Irises

Object Details

Title:

Irises

Artist/Maker(s):

Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853 - 1890)

Culture:

Dutch

Place(s):

Saint-Rémy, France (Place created)

Date:

1889

Medium:

Oil on canvas

Dimensions:

74.3 x 94.3 cm (29 1/4 x 37 1/8 in.)

See more

See less

In May 1889, after episodes of self-mutilation and hospitalization, Vincent van Gogh chose to enter an asylum in Saint-Rémy, France. There, in the last year before his death, he created almost 130 paintings. Within the first week, he began Irises, working from nature in the asylum's garden. The cropped composition, divided into broad areas of vivid color with monumental irises overflowing its borders, was probably influenced by the decorative patterning of Japanese woodblock prints.

There are no known drawings for this painting; Van Gogh himself considered it a study. His brother Theo quickly recognized its quality and submitted it to the Salon des Indépendants in September 1889, writing Vincent of the exhibition: "[It] strikes the eye from afar. It is a beautiful study full of air and life."

Each one of Van Gogh's irises is unique. He carefully studied their movements and shapes to create a variety of curved silhouettes bounded by wavy, twisting, and curling lines. The painting's first owner, French art critic Octave Mirbeau, one of Van Gogh's earliest supporters, wrote: "How well he has understood the exquisite nature of flowers!"

Provenance
- 1892

Julien Tanguy (Père), 1825 - 1894 (Paris, France), sold to Octave Mirbeau, 1892.

1892 - 1905

Octave Mirbeau, 1848 - 1917 (Paris, France), sold to Auguste Pellerin, 1905.

1905 -

Auguste Pellerin, 1852 - 1929 (Paris, France)

Galerie Bernheim Jeune (Paris, France)

1925 - 1929

Jacques Doucet, 1853 - 1929 (Paris, France; Neuilly sur Seine, France), by inheritance to his wife, Mme. Jacques Doucet.

1929 - 1938/1939

Mme. Jacques Doucet (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), sold to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, 1938/1939.

1938/1939 - 1945/1946

Jacques Seligmann et Fils (Paris, France; New York, New York), sold to M. Knoedler & Co., possibly 1945/1946.

1945/1946 - 1947

Knoedler & Company, 1846 - 2011 (London, England; New York, New York; Paris, France), sold to Joan Whitney Payson, 1947.

1947 - 1975

Joan Whitney Payson, 1903 - 1975, by inheritance to her son, John Whitney Payson, 1975.

1975 - 1987

John Whitney Payson [sold, Sotheby's, New York, November 11, 1987, lot 25, to Alan Bond.]

1987 - 1990

Alan Bond (Perth, Australia), returned to Sotheby's (New York), 1990.

1990

Sotheby's (New York), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum by private treaty sale, 1990.

Exhibitions
Salon des Indépendants (September 3 to October 4, 1889) (Cat. 273)
  • Salle de la Société d'Horticulture, (Paris), September 3 to October 4, 1889
Exposition Vincent van Gogh (March 15 to March 31, 1901) (Cat. 31)
  • Galerie Bernheim Jeune, (Paris), March 15 to March 31, 1901
Exposition rétrospective: Vincent van Gogh (Salon des Indépendants) (March 24 to April 30, 1905) (Cat. 32)
  • Grandes Serres de la Ville de Paris, March 24 to April 30, 1905
Cinquante ans de peinture française, 1875-1925 (May 28 to July 12, 1925) (Cat. 79)
  • Musée des Arts Décoratifs, (Paris), May 28 to July 12, 1925
L'Époque française de Van Gogh (June to July, 1927) (no cat. no.)
  • Galerie Bernheim Jeune, (Paris), June to July, 1927
Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh (November 1929) (Cat. 95)
  • The Museum of Modern Art (New York), November to November, 1929
Exposition d'oeuvres importantes de grand maîtres du dix-neuvième siècle (May 18 to June 27, 1931) (Cat. 44)
  • Galerie Paul Rosenberg, (Paris), May 18 to June 27, 1931
L'Impressionnisme (June 15 to September 29, 1935) (Cat. 95)
  • Palais des beaux-arts (Brussels), June 15 to September 29, 1935
Van Gogh: Exposition internationale de 1937, Groupe I, Classe III (June to October, 1937) (Cat. 41)
  • Palais de Tokyo (Paris), June to October, 1937
Paintings by Van Gogh (September 18 to November 28, 1942) (Cat. 19)
  • The Baltimore Museum of Art, (Baltimore), September 18 to October 18, 1942
  • Worcester Art Museum, (Worcester), October 28 to November 28, 1942
The Art and Life of Vincent van Gogh (October 6 to November 7, 1943) (Cat. 44)
  • Wildenstein & Company, (New York), October 6 to November 7, 1943
Van Gogh: Fourteen Masterpieces (March 30 to April 17, 1948) (Cat. 11)
  • Knoedler & Company, (New York), March 30 to April 17, 1948
Trends in European Painting, 1880 - 1930 (1949) (5)
  • The Century Association, (New York), 1949
From Goya to Wyeth: The Joan Whitney Payson Collection (September 13 to December 9, 1980) (Cat. 33)
  • Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, (Kyoto), September 13 to October 12, 1980
  • Isetan Museum of Art, (Tokyo), October 17 to December 9, 1980
A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape / L'impressionnisme et le paysage français (June 28, 1984 to April 22, 1985) (Cat. 90)
  • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, (Los Angeles), June 28 to September 16, 1984
  • The Art Institute of Chicago, October 23, 1984 to January 6, 1985
  • Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, (Paris), February 8 to April 22, 1985
Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers (November 25, 1986 to March 22, 1987) (Cat. 1)
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (New York), November 25, 1986 to March 22, 1987
Irises and Five Masterpieces (June 29 to September 3, 1989) (no cat. no.)
  • National Gallery of Australia, (Canberra), June 29 to July 9, 1989
  • Art Gallery of New South Wales, (Sydney), July 14 to July 23, 1989
  • Queensland Art Gallery, (South Brisbane), July 28 to August 6, 1989
  • National Gallery of Victoria, (Melbourne), August 11 to August 20, 1989
  • Art Gallery of Western Australia, (Perth), August 25 to September 3, 1989
Vincent's Irises (January 19 to March 21, 1999) (no cat.)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), January 19 to March 21, 1999
Van Gogh's Iris: Masterpiece in Focus (June 11 to September 19, 1999) (no cat.)
  • National Gallery of Canada, (Ottawa), June 11 to September 19, 1999
Bibliography

Société des artistes indépendants [...] Catalogue des oeuvres exposées, exh. cat. (Paris: impr. A. Lahure, 1889), p. 20, no. 273. Repr. in Modern Art in Paris. Vol. 9, Salons of the "Indépendants," 1884-1891 (New York and London: Garland, 1981).

Fénéon, Félix. Review of the Exposition de la Société des artistes indépendants. La Vogue (September 1889). Repr. in Félix Fénéon, Oeuvres plus que complètes. Joan U. Halperin, ed. (Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1970), p. 168.

Exposition Vincent van Gogh, exh. cat. (Paris: Galerie Bernheim Jeune, 1901), p. 14, no. 31.

Catalogue de la 21me exposition: 1905, exh. cat. (Paris: Société des artistes indépendants, 1905), p. 15, no. 32.

Cinquante ans de peinture française, 1875-1925, exh. cat. (Paris: Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 1925), p. 18, no. 79.

Faille, J.-B. de la. L'Époque française de Van Gogh (Paris: Bernheim-Jeune, 1927), p. 59.

Faille, J.-B. de la. L'Oeuvre de Vincent van Gogh: catalogue raisonné. 4 vols. (Paris and Brussels: Les Éditions G. van Oest, 1928), vol. 1, p. 171, no. 608; vol. 2, pl. 168, no. 608.

Fels, Florent. Vincent van Gogh (Paris: Henri Floury, 1928), p. 118, ill.

Barr, Alfred Hamilton. Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh, exh. cat. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1929), p. 52, no. 95, ill.

"Un Musée d'Art Moderne à New York." Beaux-Arts: Chronique des arts et de la curiosité 7, no. 10 (October 15, 1929), p. 6, ill.

Dormoy, Marie. "Jacques Doucet." Kunst und Künstler 27 (March 1929), p. 235.

Gogh, Vincent van. Further Letters of Vincent van Gogh to His Brother, 1886-1889 (London: Constable & Co.; Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929), pp. 330, 360-61.

Joubin, André. "Jacques Doucet, 1853-1929." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 3 (February 1930), p. 74.

Exposition d'oeuvres importantes de grands maîtres du dix-neuvième siècle, exh. cat. (Paris: Paul Rosenberg, 1931), p. 15, no. 44, ill.

Scherjon, W. Catalogue des tableaux par Vincent van Gogh décrits ses lettres. Périodes: St. Rémy et Auvers sur Oise (Utrecht: Société d'Editions A. Oosthoek S. A., 1932), p. 13, no. 1, ill.

Gogh, Théo van. Lettres à son frère Vincent (Amsterdam: N. V. Maatschappij tot verspreiding van goede en goedkoope lectuur, 1932), pp. 64, 71, 74.

L'Impressionnisme, exh. cat. (Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 1935), unpaginated, no. 95.

"Ce qu'on en disait." Les Beaux Arts: bulletin du Palais des Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles, special no., L'Impressionnisme (1935), p. 26, ill.

Piérard, Louis. Vincent van Gogh (Paris: Braun, 1936), unpaginated, pl. 48.

Van Gogh: Exposition internationale de 1937, Groupe I, Classe III, exh. cat. (Paris: Denoël, 1937), p. 16, no. 41, ill.

Huyghe, René. "Vincent van Gogh." L'Illustration 95, no. 4944 (December 4, 1937), unpaginated, ill.

Scherjon, W., and Jos. de Gruyter. Vincent van Gogh's Great Period: Arles, St. Rémy and Auvers sur Oise (Amsterdam: "De Spieghel," 1937), p. 203, ill.

Faille, J.-B. de la. Vincent van Gogh [...] Préface de Charles Terrasse (Paris: Éditions Hypérion, 1939), pp. 419, 588, 591, no. 606, ill.

Paintings by Van Gogh, exh. cat. (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1942), p. 21, no. 19, ill.

The Art and Life of Vincent van Gogh, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 1943), p. 85, no. 44, ill.

Van Gogh: Fourteen Masterpieces, exh. cat. (New York: Knoedler Galleries, 1948), unpaginated, no. 11, ill.

Schapiro, Meyer. Vincent van Gogh (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1950), pp. 96-97, ill.

Jourdain, Francis. Né en 76 (Paris: Éditions du Pavillon, 1951), p. 253.

Leymarie, Jean. Van Gogh (Paris: Éditions Pierre Tisné, 1951), pp. 55, 124, no. 114, ill.

Gachet, Paul. Vincent van Gogh aux "Indépendants" (Paris: Les Beaux Arts, 1953), unpaginated, ill.

Barr, Alfred H., Jr. "Paintings from Private Collections." The Museum of Modern Art Bulletin 22, no. 4 (Summer 1955), pp. 13, 31, no. 48, ill.

Rewald, John. Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1956), pp. 333-34, 340, 348, 415, ill.

Elgar, Frank. Van Gogh: A Study of His Life and Work (New York and Washington: Frederick A. Praeger, 1958), p. 186, no. 170, ill.

Gogh, Vincent van. The Complete Letters of Vincent van Gogh. 3 vols. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1958), vol. 3, pp. 169, 193.

Sterling, Charles, and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX-XX Centuries (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1967), p. 191, under no. 58.187.

Faille, J.-B. de la. The Works of Vincent van Gogh: His Paintings and Drawings (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff International, 1970), p. 246, no. F608, ill.

Lecaldano, Paolo. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Van Gogh. II. 1888-1890. Simone Darses, trans. (Paris: Flammarion, 1971), pp. 218-19, no. 657, ill.

Lecaldano, Paolo. L'opera pittorica completa di Van Gogh e i suoi nessi grafici. Vol. 2, Da Arles a Auvers (Milan: Rizzoli, 1971), pp. 218-19, no. 657, ill.

Hulsker, Jan. Van Gogh en zijn weg: al zijn tekeningen en schilderijen in hun samenhang en ontwikkeling (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff International, 1977), pp. 390-91, no. 1691, ill.

Leymarie, Jean. Van Gogh. New ed. James Emmons, trans. (New York: Rizzoli, 1977), pp. 145, 158.

The Joan Whitney Payson Gallery of Art (Portland, ME: Westbrook College, 1977), unpaginated, no. 25, ill.

Daulte, François. "Un nouveau musée dans le Maine." L'Oeil, no. 279 (October 1978), p. 55, fig. 12.

Rewald, John. Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin. 3rd ed., rev. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1978), pp. 310-11, 318, 323, 386, ill.

Daulte, François, et al. From Goya to Wyeth: The Joan Whitney Payson Collection, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Yomiuri Shimbun Sha, 1980), unpaginated, no. 33, ill.

Aletrino, Paul. Vincent van Gogh: Werkverzeichnis. Vol. 2. Henriette Beese and Wolfgang Bensch, trans. (Frankfurt: Ullstein, 1980), p. 48, no. 533, ill.

Hulsker, Jan. The Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980), pp. 390-91, no. 1691, ill.

Aletrino, Paul. Tout van Gogh. Vol. 2, 1888-1890. Sylvie Desmaison, trans. (Paris: Flammarion, 1981), p. 48, no. 533, ill.

Welsh-Ovcharov, Bogomila. Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism, exh. cat. (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1981), p. 158, under no. 39.

Schaefer, Scott, et al. A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), pp. 234-36, 367, no. 90, ill., entry by Sylvie Gache-Patin.

Parinaud, André. "Les Indépendants, la critique et la presse: l'affirmation de la modernité." In Un siècle d'art moderne: l'histoire du Salon des Indépendants, 1884-1984 (Paris: Denoël, 1984), p. 94.

Laclotte, Michel, et al. L'Impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Paris: Galeries nationales du Grand Palais; Editions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1985), pp. 246-47, no. 90, ill., entry by Sylvie Gache-Patin.

Bernard, Bruce. ed. Vincent by Himself: A Selection of Van Gogh's Paintings and Drawings together with Extracts from His Letters (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), pp. 203, 265, 325, ill.

Stein, Susan Alyson, ed. Van Gogh: A Retrospective (New York: Park Lane, 1986), pp. 157, 158, 181, 247, 310, 313, pl. 87.

Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers, exh. cat. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986), pp. 27, 30, 42, 44, 49, 80-82, no. 1, ill.; p. 87, under no. 4; p. 143, under no. 31; p. 185, under no. 52.

Sotheby's, New York. Impressionist and Modern Paintings and Sculpture, Part I. November 11, 1987, unpaginated, lot 25, ill.

Bonafoux, Pascal. Van Gogh: le soleil en face (Paris: Gallimard, 1987), pp. 108-9, ill.

Sotheby's, New York. Vincent van Gogh: Irises. The Property of John Whitney Payson. November 11, 1987, unpaginated, lot 25, ill.

Halperin, Joan Ungersma. Félix Fénéon: Aesthete and Anarchist in Fin-de-Siècle Paris (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1988), p. 208.

Pickvance, Ronald. "Van Gogh's Irises." Sotheby's Art at Auction (1987-1988), pp. 118-21, ill.

Rouquette, Jean-Maurice, et al. Van Gogh à Arles et Saint-Rémy: février 1888-mai 1890 (Levallois: Beaux-arts magazine, 1989), p. 45, ill.

Bumpus, Judith. Van Gogh's Flowers (New York: Universe Books, 1989), unpaginated, no. 14, ill.

Rouquette, Jean-Maurice, et al. Van Gogh à Arles et Saint-Rémy: février 1888-mai 1890 (Levallois: Beaux Arts Magazine, 1989), p. 45.

Hardouin-Fugier, Élisabeth, and Étienne Grafe. French Flower Painters of the 19th Century: A Dictionary (London: Philip Wilson, 1989), pp. 219-20, 225, ill.

Lane, Richard. Hokusai: Life and Work (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1989), p. 293.

McQuillan, Melissa. Van Gogh (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989), pp. 7, 72, 74, 184-85, 190-91, fig. 162.

Walther, Ingo F. Vincent van Gogh, 1853-1890: vision et réalité (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1989), pp. 64-65, ill.

Bussy, Diana de, et al. Irises and Five Masterpieces, exh. cat. (Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 1989), unpaginated, ill., entry by Michael Lloyd.

Andersen, Wayne. My Self (Geneva: Fabriart, 1990), pp. 364-65.

Andersen, Wayne. "Relics of Paul Cézanne." Drawing 12, no. 4 (November-December 1990), p. 78.

Gogh, Vincent van. Letters from Provence, Selected and Introduced by Martin Bailey (New York: Clarkson Potter, 1990), p. 104, fig. 116.

Monneret, Jean. Vincent van Gogh au Salon des Indépendants en 1888, 1889, 1890 et 1891; ou, la Passion selon Vincent (Paris: Société des Artistes Indépendants, 1990), pp. 49, 52, 63-64, ill.

Sweetman, David. The Love of Many Things: A Life of Vincent Van Gogh (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990), pp. 310, 333.

Uitert, Evert van, et al. Vincent van Gogh, exh. cat. 2 vols. (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh; Otterlo: Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, with Arnoldo Mondadori arte and De Luca edizioni d'arte, 1990), vol. 2, pp. 31, 254, under no. 115.

Carr, Dawson W., and Mark Leonard. Looking at Paintings: A Guide to Technical Terms (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, with British Museum Press, 1992), pp. 40-41, ill.

Bernard, Bruce. Van Gogh (London: Dorling Kindersley, 1992), pp. 50-51, ill.

De Vries-Evans, Susanna. The Impressionists Revealed: Masterpieces from Private Collections (Auckland: David Bateman, 1992), pp. 110-11, ill.

Feaver, William. Van Gogh. 2nd ed., rev. (London: Studio Editions, 1992), pp. 38-39, ill.

Schiff, Richard. "'Il faut que les yeux soient émus': impressionnisme et symbolisme vers 1891." Revue de l'art, no. 96 (1992), pp. 25-26, fig. 1.

Watson, Peter. From Manet to Manhattan: The Rise of the Modern Art Market (London: Vintage, 1992), pp. 6, 10, 253, 397-401, 457, 472-73, 481, fig. 117.

Koch-Hillebrecht, Manfred. Museen in den USA: Gemälde (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1992), p. 279, ill.

Lasher, Joan S. "My Favorite Painting: Vincent van Gogh's Irises." American Artist 56, no. 597 (April 1992), pp. 20-23, ill.

Walther, Ingo F., and Rainer Metzger. Vincent van Gogh: sämtliche Gemälde. 2 vols. (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1993), vol. 2, pp. 505, 563-64, 730, ill.

Walther, Ingo F., and Rainer Metzger. Vincent van Gogh: The Complete Paintings. Michael Hulse, trans. 2 vols. (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1993), vol. 2, pp. 505, 563-64, 730, ill.

Tomoko, Saito. "Van Goghs in Japan-The Economics behind the Art Boom." In The Mythology of Vincent van Gogh. Kodera Tsukasa, ed. (Tokyo: Asahi National Broadcasting Co.; Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993), pp. 423-24, fig. 264.

Zemel, Carol. Vincent van Gogh (New York: Rizzoli, 1993), unpaginated, pl. 14.

Fredericksen, Burton B., et al. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 3rd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1995), unpaginated, no. 30, ill., entry by Perrin Stein.

Arnold, Matthias. Vincent van Gogh: Werk und Wirkung (Munich: Kindler, 1995), pp. 287-88, 471, fig. 140.

Metzger, Rainer, and Ingo F. Walther. Vincent van Gogh, 1853-1890. Michael Hulse, trans. (Cologne: Taschen, 1996), p. 208, ill.

Hulsker, Jan. The New Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches (Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1996), pp. 390, 392, no. 1691, ill.

Klusman, Georg. Vincent van Gogh: Still Life with Peonies (Mainburg: Pinsker-Verlag, 1996), pp. 74, 76, fig. 32.

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 55, ill.

Zemel, Carol. Van Gogh's Progress: Utopia, Modernity, and Late-Nineteenth-Century Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), pp. 171-72, fig. 101, pl. 10.

Fredericksen, Burton B. et al. Masterpieces of the J. Paul Getty Museum: Paintings (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), pp. 72-73, no. 39, ill., entry by Perrin Stein.

Walsh, John, and Deborah Gribbon. The J. Paul Getty Museum and Its Collections: A Museum for the New Century (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), pp. 106, 109, ill.

Lawton, Barbara Perry. Magic of Irises (Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1998), pp. 10-11, 12, ill., cover ill.

Mühlberger, Richard. The Unseen Van Gogh (Cobb, CA: First Glance Books, 1998), pp. 110-13, ill.

Schaffner, Ingrid. The Essential Vincent van Gogh (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998), pp. 88-89, ill.

Saltzman, Cynthia. Portrait of Dr. Gachet: The Story of a Van Gogh Masterpiece (New York: Viking, 1998), pp. xix, 27, 221, 294-96, 297, 299, 302, 310, 311, 313, ill.

Maurer, Naomi Margolis. The Pursuit of Spiritual Wisdom: The Thought and Art of Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin (Madison and Teaneck: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1998), p. 89, fig. 146.

Welsh-Ovcharov, Bogomila. Van Gogh in Provence and Auvers (New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 1999), p. 183, ill.

Nemeczek, Alfred. Das Bild der Kunst (Hamburg: ART-Das Kunstmagazin, 1999), p. 148, fig. 7.

Helvey, Jennifer, and Jill Finsten. Vincent's Irises, exh. brochure (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1999), unpaginated, ill.

Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), pp. 126, 128-29, figs. 119, 120.

Freeland, Cynthia. But is it art? An Introduction to Art Theory (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 35, 106-7, 139, fig. 14.

Fell, Derek. Van Gogh's Gardens (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), pp. 7, 11, 14, 38, 56, 159, ill.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 6th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001), p. 146, ill.

Druick, Douglas W., Peter Kort Zegers, et al. Van Gogh and Gauguin: The Studio of the South, exh. cat. (Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago; Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, with Thames & Hudson, 2001), pp. 284-85, fig. 43.

Cabanne, Pierre. Van Gogh (Paris: Terrail, 2002), pp. 203, 204-5, ill.

Sund, Judy. Van Gogh (London: Phaidon, 2002), pp. 247-50, fig. 161.

Freeland, Cynthia. Art Theory: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 70-71, fig. 14.

Shiff, Richard. "Monet and the Mark." In Monet: atti del convegno, Treviso, Casa dei Carraresi, 16 e 17 gennaio 2002. Rodolphe Rapetti et al., eds. (Conegliano: Linea d'ombra Libri, 2003), p. 168, ill.

Allen, Denise, et al. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, with Thames & Hudson, 2003), pp. 68-69, no. 36, ill., entry by Perrin Stein.

Fahr-Becker, Gabriele. Jugendstil (Cologne: Könemann, 2004), pp. 10, 14-15, ill.

Shimada, Norio. Inshoha bijutsukan: The History of Impressionism (Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2004), p. 367, fig. B.

Buser, Thomas. Experiencing Art Around Us. 2nd ed. (n.p.: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006), p. 469, fig. 19-1.

Fahr-Becker, Gabriele. Art Nouveau. Paul Aston, Ruth Chitty, and Karen Williams, trans. (Konigswinter: H. F. Ulmann, 2007), pp. 10, 14-15, ill.

Impelluso, Lucia. Gardens in Art. Stephen Sartarelli, trans. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), p. 172, ill.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 7th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), p. 146, ill.

Schwarz, Dieter, ed. Kunstmuseum Winterthur. Katalog der Gemälde und Skulpturen. Vol. 2 (Zurich: Kunstmuseum Winterthur; Düsseldorf: Richter Verlag, 2008), p. 77, under no. 21, ill., entry by Roland Dorn.

Feilchenfeldt, Walter. Vincent van Gogh: die Gemälde 1886-1890; Händler, Sammler, Austellungen; die frühen Provenienzen (Wädenswil: Nimbus, 2009), pp. 203, 351, ill.

Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. 2nd ed. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 33-36, fig. 1.17.

Gogh, Vincent van. Vincent van Gogh: The Letters. The Complete Illustrated and Annotated Edition. Leo Jansen, Hans Luijten, and Nienke Bakker, eds. 6 vols. (London: Thames & Hudson, 2009), vol. 5, pp. 12-13 (letter 772), fig. 1; pp. 24-25 (letter 776), fig. 18; p. 30 (letter 777), fig. 5; p. 59 (letter 789), fig. 10; p. 78 (letter 799), fig. 2; p. 125 (letter 813), fig. 1; p. 142 (letter 819), fig. 8.

Doherty, Tiarna, and Anne T. Woollett. Looking at Paintings: A Guide to Technical Terms. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2009), pp. 42-43, ill.

Helvey, Jennifer. Irises: Vincent van Gogh in the Garden (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2009), passim, figs. 1, 7, 62, cover ill.

Naifeh, Steven, and Gregory White Smith. Van Gogh: The Life (New York: Random House, 2011), pp. 755, 783, ill. between pp. 590-91.

Vincent Van Gogh: Self-Portrait in Paris, exh. cat. (Beijing: Capital Museum, 2011), pp. 2, 3, fig. 1.

Homburg, Cornelia. "Nature So Close." In Van Gogh Up Close, exh. cat. (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, with Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 23, 26, 38n58, 39n74, 147, fig. 111.

Shiff, Richard. "Matière Très Matière." In Van Gogh Up Close, exh. cat. (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, with Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 145, 147, 153n67.

Kostenevich, Albert, ed. Impressionism: Sensation & Inspiration. Highlights from the Hermitage, exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Hermitage Amsterdam, 2012), p. 250, under no. 4, ill., entry by Albert Kostenevich.

Dieltjes, Esther. Vincent van Gogh: Self-Portrait from Paris (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2013), pp. 4-7, 51, fig. 1.

Chansigaud, Valérie. Une histoire des fleurs: Entre nature et culture (Paris: Delachaux et Niestlé, 2014), p. 144, ill.

Education Resources

Education Resource

Subjects

Grades

Format

City Wildlife in a Vase

Discuss how scientists and artists observe nature and explore symbolism of nature. Tied to Open Court unit City Wildlife.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts

3-5

Three/Five-Part Lesson

I Spy Irises

Students review elements of art in van Gogh's Irises, practice drawing, and use elements of art to create crayon-resist artwork.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts

K-2

Single Class Lesson

Looking at Landscapes Lesson 2: Verbal Descriptions

Students practice their speaking skills while describing a landscape scene for a partner to draw.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts; ESL (English as a Second Language)

Adult Learners

Single Class Lesson

Related Media
  • /
    Audio: Irises / Finsten - English (Highlights) - Level 1
  • /
    Audio: Irises (Descriptions)
  • /
    Audio: Irises / Finsten (ed.) (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Korean (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Portuguese (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Mandarin (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Italian (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Japanese (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - Spanish (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - French (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - German (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Irises - English (Highlights)