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At 12:50 PM 1/19/97 -0800, Liz wrote:
>I am looking for any information I can find regarding computer grahpics
>and/or animation. I will be starting this new course this next fall and
>will write the curriculm this spring. I would appreciate any lesson
>plans, partial or complete curriculm, etc. that I can use to build a good
>program. We have fought long and hard to get this course excepted by our
>principle and now have to make sure we cover all the bases. I would
>appreciate any help anyone could give me.
The Impact of Technology
The Role of Online Communications in Schools: A National Study
This study "demonstrates that students with online access perform
better. The study, conducted by CAST (Center for Applied Special
Technology), an independent research and development organization, and
sponsored by the Scholastic Network and Council of the Great City
Schools, isolates the impact of online use and measures its effect on
student learning in the classroom. The study compared the work of 500
students in fourth-grade and sixth-grade classes in 7 urban school
districts (Chicago, Dayton, Detroit, Memphis, Miami, Oakland, and
Washington DC) - half with online access and half without."
Assessments of Multimedia Technology in Education: Bibliography
by Carolyn Kotlas, MSLS. "Is there any evidence that multimedia
technology is more effective for delivering instruction than
traditional methods? Is there more than anecdotal evidence to show
that the educational results justify the cost and effort of
incorporating multimedia technology into the classroom? To help answer
these questions, we have a growing body of research devoted to
assessing the effectiveness of multimedia in all levels of education,
including corporate and military training."
The No Significant Difference Phenomenon
"Tom Russell of the North Carolina State University has compiled a
large bibliography of research that demonstrates that there is no
significant difference no matter what media you use for learning. If
you need to convince people of the effectiveness of distance learning,
or other forms of technology assisted learning, just point them to
A Significant Difference
"Bill Orr is in the voc/adult education department at Auburn
University, Alabama. He is a 60 yr old businessman who returned to
school for a masters degree program because he wanted to help teachers
(k-12) to use technology in classrooms to teach interactively as a
part of educational reform. His proclivity toward research has always
been based on a qualitative model. Bill Orr claims that more
contemporary research suggests that interactive media is more
effective. A bibliography is included."
Learning on the Internet
A Select ERIC Bibliography.
The Status of Technology in the Education System: A Literature Review
by Elizabeth Wellburn. "Much of the educational literature of 5-10
years ago expressed concern regarding the relevancy of what the
education system was able to provide (with or without technology) and
many of the studies (including this author's 1991 review) concluded
that the investigation of the impact of technology was just beginning
(Wellburn, 1991, p. 21). Later in the same year, Kerr (1991) stated
that 'those of us who try to foster the use of technology in the
schools are often guilty of hubris: We start from a premise that the
value of the new approach we urge is self-evident, and that teachers
should naturally want to shift their ways radically to take advantage
of the new. Impatience is another characteristic of those interested
in seeking transformation of the educational system through
From Current Awareness (North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction), this bibliography contains references to many journal
articles related to the impact of technology in K-12 education. Also
see Restructuring with Technology.
Articles and Reports
"Did anybody learn anything?" Assessing Technology Programs and the
Jamie McKenzie Editor, From Now On. "Ever since microcomputers came
ashore around 1980, schools have been scooping them up by the millions
as if they represented some great panacea to resolve the dozens of
crippling issues raised by A Nation at Risk and countless other
Fifteen years and millions of dollars later, what evidence can we
present to justify the investment?
'Did anybody learn anything?' is the essential question. Has this just
been another great educational bandwagon or boondoggle? Or has the
introduction of new technology made a substantial difference in the
learning of students?"
Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools - 1995-96
Executive Summary. "In 1990, the Software Publishers Association
published its first Report on the Effectiveness of Microcomputers in
Schools. In that report, numerous research studies supporting the use
of technology as a valuable tool for learning were described. These
studies showed that the use of technology as a learning tool can make
a measurable difference in student achievement, attitudes and
interaction with teachers and other students. The evidence suggested
that positive effects of technology were dependent upon the subject
area, characteristics of the student population, the teacher's role,
how students are grouped, the design of the software, and the level of
access to technology. Since then, research documenting the
effectiveness of educational technology has continued to grow."
Evaluating the Impact of Technology: The Less Simple Answer
by Doug Johnson. "Goodness, schools have been spending a good deal of
money on technology over the past few years. Computers, networks,
printers, scanners, file servers, and CD-ROM drives are common sights
in most schools - perhaps not in the numbers many students, teachers
or parents would like - but certainly in quantities which should
suggest this investment is having an impact on education.
Why then is it difficult, if not impossible, to find definitive
studies which show the positive impact computers have had on teachers
Part of the answer lies in understanding that there are three major
uses of technology in schools, and our approach to evaluating each use
needs to be quite different."
Measuring Results: What happens to student writing with the word processor?
by Jamie McKenzie. "A survey of research describing the impact of word
processing on student writing often turns up confounding or
disappointing results. One Canadian study (Owston, 1990) reported in
this month's literature search concluded:
(1) the computer-written work was significantly better in overall
quality and better on the competency and mechanics subscales of the
evaluation instrument; (2) students produced significantly longer
pieces of writing on the computer than off; (3) students reported very
positive attitudes toward computer-based editing and writing; (4)
there were no macrostructural differences in writing across media; and
(5) only one surface feature, spelling, was found to be significantly
better in the computer-written work.
In this particular study, the eighth grade students had already been
using word processing for a year and a half. We learn that they prefer
the computer and do somewhat better work when they use one, but we
don't learn how their writing might have changed for the better
because of their year and a half."
Computers as Tutors: Solving the Crisis in Education - Online Book on
by Frederick Bennett, Ph.D. "Today's technology, if used differently,
could bring advances that would improve education dramatically -
illiteracy would be eliminated, ordinary students would make massive
gains, and restraints on bright students would dissolve. If computers
are to be effective in schools, however, major changes must occur and
that always frightens many people. Opposition is therefore
Digital Technology and its Impact on Education
by John Hardin. "Many believe a revolution is taking place in
education in the way people learn and the way instruction is given.
The education community has been hearing of reforms and revolutions
for the past few decades, but most of them have been nonexistent or
without any long-term merit or real value. Some believe the method of
an instructor lecturing while students listen and "absorb" is really
the only viable way to teach or learn. About two decades ago, when
personal computers started to become affordable, many thought that
computers would revolutionize education, that computer-based teaching
and learning would become the savior of education and the solution to
falling test scores. This has never really happened. Over the past two
decades, many teachers have successfully prepared students, some with
computers in the classroom and some without. Teachers could avoid
computers, either because they chose not to learn how to use them or
because they had none in their classroom or school to use. Teachers
entering the profession have not been required to understand
computational technology in order to graduate from college."
Issues and Needs in Evaluating the Educational Impact of the National
by Robert Kozma and Edys Quellmalz. "In this article, we identify some
of the issues and problems in implementing good evaluation of
network-based technology. We present a conceptual framework and an
approach to evaluation that addresses these problems. We elaborate on
three of the components of this framework and discuss their
implications for designing project and program evaluations. And we
describe the contribution that technology itself can make to these
designs and their implementation."
The learning connection: Will the Information Highway transform schools and
prepare students for the twenty-first century?
The Benton Foundation. "Linking schools to the emerging
telecommunications network has become one of the hottest education
topics of the 1990s. Politicians proclaim their commitment to it.
Businesses tout their contributions toward achieving it. And schools
are spending substantial sums to accomplish it. All are propelled by a
vision of students engaged in authentic and challenging tasks, linked
to vast stores of information and 'real world' experts beyond the
school room, learning higher-order intellectual skills, and developing
civic virtues on a global scale...But we are a long way from achieving
the vision of connected classrooms."
Using Technology to Support Education Reform
SRI International and the Education Development Corporation, Inc.
"Technology and reform do not necessarily go hand in hand. Broad
demonstrations of this fact are offered by all of the technologies
that were going to revolutionize the classroom--television in the
1960s, computers in the 1970s, videodisc and artificial intelligence
in the 1980s--but didn't. More selective demonstrations of this fact
are provided by studies of specific sites that invested in technology
with the idea of changing the school or the classroom, only to find
that the equipment sat in a closet or that teachers used the
technology to do the same things they had always done (Oakes &
Schneider 1984). At the same time, the majority of school reform
efforts are proceeding without any appreciable contribution from
technology (Ray 1991)."
Observations on educational electronic networks: The importance of
appropriate activities for learning
by James A. Levin, Al Rogers, Michael L. Waugh, and Kathleen Smith.
"The uses of long-distance computer networks are becoming increasingly
attractive for educators, as the price of modems and communication
decreases, and as communication software slowly becomes easier to use.
Once we have purchased modems and interface cards and mastered complex
communication programs, several questions remain to be answered: what
are appropriate network-based activities? How can networks be most
effectively used for education?
Since this is a new frontier for education, these questions are by and
large unanswered. However, in this paper we will describe several
network-based activities, and by contrasting successful with less
successful ones, try to sketch out some general guidelines of how to
explore this new educational tool."
A Qualitative Evaluation of a Statewide Networking Infrastructure in
Education (NIE) Project
by Carol Scott Whelan, Carl Frantz, Juanita Guerin, and Sylvia
Bienvenu. "Momentum is growing for educational reform that includes
innovative uses of technology throughout the curriculum. While the
excitement for using the Internet and various forms of multimedia is
widespread, translating this enthusiasm into a viable curriculum is
not an easy task. This paper outlines the findings of a qualitative
and primarily formative evaluation of one state's Networking
Infrastructures for Education pilot program to help develop a
statewide educational technology network. This evaluation primarily
focussed on efforts in five diverse school districts to incorporate
Internet applications in the classroom at one pilot elementary school,
middle school, and high school in each district. While considerable
progress was made in helping school systems, schools, and teachers
develop the capacity to utilize Internet applications in the
classroom, much was learned that should facilitate similar efforts in
other school districts. Thus, the paper describes this K-12 project
designed to inform state networking, and outlines lessons learned from
features and approaches in the sites that participants and evaluators
viewed as particularly effective or as needing improvement."
Implementing Technology in Education: Recent Findings from Research and
by John Cradler, Far West Laboratory. "This article suggests the
approach to implement technology based on the author's 25 years of
experience in this area, plus the findings of studies related to
technology implementation. The approach suggested emphasizes
instructional and student needs first and then through planning
integrates technology in ways that enhance and extend instructional
and learning opportunities."
Enhancing Instruction with Multimedia
by James S. Noblitt, Ph.D. "Educational technology, defined broadly,
includes everything from blackboards and desks to books and computers.
Naturally, none of this technology guarantees that learning will take
place; but in the hands of skillful teachers and motivated students,
its use can enhance instruction in significant ways."
Reinventing Schools: The Technology is Now
National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering.
"Opinions differ on the likely role of technology in the future of
education. Some people, pointing to the limited effect of past
technological innovations on education, argue that information
technologies will have little influence in the face of the massive
social problems that have beset our schools. Others argue that today's
interactive technologies are fundamentally different than past
technologies. These new technologies not only have the potential to
transform education, according to this view, but will change society
in ways that make educational reform all but inevitable."
Effects of Instructional Media on Immediate and Long Term Recall
by Loretta A. Crain. "With the advent of instructional technology, it
is necessary to determine whether the technology is actually a more
effective teaching tool than traditional teacher centered instruction.
Will students retain more information received from a lecture, from a
video or from a computer? Will the technology produce greater amounts
of immediate recall? Will the student be able to retain the
information learned from non-traditional methods over an extended
period of time?"
Tales from the Electronic Frontier
WestEd. "What is Tales? In Tales, ten teachers share actual classroom
experiences using the Internet in K-12 science and mathematics. Their
vivid, first-hand accounts illustrate how this powerful tool can
enhance teaching and learning. Drawing on teacher successes and
dilemmas, Tales can help expand classroom resources, engage students
in new ways and connect with other teachers. Tales includes over 50
annotated resources, sharing information about online math/science
organizations and Web sites."
EDC Center for Children and Technology - Project Listing
Education Development Center, Inc. A substantial list of ed-tech
projects and case studies.
Education Reform and Computers: The Connection
Andy Carvin. "With the trends of recent reform efforts in mind, how
does technology fit into the scheme of revolutionizing education?
Simply put, computers provide ample assistance in accomplishing
numerous reform goals. From a structural point of view, computer
networking is creating a professional bond between teachers as well as
administrators never seen before in the history to education.
Traditionally, every classroom is an island unto itself, with the
teacher instructing, assessing and remediating children with limited
contact with other teachers, even within the same school. Networking
allows teachers to exchange lesson plans and advice and debate
instructional methodologies with peers around the globe at the touch
of a keyboard. Instead of waiting for annual summer conferences on
successful education reform, they can compare and contrast their work
with relative ease and speed. In a sense, the Internet has created
electronically a professional fraternity between educators."
Technology and Education Reform
A Research Project Sponsored by the Office of Educational Research and
Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, Conducted by SRI
International "In the past, application of technology to education was
often motivated by a desire to implement 'teacher proof' instruction.
Technology was viewed as a 'black box,' something that could be
bestowed on schools and classrooms from above. An increasing body of
literature on technology implementation efforts suggests that this
goal was not only unrealistic but also fundamentally misguided. To be
effective, technology and teachers must work together to provide
challenging learning opportunities."
NSBA/ITTE National Survey on Schools and Technology
National School Board Association, Institute for the Transfer of
Technology to Education. "This poll was conducted to gain information
about public support for technology use in school settings. It
provides statistics that districts can use in making decisions about
planning and purchasing technology, creating staff training programs,
and educating community members about the place for technology in
Technology Trends in U.S. Public Schools
Quality Education Data. "QED has tracked technology in public schools
since 1981. The QED National Education Database is the source for the
graphs contained in this presentation. Represented here are results of
annual surveys of virtually all public schools in the U.S. (more than
80%) for technology usage."
Status of Advanced Telecommunications in the Nation's K-12 Public Schools
"The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has released the
1995 Survey of Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Schools,
K-12, a report describing the status of advanced telecommunications in
public elementary and secondary schools in 1995."
National Center for Technology Planning
This site, by Dr. Larry S. Anderson, contains the updated Guidebook
for Developing Effective Technology Plans as well as technology
planning articles and resources. This site also contains dozens of
regional, state, district, and building level technology plans. A
great resource for research into the whys and hows.