Engraved Scarab

Object Details

Title:

Engraved Scarab

Artist/Maker(s):

Attributed to Epimenes (Greek, active about 500 B.C.)

Culture:

Greek

Place(s):

Cyclades, Greece (Place created)

Date:

about 500 B.C.

Medium:

Carnelian

Dimensions:

1.6 x 1 x 0.8 cm (5/8 x 3/8 x 5/16 in.)

See more

See less

A youth leans over to adjust the heel strap of his sandal, supporting himself on a staff. The precise identification of this figure is unclear: the youth may represent some mythological figure for whom sandals are meaningful, such as Theseus or Jason, or he may be a generic youth engaging in an everyday activity. The pose of this figure, standing but leaning over in some activity, was a favorite for carved gems in the late 500s B.C., yet this carver's skill in depicting a three-quarter view of the youth and in rendering the musculature in detail set this gem apart.

Scarabs were pierced and generally worn as a ring or pendant. When attached to a metal hoop and worn as a ring, the beetle side faced out and the intaglio surface rested against the finger. When serving as a seal, the ring was removed, the scarab swiveled, and the intaglio design was pressed into soft clay or wax placed on an object to identify and secure it.

Greek gem carving changed dramatically in form, materials, and technique in the-mid 500s B.C. One of these changes was the introduction of the scarab, with its back carved like a beetle and its flat surface an intaglio. The scarab form ultimately derived from Egypt, where it had been used for seals and amulets for centuries. Certain features of Greek scarabs, however, such as the form of the beetle and the hatching around the intaglio motif, show the influence of Phoenician models, which the Greeks probably saw on Cyprus.

Provenance
by 1973 -

Vincenzo Pappalardo, Sicilian (Lausanne, Switzerland)

- 1981

Bank Leu, A.G. (Zurich, Switzerland), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1981.

Exhibitions
Athletes in Antiquity: Works from the Collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum (February 1 to April 15, 2002)
  • Utah Museum of Fine Arts, (Salt Lake City), February 1 to April 15, 2002
Carvers and Collectors: The Lasting Allure of Ancient Gems (March 19 to September 7, 2009)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa, (Malibu), March 19 to September 7, 2009
Bibliography

Boardman, John. Intaglios and Rings: Greek, Etruscan and Eastern: From a Private Collection. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975. pp. 86-87, no. 22.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 1st ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986), p. 61.

Sines, George. "Precision in Engraving of Etruscan and Archaic Greek Gems," Archeomaterials 6, 1 (1992), pp. 53-68. p. 55; figs 1, 13.

Grossman, Janet Burnett. Athletes in Antiquity: Works from the Collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Exh. cat. Salt Lake City, Utah, 2002. p. 10, no. 5.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002) p. 85.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010), p. 82.