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Lesson Plans

Re: Computer Graphics and Animation

[ Thread ][ Subject ][ Author ][ Date ]
Robert Alexander Fromme (rfromme)
Sun, 19 Jan 1997 15:58:08 -0600

I will try to send you a few thing which may help you get started. Here is a
sheet of terms which
I am developing for my Electronic Visual Arts Students. Whe have had the
course for a couple years and it seems to be growing quite well. Some of
these vocabulary words show up on their weekly list and on their mid term
and final exams.

At 12:50 PM 1/19/97 -0800, Liz wrote:
>I am looking for any information I can find regarding computer grahpics
>and/or animation. I will be starting this new course this next fall and
>will write the curriculm this spring. I would appreciate any lesson
>plans, partial or complete curriculm, etc. that I can use to build a good
>program. We have fought long and hard to get this course excepted by our
>principle and now have to make sure we cover all the bases. I would
>appreciate any help anyone could give me.
Electronic Visual Arts Vocabulary Review

analog - Describes a system that records real world events (visual
and audio) using the continuous nature of the original as a basis.
Electronic systems, such as video and sound tapes, record analog
waves rather than digital binary information.

anti-alias -An averaging or softening of the transition of one
color area to another. For jagged lines, anti-aliasing soothes
out the stair step effect.

application - A generic term used to describe any software program
that carries out a specific task.

ASCII - Acronym for the American Standard Code for Informational
Interchange. Every test and control character has a unique binary
number assigned to it.

aspect ratio - The relationship of width information to height

binary - Digital data system based on O and 1.

bit (or binary digit) - The smallest unit of information available
in a binary computer system. A bit is either a 1 or a O.

bit depth -The measure of the amount of different colors possible
in a pixel or display system. Two raised to the number of bit
provides the total number of colors possible. 2 to the 4th power is
4-bit color or 16 possible colors.

bitmap - The pixels of an image are assembled in a binary bitmap,
or grid, which assigns each pixel a location on the x-y axes and a
bit depth of color.

image - An image described by bitmap pixels. Same as raster image.

bits per second (bps) - Measures the speed of the number of bits
transferred in a communications system.

blend - A smooth gradation of tone or color from light to dark, or
the smoothing of the demarcation of two neighboring color areas.

blur - The averaging of pixel values.

buffer - A digital storage holding area for temporarily storing
digital data until it is ready for use.

byte - A standard unit of digital measurements representing 8 bits
of digital data.

calibration - Adjusting devices so that information is transferred
from one system to another in a consistent, predictable, and
reliable way.

channel - A layer or record of a color image. A 24-bit image has
8 bits of color information in each channel of RGB.

chroma - Hue. Color information in an image.

clipboard - A buffer holding area the Macintosh uses for digital

CMYK - Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black--the subtractive secondary
colors used in color printing.

CPU -A central processing unit is the main part of the computer
that receives instructions from memory and then executes the

crop - The area of an image to use in a reproduction.

cropping - Reproducing only the desired portions of a scene and
eliminating the surrounding area as needed.

cropping tool - A tool to select and size an area of a digital

crop mark - Lines on an image indicating where the finished page is
to be trimmed.

CRT - Cathode-ray tube, which is used to display images on a
phosphor coated screen.

clipboard - A buffer holding area the Macintosh uses for digital

cones - The light sensors clustered near the center of the human
retina used to sense chrominance or color values.

file -The name of a grouping of digital data.

file compression - Reducing the amount of space used to store a
digital file. See lossy and loss-less types.

fill tool - Also known as paint bucket, a tool that replaces
selected areas with flat colors, blends, or patterns.

filter - An algorithm that modifies the pixel matrix of an image to
create a visual effect.

flat - Description of an image that lacks contrast from the
highlight to shadow.

flipping - Creating a mirror-image representation of an image.

floating selection - A selected group of pixels that floats above
the image until it is deselected and dropped onto the desired
position on the image.

focus -The act of adjusting an image to appear as sharply defined
as possible.

foot print - The physical area that a machine occupies.

four-color process - The CMYK color system using for printing.

gamma - The slope of the line that represents output value versus
input value. Also a description of the contrast of a monitor.

gamut - A range of possibilities, such as the range of colors that
a color film can produce.

Gaussian distribution - The bell shaped curve distribution of pixel
value information.

gigabyte - One thousand megabytes.

grain - The granular or sand-like appearance in a print or

grayscale - A tonal scale graduated from white to gray to black.
Used for calibration and setup of color systems.

grayscale image - A black-and-white image with more than one bit of
information in the image. Typically an 8-bit image with 256 levels
of tone.

grid - A defined area of vertical and horizontal lines, either
visible or mathematic. Specific spots on a grid are identified as
x and y coordinates.

halftone - A reproduced image created with various size dots to
create the illusion of tone. The larger the dot, the darker the

halos - Lines of white or black around lines of detail or between
contrasting areas. Halos should be felt, not seen.

HSB - Hue, saturation, and brightness.

HSL - Hue, saturation, and lightness.

HSV - The hue, saturation, and value color space.

hue - The color of something. Hues can be specified by wavelengths
of light or CIE coordinates.

image aspect ratio - The horizontal number of pixels versus
vertical pixels of an image.

image processing programs Applications specifically used to
manipulate image data, as opposed to image creation programs, which
specialize in creating images from scratch.

indexed color - A color system using information from a file as a
pointer to a look up table of values for specifying color.

interlaced - Describes the display process of raster image on
television. Every other line of pixels is redrawn on each pass of
digital information.

JPEG -Joint Photographers Experts Group. A lossy
compression-decompression standard for digital files.

kilobyte - One thousand bytes.

landscape - Horizontal orientation of an image, as opposed to
portrait orientation, which is vertical.

lasso - A selection tool that allows a free and arbitrary selection
of pixels.

loss-less - Nondestructive file compression. Keeps all original
pixel information regardless of how many times it compresses and
decompresses the data.

least - Destructive file compression. Discards file information to
achieve file size storage.

magnification - Any increase in physical size of an original during

mask - A mask designates an area that is to be changed or protected
from change.

pixel - A word derived from picture element. A discrete unit,
having a location and a value.

pixel aspect ratio - The horizontal versus vertical size of a
pixel. Square pixels have an aspect ratio of one.

pixelization - A condition of too-low resolution that allows
individual picture elements to become visible.

pixels per inch (ppi>-The number of pixels that occupy one inch.
A measure of a file's resolution.

portrait - A vertical image orientation, as opposed to landscape.

RAM-Random access memory.

reproduction - A second generation image based on an original.

resampling - Changing the resolution of an image by adding or
discarding pixels. Also known as "res-ing."
resolution -The number of discrete elements per unit of measure
that make up an image, or the number of imaging or sampling units
used in a device.

resolution independent Describes images, such as vectors, that are
not dependent on resolution, so they do not lose edge quality with
enlargement. Being resolution independent is desirable for text.
Bitmapped images are not resolution independent.

retouching - Techniques that attempt to alter or improve an image
without detection.

rods -The plentiful tonal light receptors in the human retina that
sense value.

rotating * -Turning an image from its original axis.

rubber stamp - The name of a cloning tool. See clone.

sampling - Making a copy of something. Another word for scanning.

sampling rate - The number of samples made in a specified area,
such as 200 pixels per inch.

saturation - The strength of a color, or how far a color is from
gray. The greater the saturation of a color, the further it is from

scaling - Changing the size of images or graphics.

scanner -A device that samples analog images and converts them
into digital form.

SCSI - Small Computer System Interface. An industry standard for
connecting peripheral devices to a computer. Pronounced "SCUZZY.''

selection - An item, location, or group of pixels isolated for

shade -A pure color mixed with black.

shadow -The dark areas of an image.

s h a dow po i n t -The area of greatest density in an original
where the 95 percent printing dot is set.

sharpen - To enhance the edge contrast in an image to make the
scene appear sharper, more in focus.

skewing -Distorting an image as if it were being italicized.

sliders -Controls that increase or decrease an effect by moving a
control bar right to left or up and down.

stair stepping - See interlaced.

subtractive secondary colors -CMY (cyan, magenta, and yellow) when
added together, subtract all light and make black. The total
absence of CMY creates white.

threshold - A defined level to determine whether a pixel will be
represented as black or white.

TIFF - Tagged image file format, the most common image file format
used on many platforms.

tonal range - The range of printed densities in an original or a

tone - Any color or neutral that is denser than specular white.
Tone creates the shape in an image.

toolbox -The area on the screen in which the working tools are
assembled for easy access.

transparency - A photographic transmissive color subject in various
format sizes such as 35mm and 4" x 5".

tweening - Creating intermediate steps between objects, with the
steps metamorphosing from one to the other.

24-bit color - A binary system that assigns 8 bits of information
for red, green, and blue in an image, making more than 16.7 million
color possibilities.

undo - A function that takes you back one step or command, erasing
the previous command.

undo - A function that takes you back one step or command, erasing
the previous command.

unsharp masking (USM) - The circuitry in a scanning device or
software that enhances the sharpness of a screened reproduction.

upsampling - Increasing the number of pixels in a file.

value - The degree of lightness or darkness.

tones - Densities that go vignetting from light to dark.

virtual memory - Hard disk memory space allocated for an image
being worked on in order to supplement a computer's RAM.

visual spectrum - The range of visual light from 400 to 700
nanometers of light wavelength.

Workstations - Computers set up primarily to perform a group of
specified functions with added speed and efficiency.
zoom - To change the size of the viewing area to examine a larger
or smaller area in greater detail.