Portrait of a Halberdier (Francesco Guardi?)

Object Details


Portrait of a Halberdier (Francesco Guardi?)


Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) (Italian (Florentine), 1494 - 1557)


Italian (Florentine)


Italy (Place created)


1528 - 1530


Oil (or oil and tempera) on panel transferred to canvas


95.3 x 73 cm (37 1/2 x 28 3/4 in.)

See more

See less

Standing before a fortress wall, this well-dressed foot soldier holds a combination spear and battle-ax called a halberd. His direct stare and swaggering pose are strikingly poignant, given the smooth unlined face and slim body that betray him as no more than a teenager. As a portraitist, Jacopo Pontormo was renowned for his subtle, complex psychological studies; here he conveyed the naive arrogance and vulnerability of youth. Court painter to Duke Cosimo de' Medici, Pontormo pioneered the Mannerist style in Florence, initiating a new, sophisticated type of portraiture in which elegance and aristocratic reserve play key roles. The sitter's identity has been much discussed. The Florentine painter Giorgio Vasari noted that during the siege of Florence in about 1528 Pontormo painted a "most beautiful work," a portrait of young nobleman Francesco Guardi as a soldier. Francesco's birthdate of 1514 would make him about the age of Pontormo's teenage sitter. Based on a Florentine inventory, Cosimo de' Medici himself has also been suggested as the painting's subject.

- 1612

Riccardo Romolo Riccardi (Florence, Italy), by inheritance through the Riccardi family, 1612.

1612 -

Riccardi Family (Florence, Italy)

1807 - 1810

Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Lebrun, 1748 - 1813 (Paris, France) [sold, Lebrun sale, Lebrun, Paris, March 20, 1810, lot 108, through Simon to Joseph Fesch.]

1810 - 1839

Cardinal Joseph Fesch, 1763 - 1839 (Paris, France; Rome, Italy), upon his death, held in trust by the estate.

1839 - 1845

Estate of Cardinal Joseph Fesch, 1763 - 1839 [Fesch sale, George, Rome, March 17, 1845, lot 754, to Warneck.]

1845 - possibly 1845

Warneck, possibly agent for Leroy d'Etiolles, possibly 1845.

possibly 1845 - 1860

Dr. Leroy d'Etiolles, 1798 - 1860, upon his death, held in trust by the estate.

1860 - 1861

Estate of Dr. Leroy d'Etiolles, 1798 - 1860 [sold, Leroy d'Etiolles sale, Escribe, Paris, February 21, 1861, lot 39, to Gros.]

1861 - possibly 1861

Gros, possibly as agent for Mathilde Bonaparte, possibly 1861.

possibly 1861 - 1904

Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, 1820 - 1904 (Paris, France) [sold, Mathilde sale, Chevallier, Paris, May 17, 1904, lot 53, to Eugène Kraemer.]

1904 -

Eugène Kraemer (Paris, France)

by 1914 - 1918

James Stillman, 1850 - 1918 (New York, New York), by inheritance to Charles Chauncey Stillman, 1918.

1918 - 1926

Charles Chauncey Stillman, 1877 - 1926 (New York, New York), upon his death, held in trust by the estate.

1926 - 1927

Estate of Charles Chauncey Stillman, 1877 - 1926 [sold, Stillman sale, American Art Association, New York, February 3, 1927, lot 35, to Walpole Galleries.]


Walpole Galleries (New York, New York), sold to Chauncey Devereaux Stillman, 1927.

1927 - 1989

Chauncey Devereaux Stillman, 1907 - 1989 (New York, New York) [sold, Christie's, New York, May 31, 1989, lot. 72, to the J. Paul Getty Museum.]

A Century of Progress (June to November 1934) (p. 131, pl. XXII)
  • The Art Institute of Chicago, June 1 to November 1, 1934
43 Portraits (January 26 to February 10, 1937) (p. 131, pl. XXII)
  • Wadsworth Atheneum, (Hartford), January 26 to February 10, 1937
Masterpieces of Art (European Paintings and Sculpture from 1300-1800) (May to October, 1939) (Cat. 287)
  • New York World's Fair, (Queens), May to October, 1939
Pontormo to Greco: The Age of Mannerism (February 14 to March 28, 1954) (11)
  • Herron Museum of Art, (Indianapolis), February 14 to March 28, 1954
Mostra del Pontormo e del primo manierismo fiorentino (1956) (63; pl. 50, color reproduction on front cover)
  • Palazzo Strozzi, (Florence), 1956
The Italian Heritage (May 17 to August 29, 1967) (20)
  • Wildenstein & Company, (New York), May 17 to August 29, 1967
L'Officina della `Maniera': Varietà e Fierezza Nell'arte Fiorentino / Mannerism in Florentine Art (September 28, 1996 to January 6, 1997) (20)
  • Galleria degli Uffizi, (Florence), September 28, 1996 to January 6, 1997

Vasari, Giorgio. Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori. Gaetano Milanesi, ed. 9 vols. (Florence: G. C. Sansoni, 1878-1885) p. 282.

Borghini, Raffaello. Il riposo (Florence: Giorgio Marescotti,1584)

Borghini, Raffaello. Il riposo (Milan: Società tipografica de' classici italiani, 1802-1814), vol. 3 (1807)

Lebrun, J.B.P. Recueil de gravures au trait à l'eau forte et ombrées d'après un choix de tableaux recueillis dans un voyage fait dans les années 1807-1808 (Paris: 1809) p. 17, pl. 7.

Catalogue des tableaux composant la galerie de feu son Eminence le Cardinal Fesch (Rome: Imprimerie de Joseph Salviucci et Fils, 1841) p. 34, no. 682.

Palais Falconieri, Rome. Galerie de feu S. E. le Cardinal Fesch [...]: catalogue des tableaux des écoles italiennes et espagnole [...]. March 17-18, 1845 p. 129, lot 754.

Blanc, Charles. Le Trésor de la Curiosité, vol. II. (Paris: 1857) p. 274.

Masson, F. Catalogue de la collection de S.A.I. Madame la Princesse Mathilde (Paris: 1905) no. 53.

Voss, Hermann. Die Malerei der Spätrenaissance in Rom und Florenz. 2 vols. (Berlin: G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1920) pp. 174-75, pl. 53.

Gamba, Carlo. Il Pontormo, Piccoloa collezione d'arte, no. 15 (Florence: 1921) p. 11, fig. 31.

W[ehle], H.B. "A Notable Loan of Paintings," Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. (1921) p. 184.

Mather, Frank Jewett. "The Halberdier by Pontormo," Art in America 10 (1922) pp. 66-69, repr.

Burroughs, Bryson. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Catalogue of Paintings, 6th ed. (New York: 1922) p. 235. 7th ed., (New York: 1924), p. 257.

Mather, Frank Jewett, Jr. A History of Italian Painting (New York: 1923) pp. 252-53, fig. 165.

Clapp, Frederick Mortimer. "A Letter to Pontormo," Art Studies 1 (1923) pp. 65-66, pl. 46.

Alazard, Jean. Le Portrait florentin de Botticelli à Bronzino (Paris: Henri Laurens, 1924) pp. 168-69.

Giglioli, Odoardo H. "Disegni sconosciuti di Filippino Lippi e del Pontormo," Dedalo 7 (1926-27) pp. 789-91, repr.

Pittaluga, Mary. La Pittura italiana del Cinquecento, Novissima Enciclopedia Monografica Illustrata (Florence: 1931) p. 36.

Venturi, Lionello. Pitture italiane in America (Milan: 1931) tav. 345.

Venturi, Lionello. Storia dell'arte italiana. (Milan: 1932) vol. 9, pt. 5, pp. 172-74, fig. 102, 466.

Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: A List of the Principal Artists and Their Works with an Index of Places (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932) p. 466.

Venturi, Lionello. Italian Paintings in America. 3 vols. (New York: E. Weyhe, 1933) pl. 458.

Voss, Hermann. "Pontormo," in Allegemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler, eds. Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker (Leipzig: 1933) p. 251.

Sutton, A. "Portraits by Pontormo," American Magazine of Art 27 (1934) p. 460.

Berenson, Bernard. Pitture italiane del Rinascimento. Emilio Cecchi, trans. (Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1936) p. 402.

Berenson, Bernard. The Drawings of the Florentine Painters. 3 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938) p. 318.

Steinbart, Kurt. "Der gotiker Jacopo Carucci aus Pontormo," Pantheon 23 (1939) p. 12, repr. p. 7.

Tietze, Hans. Masterpieces of European Paintings in America (New York: 1939) pp. 315-16, no. 110, repr.

McCall, George Henry. Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture from 1300-1800, exh. cat. William R. Valentiner, ed. (New York: World's Fair, 1939) p. 139, no. 287, pl. 28.

Toesca, Elena. Il Pontormo (Rome: 1943) p. 23, fig. 51.

Becherucci, Luisa. Manieristi toscani (Bergamo: Istituto Italiano d'Arti Grafiche, 1944) p. 19, fig. 49.

Jenkins, Marianna. The State Portrait, Its Origin and Evolution, College Art Association Monographs on the Fine Arts, 3 (New York: 1947) p. 13.

Alazard, Jean. The Florentine Portrait, trans. Barbara Whelpton (London and Brussels: 1948) p. 150.

Galetti, U. and E. Camesasca. Enciclopedia della pittura italiana (Cernusco sul Naviglio, 1950) p. 20006.

Smyth, Craig Hugh. "Bronzino Studies," (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1955) pp. 111-12, 118-19.

Marucci, L. La 'Maniera' del Pontormo, Quaderni Pontormeschi, 3 (Empoli: 1956) p. 19.

Monteverdi, Mario. "Della moda ovvero del Pontormo e del primo Manierismo fiorentino," Arte figurativa antica e moderna (May-June, 1956) pp. 21-23, rerp. on cover.

Oertel, Robert. "Pontormo und der florentiner Frühmanierismus," Kunstchronik 9 (1956) p. 216.

Sanminiatelli, Donato. "The Pontormo Exhibition in Florence," Burlington Magazine 98 (1956) p. 242.

Berti, Luciano. in Mostra del Pontormo o del primo manierismo fiorentino, exh. cat. (Palazzo Strozzi, Florence: 1956) pp. 39-40, plate LVI.

Baldini, Umberto. Catalogo, Quaderni Pontormeschi, 1 (Empoli: 1956) p. 12.

Keutner, Herbert. "Zu einigen Bildnissen des frühen florentiner Manierismus," Mitteilugen des Kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenz 8(1957-59) pp. 148 -50, 152, figs. 9 and 11.

Videtta, A. "Attualità del Pontormo," L'Arte, vol. 15 (1960) p. 226.

De Wald, Ernest. "Italian Painting 1200-1600." (New York: 1961) p. 565.

Berenson, Bernard. I Disegni dei Pittori Fiorentini (Milan: Electa, 1961) p. 494.

Baldini, Umberto. Il Rinascimento nell'Italia centrale (Bergamo: 1962) p. 93.

Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: A List of the Principal Artists and Their Works: Florentine School. 2 vols. (New York: Phaidon Press, 1963) vol. 1, p. 181; vol. 2, pl. 1430.

Forster, Kurt. W. "Probleme um Pontormos Porträtmalerei (I)," Pantheon 22 (1964) p. 380, fig. 7.

Berti, Luciano. Pontormo. (Florence: 1964; also 1965, 1972) pp. CXXXIV-CXXXVII, repr.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. The Drawing of Pontormo (Cambridge, MA: 1964) vol. 1, pp. 241, 269-71, 276-77, 281, 402, 404; vol. 2, fg. 278.

Shearman, John K. G.. Andrea del Sarto. 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1965) p. 90.

Tempesti, Anna Forlani. Pontormo, I Maestri del colore, 94 (Milan: 1965) n.p. [sixth page].

Berti, Luciano. Pontormo: Disegni (Florence: 1965) p. 18.

Forster, Kurt W. Pontormo: Monographie mit Kritischem Katalog (Munich: 1966) pp. 106-7, 146, cat. 43, color plate VIII, fig. 102.

Pope-Hennessy, John. The Portrait in the Renaissance (Princeton: 1966) p. 110, fig. 117.

Berti, Luciano. "Precisazione sul Pontormo." Bollettino d'arte, 51. (1966) pp. 53 and 56-57, no. 27.

Langedijk, Karla. De Portretten van de Medici tot omstreeks 1600 (Assen: 1968) pp. 58, 140, no. 19.

Tempesti, Anna Forlani. Disegni del Pontormo del Gabinetto di Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi (Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera: 1970) no. 24.

Forster, Kurt W. "Metaphors of Rule: Political Ideology and History in the Portrait of Cosmio I de' Medici," Mitteilugen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 15 (1971) pp. 72-73, figs. 9, 23.

Freedberg, S. J. Painting in Italy, 1500 to 1600 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971) pp. 126, 484.

Shearman, John. review of Janet Cox-Rearick, The Drawings of Pontormo, Art Bulletin 54 (1972) p. 212.

de Chiaro, Tommaso. Pontormo ritrattista (Rome: 1973) pp. 24-25.

Richelson, Paul William. Studies in the Personal Imagery of Cosimo I de'Medici, Duke of Florence, Outstanding Dissertations in the Fine Arts (New York and London: 1978) [originally presented to Princeton University: 1973] pp. 80, 93.

Berti, Luciano. L'Opera completa del Pontormo, Classici dell'arte Rizzoli, 66 (Milan: 1973) pp. 103-4, no. 106, pl. LVIII.

Dizionario Enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani. (Turin: 1975) p. 176.

Freedberg, S.J. Painting in Italy, 1500-1600, rev. ed. (Harmondsworth: 1975) pp. 191, fig. 77.

de Logu, Giuseppe and Guido Marinelli. Il Ritratto nella pittura italiana (Bergamo: 1976) pp. 79, 83.

Nyholm, Esther. Arte e teoria de Manierismo, vol. I. "Ars Naturans." (Odense: 1977) pp. 125-27.

Boase, Thomas. "Giorgio Vasari. The Man and the Book." (Princeton: 1979) p. 259.

Boase, Thomas S.R. Giorgio Vasari. The Man and the Book. (Princeton: 1979) p. 259.

Bellosi, Luciano. "Il ritratto fiorentino del Cinquecento." In Il Primato del disegno, exhib. cat. (Palazzo Strozzi, Florence: 1980) p. 42.

Chiarini, Marco, in Il primato del disegno, exh. cat. (Florence: 1980) p. 157, under no. 347.

Darragon, Eric. "Pontormo à Florence," Revue de l'art 51 (1981) p. 58.

De Juliis, Giuseppe. "Appunti su una quadreria Fiorentina: La collezione dei Marchesi Riccardi." Paragone, no. 375 (May 1981) p. 57.

McCorquodale, Charles. Bronzino (London: Jupiter Books, 1981) pp. 23, fig. 14.

Beck, James. "Italian Renaissance Painting." (New York: 1981) p. 447.

Scalini, Mario. "Un altra addenda per Pontormo," in Antichità Viva, XX, 2. (1981) p. 11.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. The Drawings of Pontormo, 2nd ed. (New York: 1981) vol. 1, pp. 241, 269-71, 276-77, 281, 357(6), 402, 404; vol. 2, fig. 278.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. "Bronzino's Young Woman with Her Little Boy," Studies in the History of Art (Washington, National Gallery of Art) 12 (1982) p. 70, fig. 8.

Nelson, Jonathan. "The Architecture in Pontormo's 'Halberdier,'" The Pittsburgh Undergraduate Review 31 (1982) pp. 75-87.

Simon, R.B. "Bronzino's Portraits of Cosimo I de'Medici" (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbus University: 1982) pp. 170-87, 338.41.

Shaw, James Byam. The Italian Drawings of the Frits Lugt Collection (Paris: 1983) p. 35.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. Dynasty and Destiny in Medici Art: Pontormo, Leo X and the Two Cosimos (Princeton: 1984) p. 254, note 10.

Meller, Peter. "Quello che Leonardo no ha scritto sulla figura umana: dall'Uomo di Vitruvio alla Leda," Arte Lombarda, no. 67 (1983/4) pp. 123-4.

Castamagna, Philippe and Anne Fabre. "Les Portraits du début du XVI siècle à l'avènement de Cosimo I: Catalogue raisonné d'Albertinelli à Pontormo," (Thesis, Ecole du Louvre: 1986) pp. 378-83.

Langedijk, Karla. The Portraits of the Medici, 15th-18th Centuries (Florence: 1981 - 87) pp. 80-81, 431-32, cat. 27- 50.

Russell, Francis. "Pontormo's Cosimo de' Medici." Christie's Review of the Season (1989) pp. 22-23, ill.

Shaw, James Byam. "The Lugt Drawing of Cosimo de' Medici." Christie's Review of the Season (1989) p. 24.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. in An Important Painting by Pontormo from the collection of Chauncey D. Stillman, sale catalogue. (Christie's New York: 31 May 1989) pp. 11-43.

Simon, Robert Barry. "Yo Pontormo." The Journal of Art, vol. I, no. 6. (1989) p. 33.

Fels, Thomas Weston. "Student & Teacher: An Interview with John Walsh & Julius Held." The Print Collector's Newsletter 21. (November-December 1990)

Berti, Luciano. "L'Alabardiere del Pontormo," Critica d'Arte (1990)

Berti, Luciano. "Un ritrovamento: il ritratto di Francesca Capponi del Pontormo," Critica d'Arte 55, nos. 2-3. (April - September, 1990) pp. 31, 33, n. 6, 19.

Campbell, Lorne. Renaissance Portraits: European Portrait Painting in the 14th, 15th and 16th Centuries (New Haven: 1990) p. 9, plate 20.

Spicer, Joaneath. "The Renaissance Elbow," in A Cultural History of Gesture, Jan Bremmer and Herman Roodenburg eds., (Cambridge: 1991) pp. 92 and 123, fig 5.5.

Hessert, Marlis von. Zum Bedeutungswandel der Herkules-Figur in Florenz: von den Anfängen der Republik bis zum Prinzipat Cosimos I. (Cologne: 1991) pp. 86-88, fig. 33.

Watson, Peter. From Manet to Manhattan: The Rise of the Modern Art Market (London: Vintage, 1992) pp. 6-7, 472.

Koch-Hillebrecht, Manfred. Museen in den USA: Gemälde (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1992) p. 276.

Carr, Dawson W., and Mark Leonard. Looking at Paintings: A Guide to Technical Terms (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, with British Museum Press, 1992) pp. 24-25, ill.

Nigro, Salvatore S. ed. and intro., Pontormo: Fresken und Gemälde (London: 1993) pp. 15, ill. X.8.

Costamagna, Philippe. Pontormo: Catalogue raisonné de l'oeuvre peint. (Paris/Milan: 1994) pp. 84 (ill. detail), 89-90, 211, 233-236, 242.

Fredericksen, Burton B., et al. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 3rd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1995) unpaginated, no. 8, ill., entry by David Jaffé.

Mitchell, Paul and Lynn Roberts. A History of European Pictures Frames (London: 1996) p. 26, fig. 14.

Cropper, Elizabeth. "Pontormo's Halberdier." in Center 16: Record of Activities and Research Reports, June 1995-May 1996. (National Gallery of Art Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, Washington, D.C.: 1996)

Falciani, Carlo. Pontormo: Disegni degli Uffizi. (Florence: 1996)

Costamagna, Philippe. Le Maniérisme: Actualité des arts plastiques no. 94 (Paris: 1996) pp. 34-35, slide no. 3.

Elizabeth Cropper. Pontormo Portrait of a Halberdier, J. Paul Getty Museum, (Los Angeles, 1997)

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997) p. 98, ill.

Arasse, Daniel, and Andreas Tönnesmann. La Renaissance maniériste (Paris: Gallimard, 1997) p. 461, ill.

Cropper, Elizabeth. Pontormo: Portrait of a Halberdier, GMSA series. (Los Angeles: 1997)

Morel, Philippe, et al. L'Art Italien du ive siècle à la Renaissance. (Paris: 1997)

Simons, Patricia. "Homosociality and Erotics in Italian Renaissance Portraiture." Portraiture: facing the subject. (Manchester and New York: 1997)

Fredericksen, Burton B. et al. Masterpieces of the J. Paul Getty Museum: Paintings (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997) p. 31, no. 14, ill., entry by David Jaffé.

Walsh, John, and Deborah Gribbon. The J. Paul Getty Museum and Its Collections: A Museum for the New Century (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997) pp. 107, 115, ill.

Krystof, Doris. Jacopo Carruci, known as Pontormo, 1494-1557. (Köln: 1998)

Gregori, Mina. "Qualche Riflessione sul Ritratto Fiorentino." L'Anima e il Volto: Ritratto e Fisiognomica da Leonardo a Bacon (edited by Flavio Caroli). (Milan: Electa, 1998) p. 535.

Nemeczek, Alfred. Das Bild der Kunst (Hamburg: ART-Das Kunstmagazin, 1999) p. 149.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 6th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001) p. 99, ill.

Cropper, Elizabeth. "Preparing to Finish: Portraits by Pontormo and Bronzino around 1530." In Opere e giorni: Studi su mille anni di arte europea dedicati a Max Seidel. Edited by Klaus Bergdolt and Giorgio Bonsanti. Venice: Marsilio, 2001 pp. 499-504.

Bertelli, Sergio. "Leone X e Clemente VII." In Giovanni delle Bande Nere. Mario Scalini. (n.p.: Banca Toscana, 2001) p. 97, pl. 32 (in color).

Medici, Michelangelo, and the Art of Late Renaissance Florence, essay by Janet Cox-Rearick (New Haven & London: 2002) pp. 35-36, ill. fig. 21.

Beyer, Andreas. Das Porträt in der Malerei. Munich: Hirmer, 2002. pp. 171-72, 174, illus color p. 174.

Pinelli, Antonio, "Tiranno o difensore della libertà." In Parmigianino e il manierismo europeo. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi-Parma 13-15 giugno 2002. Lucia Fornari Schianchi ed. (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2002) pp. 342-56, fig. 1.

Costamagna, Philippe. "De l'idéal de beauté aux problèmes d'attribution. Vingt ans de recherche sur le portrait florentin au XVIe siècle." Studiolo 1 (2002) p. 205, 206, figs. 18, 213.

Southgate, M. Therese, M.D. "The Cover," JAMA. The Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 290, no.2, July 9, 2003 color ill., p. 161.

Costamagna, Philippe. "Portraits of Florentine Exiles." In Raphael, Cellini, and A Renaissance Banker: The Patronage of Bindo Altoviti. Edited by Alan Chong, et al. Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 2003 pp. 329-50, p. 330, fig. 164, color ill.

Allen, Denise, et al. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, with Thames & Hudson, 2003) p. 27, no. 11, ill., entry by David Jaffé.

Pinelli, Antonio. La bellezza impura: Arte e politica nell'Italia del Rinascimento. (Roma-Bari: Gius. Laterza & Figli Spa, 2004) pp. 123-54, ill. 125; ill. color, cover, p. 155.

Bailey, Martin, editor. The Folio Society Book of the 100 Greatest Portraits (London, 2004), entry by David Ekserdjian pp. 64-65, ill.

Strehlke, Carl Brandon, et al. Pontormo, Bronzino, and the Medici: The Transformation of the Renaissance Portrait in Florence (Philadelphia, 2004), exh. cat. p. 48, detail ill., pp. 92-3, ill.

Von Gaertringen, Rudolf Hiller. Italienische Gemälde im Städel 1300-1550: Toskana und Umbrien (Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern, 2004), p. 484. p. 484.

Cricco, Giorgio, and Francesco Paolo di Teodoro. Itinerario nell'arte. Volume 2. Da Giotto all'età barocca (Bologna: Zanichelli, 2004), p. 871. p. 871.

Cricco, Giorgio, and Francesco Paolo Di Teodoro, Itinerario nell'arte, II, Da Giotto all'eta' barocca (Bologna: Zanichelli, 2004) p. 871.

Arfaioli, Maurizio. The Black Bands of Giovanni: Infantry and Diplomacy during the Italian Wars (Pisa, 2005) pp. 55-56, fig. 13.

Franklin, David, ed. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and the Renaissance in Florence, exh. cat. (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, with Yale University Press, 2005) pp. 234, fig. 81.1, entry by Elizabeth Cropper.

Cox-Rearick, Janet. "Pontormo and Bronzino." Burlington Magazine 147, no. 1224 (March 2005) p. 212.

Costamagna, Philippe. "Nouvelles considerations sur un 'Portrait d'homme' de Pontormo." Paragone 56, no. 59 (January 2005) p. 66, tav. 61.

Holian, Heather L. Sale. "Bronzino, Castiglione, and A Self-Portrait: Re-evaluating Bronzino's Trip to Pesaro." In Renaissance Papers, 2005. Christopher Cobb and M. Thomas Hester, eds. (Rochester: Camden House, 2005) p. 12, fig. 3.

Soussloff, Catherine M. Portraiture and the Birth of the Modern (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006) pp. 28-29, pl. 4.

Rosenberg, Pierre. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Susan Wise, trans. (Milan: Skira, 2006) pp. 58-59, ill.

Zuffi, Stefano. European Art of the Sixteenth Century. Antony Shugaar, trans. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2006) p. 333, ill., cover ill., back flap ill.

Mendelsohn, Leatrice. "Bronzino in Pesaro and After: The Impact of Raphael and Raphaelism on Bronzino's Florentine Manner." In The Translation of Raphael's Roman Style. Henk Th. van Veen, ed. (Leuven: Peeters, 2007) pp. 97-104, fig. 15.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 7th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007) p. 99, ill.

Russell, Francis. "A portrait of a young man in black by Pontormo." The Burlington Magazine 150, no. 1267 (October 2008) pp. 676-77, fig. 26.

Campbell, Lorne, et al. Renaissance Faces: Van Eyck to Titian, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery, with Yale University Press, 2008) p. 224, under no. 69, fig. 82, entry by Carol Plazzotta.

Sotheby's, London. The Barbara Piasecka Johnson Collection. July 8, 2009 pp. 38, 40, fig. 2, under no. 15.

Cropper, Elizabeth. "Reading Bronzino's Florentine Portraits." In Bronzino: Artist and Poet at the Court of the Medici, exh. cat. Carlo Falciani and Antonio Natali, eds. (Florence: Fondazione Palazzo Strozzi, with Mandragora, 2010) pp. 250, 252-53, fig. 96.

Baker, Nicholas Scott. The Fruit of Liberty: Political Culture in the Florentine Renaissance, 1480-1550 (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2013) pp. 118-21, ill. p. 119, fig. 3.1.

Adams, Laurie Schneider. Italian Renaissance Art. 2nd ed. (2001; repr., Westview Press, 2014) pp. 407-8, fig. 18.19.

Related Media
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Mandarin (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Korean (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - English (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Spanish (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Portuguese (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - French (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - German (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Italian (Highlights)
  • /
    Audio: Portrait of a Halberdier - Japanese (Highlights)