I teach elementary art in Ohio and see approximately 540 students per year. Each year, $5.00 of the students' book fees is designated as an art fee, so I typically have around $2500-$2800 for "consumables". If I need equipment or tools, it is typically ordered for me separately for another budget. I have never been turned down for something that I tell my principal I NEED to teach for the year (well, no SmartBoard yet, but I am on the list!) Paper is also on another budget- I order the paper for the entire school, but this doesn't come from the art budget.
In addition, our Booster (PTO) club allots each teacher up to $150 per year as long as they help with the school carnival. I also hold family Pottery Nights up to 5 times per year, which brings in an additional $500 or more. Artsonia brings in a little- $250 last year. I almost have enough for that printing press!
So, in all, I believe that I am very fortunate, especially after reading about some of your budgets.