Subject Access to Art Images
The Language of Images
It Begins with the Cataloguer
The Image User and the Search for Images
Annoted List of Tools
Selected Bibliography
Illustration Credits
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Introduction to Art Image Access

Selected Bibliography

Alexander, Kirk. "The Visualization of Art History: The Role of the Database in Visual Thinking." Visual Resources 13, nos. 3 –4 (1998): 285–97.

Angeles, Michael. "Information Organization and Information Use of Visual Resources Collections." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 25, no. 3 (1998): 51–58.

Baca, Murtha. "Evaluating the Use of Controlled Vocabularies on the VISION Project." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 27, no. 1 (2000): 44–49.

---. "A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Metadata for Art Objects and Their Visual Surrogates." In Wayne Jones, Judith R. Ahronheim, and Josephine Crawford, eds., Cataloging the Web: Metadata, AACR, and Marc21. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2001.

---, ed. Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information. Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998. Version 2.0 available only on the World Wide Web at <http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata>.

Bates, Marcia J. "How to Use Controlled Vocabularies More Effectively in Online Searching." Online 12, no. 6 (1988): 45–56.

---. "Learning about the Information Seeking of Interdisciplinary Scholars and Students." Library Trends 45, no. 2 (1996): 155–64.

Bates, Marcia J., Deborah N. Wilde, and Susan Siegfried. "An Analysis of Search Terminology Used by Humanities Scholars: The Getty Online Searching Project Report Number 1." Library Quarterly 63, no. 1 (1993): 1–39.

Beebe, Caroline. "Image Indexing for Multiple Needs." Art Documentation 19, no. 2 (2000): 16–21.

Bell, Lesley Ann. "Gaining Access to Visual Information: Theory, Analysis, and Practice of Determining Subjects—A Review of the Literature with Descriptive Abstracts." Art Documentation 13, no. 2 (1994): 89–94.

Bradfield, Valerie. "Slides and Their Users: Thoughts Following a Survey of Some Slide Collections in Britain." Art Libraries Journal 2, no. 3 (1977): 4–21.

Chamis, Alice Yanosko. Vocabulary Control and Search Strategies in Online Searching. New York: Greenwood, 1991.

Dempsey, Lorcan, and Rachel Heery. "Metadata: A Current View of Practice and Issues." Journal of Documentation 54, no. 2 (1998): 145–72.

Evans, Hilary. The Art of Picture Research: A Guide to Current Practice, Procedure, Techniques and Resources. Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles, 1979.

---. Picture Librarianship. New York: K. G. Saur, 1980.

Fidel, Raya. "Who Needs Controlled Vocabulary?" Special Libraries 83, no. 1 (1992): 1–9.

Fidel, Raya, Trudi Bellardo Hahn, Edie M. Rasmussen, and Philip J. Smith, eds. Challenges in Indexing Electronic Text and Images. Medford, N.J.: published for the American Society for Information Science by Learned Information, 1994.

Forsyth, David A., et al. "Finding Pictures of Objects in Large Collections of Images." In P. Bryan Heidorn and Beth Sandore, eds., Digital Image Access and Retrieval. Urbana: Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.

Fox, Michael J., and Peter L. Wilkerson. Introduction to Archival Organization and Description: Access to Cultural Heritage. Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998. Also available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/introarchives>.

Gordon, Catherine. "Patterns and Benefits of Subject Enquiry in an ICONCLASS Database (Abstract)." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 23, no. 2 (1996): 22.

Greenberg, Jane. "Intellectual Control of Visual Archives: A Comparison between the Art & Architecture Thesaurus and the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1993): 85–117.

Haber, Ralph Norman. "How We Remember What We See." Scientific American, May 1970, 104–12.

Harpring, Patricia. "Can Flexibility and Consistency Coexist? Issues in Indexing, Mapping, and Displaying Museum Information." Spectra 26, no. 1 (1999): 33–35.

---. "The Role of Metadata Standards in Mapping Art Information: The Visual Resources Perspective." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 27, no. 4 (2000): 71–76.

Harrison, Helen P., ed. Picture Librarianship. Phoenix: Oryx, 1981.

Hourihane, Colum. Subject Classification for Visual Collections: An Inventory of Some of the Principal Systems Applied to Content Description in Images. Visual Resources Association Special Bulletin, no. 12. Columbus, Ohio: Visual Resources Association, 1999.

Hutchins, W. J. "The Concept of 'Aboutness' in Subject Indexing." In Karen Sparck Jones and Peter Willett, eds., Readings in Information Retrieval . San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1997.

Jörgensen, Corinne. "Indexing Images: Testing an Image Description Template." Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science Annual Meeting 33 (1996): 209–13. Also available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.asis.org/annual-96/ElectronicProceedings/jorgensen.html>.

---, ed. "Perspectives on Image Access: Bridging Multiple Needs and Multiple Perspectives." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 52, no. 11 (2001): 905–79.

Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval. 2d ed. Arlington, Va.: Information Resources Press, 1986.

Lanzi, Elisa, ed. Introduction to Vocabularies: Enhancing Access to Cultural Heritage Information. Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998. Updated version available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/introvocabs>.

Lesk, Michael. The Seven Ages of Information Retrieval. UDT Occasional Paper, no. 5 (latest revision: 17 June 1995). Available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.ifla.org/VI/5/op/udtop5/udtop5.htm>.

Leung, C. H. C., D. Hibler, and N. Mwara. "Picture Retrieval by Content Description." Journal of Information Science 18, no. 2 (1992): 111–19.

Liu, Jian. Meta Search Engines. February 2001. Available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/search>.

Lucker, Amy. "The Right Words, Controlled Vocabulary and Standards (An Editorial)." Art Documentation 7, no. 1 (1988): 19–20.

MacNeil, Heather. "Metadata Strategies and Archival Description: Comparing Apples to Oranges." Archivaria 39 (1995): 22–32.

Markey, Karen. "Access to Iconographical Research Collections." Library Trends 37, no. 2 (1988): 154–74.

---. Subject Access to Visual Resources Collections: A Model for Computer Construction of Thematic Catalogues. New York: Greenwood, 1986.

McRae, Linda. "Indexing Images for Subject Access: Controlled Vocabularies in the VISION Project." Art Documentation 19, no. 2 (2000): 4–9.

---. "More than MARC: Developing a Standard Descriptive Terminology for Visual Image Collections." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 19, no. 1 (1992): 25–27.

Ornager, Susanne. "Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images." Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science Annual Meeting 34 (1997): 202–11.

Panofsky, Erwin. Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers in and on Art History. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1955.

Petersen, Toni. "Subject Control in Visual Collections." Art Documentation 7, no. 4 (1988): 131–35.

Porter, Vicki, and Robin Thornes. A Guide to the Description of Architectural Drawings. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1994. Updated version available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/fda>.

Rhyne, Charles S. "Images as Evidence in Art History and Related Disciplines." Visual Resources Association Bulletin 25, no. 1 (1998): 58–66.

Roberts, Helene E. "'Do You Have Any Pictures of --- ?': Subject Access to Works of Art in Visual Collections and Book Reproductions." Art Documentation 7, no. 3 (1988): 87–90.

---. "The Image Library." Art Libraries Journal 3, no. 4 (1978): 25–32.

---. "A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Art Indexing in Electronic Databases." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 52, no. 11 (2001): 911–16.

---. "The Visual Document." Art Libraries Journal 13, no. 2 (1988): 5–8.

---, ed. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998.

Schmitt, Marilyn, ed. Object, Image, Inquiry: The Art Historian at Work. Santa Monica, Calif.: Getty Art History Information Program, 1988.

Seloff, Gary A. "Automated Access to the NASA-JSC Image Archives." Library Trends 38, no. 4 (1990): 682–96.

Shatford, Sara. "Analyzing the Subject of a Picture: A Theoretical Approach." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 6, no. 3 (1986): 39–62.

---. "Describing a Picture: A Thousand Words Are Seldom Cost Effective." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 4, no. 4 (1984): 13–30.

Stahl, Joan. "Online, Virtual, E-Mail, Digital, Real Time: The Next Generation of Reference Services." Art Documentation 20, no. 1 (2001): 26–30.

Stam, Deirdre C. "Tracking Art Historians: On Information Needs and Information-Seeking Behaviour." Art Libraries Journal 14, no. 3 (1989): 13 –16.

Straten, Roelof van. An Introduction to Iconography. Translated by Patricia de Man. Rev. English ed. Yverdon, Switzerland: Gordon & Breach, 1994.

Sunderland, John. "Image Collections: Librarians, Users and Their Needs." Art Libraries Journal 7, no. 2 (1982): 41–49.

Turner, James M. "Subject Access to Pictures: Considerations in the Surrogation and Indexing of Visual Documents for Storage and Retrieval." Visual Resources 9, no. 3 (1993): 241–71.

Walch, Victoria Irons, comp. Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1994. Also available on the World Wide Web at <http://www.archivists.org/catalog/stds99/index.html>.