture Thesaurus and the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1993): 85–117.

Harpring, Patricia. "The Architectural Subject Authority of the Foundation for Documents of Architecture." Visual Resources 7 (1990): 55–63.

———. Brief Rules: Training Manual for Contributors. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2007. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/brief_vocab_training_manual.pdf.

———. "Can Flexibility and Consistency Coexist? Issues in Indexing, Mapping, and Displaying Museum Information." Spectra (The Journal of the Museum Computer Network) 26, no. 1 (1999): 33–35.

———. "Contributing to the Getty Vocabularies." VRA Bulletin (forthcoming).

———. "The Getty Cultural Objects Name Authority (CONA)." Art Documentation (forthcoming).

———. "How Forcible Are Right Words!: Overview of Applications and Interfaces Incorporating the Getty Vocabularies." Museums and the Web 1999: Selected Papers. Pittsburgh: Archives & Museum Informatics, 1999. http://www.archimuse.com/mw99/papers/harpring/harpring.html.

———. "The Limits of the World: Theoretical and Practical Issues in the Construction of the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names." In ICHIM 97: Fourth International Conference on Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums: Proceedings, 237–51. Paris: Archives & Museum Informatics, 1997.

———. "Proper Words in Proper Places: The Thesaurus of Geographic Names." MDA Information 2, no. 3 (1997): 5–12.

———. "Resistance Is Futile: Inaccessible Networked Information Made Accessible Using the Getty Vocabularies." In ASIS Annual Conference Proceedings, 838. Silver Spring, Md.: American Society for Information Science, 1999.

———. "The Role of Metadata Standards in Mapping Art Information: The Visual Resources Perspective." VRA Bulletin 27, no. 4 (2000): 71–76.

Helmer, John F. "Art & Architecture Thesaurus." Book review. Art Documentation 10, no. 1 (1991): 41–42.

Hourihane, Colum. Subject Classification for Visual Collections: An Inventory of Some of the Principal Systems Applied to Content Description in Images. VRA Special Bulletin 12. Columbus: Visual Resources Association, 1999.

International Terminology Working Group, sponsored by the Getty Information Institute. Guidelines for Forming Language Equivalents: A Model Based on the "Art & Architecture Thesaurus." Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 1998.

ISO 2788:1986: Documentation—Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, 1986.

ISO 8879:1986: Information Processing—Text and Office Systems—Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, 1986.

ISO 5964:1985: Documentation—Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, 1985.

ISO/CD 25964-1: Information and Documentation—Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies—Part 1: Thesauri for Information Retrieval. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, forthcoming.

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998: Information Technology—8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets—Part 1: Latin Alphabet No. 1. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, 1986.

ISO/IEC 10646:2003: Information Technology—Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization, 2003.

Jackman-Schuller, Carol E. "Words, Words, Words: Managing the Wealth of the AAT—Early Efforts at Implementation." Art Documentation 9, no. 2 (1990): 75–76.

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Lanzi, Elisa. "The Linguistic Challenge of a Multilingual AAT." Art Documentation 14, no. 2 (1995): 19.

Lanzi, Elisa, ed. Introduction to Vocabularies: Enhancing Access to Cultural Heritage Information. 2nd ed. Edited by Patricia Harpring. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2000. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/introvocabs/.

Lee-Smeltzer, Kuang-Hwei (Janet). "Finding the Needle: Controlled Vocabularies, Resource Discovery, and Dublin Core." Library Collections, Acquisitions and Technical Services 24 (2000): 205–15.

Leise, Fred, Karl Fast, and Mike Steckel. "All about Facets and Controlled Vocabularies." Boxes and Arrows (9 December 2002). http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/all_about_facets_controlled_vocabularies.

———. "Synonym Rings and Authority Files." Boxes and Arrows (26 August 2003). http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/synonym_rings_and_authority_files.

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———. Library of Congress Subject Headings: Principles of Structure and Policies for Application. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1990–2001. http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/shed0014.htm.

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Molholt, Patricia, and Toni Petersen. "The Role of the Art & Architecture Thesaurus in Communicating about Visual Art." Knowledge Organization 20 (1993): 30–34.

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Note: All Web sites were accessed on 1 May 2009.