Conservation and Seismic Strengthening of Byzantine Churches in Macedonia

Predrag Gavrilović, William S. Ginnell, Veronika Sendova, and Lazar Šumanov


256 pages

PDF file size: 13.2 MB


Between the ninth and fourteenth century, hundreds of architecturally exquisite Byzantine churches were built in the area now known as the Republic of Macedonia. The condition of these buildings has been of ongoing concern because of deterioration and destruction from forces both human and natural, including devastating earthquakes.

This book summarizes the results of a four-year study to develop and test seismic retrofitting techniques for the repair and strengthening of those ancient Byzantine churches still in existence. The volume considers the conservation of historic buildings in seismic zones, surveys the condition of fifty existing Byzantine churches in Macedonia, and details the design, construction, and seismic testing of a half-scale model church. The volume also includes representative experimental and technical data.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: General Considerations Regarding the Conservation of Historic Buildings in Seismic Zones
    • Criteria and Objectives
    • Retrofitting Approaches
  • Chapter 2: Overview of Byzantine Churches
    • Architecture
    • Frescoes
    • Types of Byzantine Churches
    • Structural Characteristics
    • Surface Characteristics
  • Chapter 3: Survey of Existing Byzantine Churches in Macedonia
    • Present State of Selected Church Buildings–Causes and Level of Damage
    • Authenticity
    • Churches Selected for Detailed Investigation
    • The Church of St. Nikita, Banjani
  • Chapter 4: Proposed Strengthening Method and Preliminary Analysis of the Retrofitted St. Nikita Church
    • Possible Methods for Repair and Strengthening of Historic Structures
    • Design of the St. Nikita Church Model
    • Model Construction
    • Wall Element Tests
  • Chapter 5: Shaking-Table Tests of the St. Nikita Church Model
    • Tests of the Original Church Model
    • Repair and Strengthening of the Damaged Model
    • Tests of the Repaired and Strengthened Church Model
  • Chapter 6: Analytical Modeling of the Dynamic Behavior of Masonry Structures Exposed to Earthquake Motions
    • Dynamic Analysis of the Nonlinear Response of an Idealized Single-Degree-of-Freedom System
    • Dynamic Equations of Motions
    • Models of Hysteretic Behavior
  • Chapter 7: Analytical Studies and Correlation of the Behavior of the Two Models
    • Original Model
    • Strengthened Model
    • The Bearing and Deformability Capacities of the Model Structures at the Design and Maximum Levels of Expected Ground Motion
    • Capacity Analysis of Masonry Buildings
  • Chapter 8: Mathematical Model of the Byzantine Church Structure
    • Analysis of Structural Walls
    • Calculation Procedure
    • Results from the MASAN Program for the Original St. Nikita Model
    • Results for the Strengthened Church Model
    • Bearing Capacity of the Church Model Structure
  • Chapter 9: Capacity Analysis of Existing Byzantine Church Structures
    • Analysis of St. Nikita, Banjani
    • Analysis of St. Bogorodica Zahumska, Trpejca
    • Analysis of St. Nikola, Psača
    • Analysis of St. Bogorodica, Matejče
    • Analysis of St. Gjorgji, Kurbinovo
  • Chapter 10: Implementation of Methods for Repair and Strengthening of Byzantine Churches
    • Possible Methods and Techniques for Repair and Strengthening of Historic Byzantine Churches
    • Repair and Strengthening of Historic Monuments in Accordance with the Experimentally Verified Methodology
    • Strengthening of the Structures of Three Representative Churches
  • Chapter 11: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
  • Appendix A: List of Churches Surveyed
  • Appendix B: Single-Degree-of-Freedom Analysis Flowchart
  • Appendix C: Experimental and Analytical Displacement and Acceleration Time History
  • Appendix D: Results of Dynamic-Response Analysis of the Existing St. Nikita Church Using the IZIIS Hysteretic Model
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • About the Authors

About the Authors

Predrag Gavrilović, Ph.D., is a professor at the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, University “SS. Cyril and Methodius,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

William S. Ginnell, Ph.D., is a materials scientist with extensive experience in industry. He was senior conservation research scientist at the Getty Conservation Institute and project director of the Getty Seismic Adobe Project.

Veronika Sendova, Ph.D., graduated from the Civil Engineering Faculty, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, and earned her master’s degree and doctorate from the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, University “SS. Cyril and Methodius,” where she works in the field of earthquake engineering.

Lazar Šumanov, Ph.D., is a retired engineer, architectural advisor, and conservator. He has worked for more than thirty-five years in the field of protection and conservation of cultural heritage in the Republic of Macedonia. Currently he is president of the Macedonia National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOCS).