Blessed Bernard Tolomei Interceding for the Cessation of the Plague in Siena

Object Details

Title:

Blessed Bernard Tolomei Interceding for the Cessation of the Plague in Siena

Artist/Maker:

Giuseppe Maria Crespi (Italian (Bolognese), 1665 - 1747)

Culture:

Italian

Date:

about 1735

Medium:

Oil on copper

Dimensions:

43.2 × 67 cm (17 × 26 3/8 in.)

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During the Black Death of 1348, the Blessed Bernard Tolomei left the safety of his Benedictine monastery in Monte Oliveto and returned to his native Siena to attend to the sick and dying. He succumbed to the plague that same year and soon became the object of religious devotion. An abbot from Bernard's monastic order commissioned this painting in 1736, when Bernard was being considered for sainthood. Giuseppe Maria Crespi interpreted the story's pathos with great depth, expression, and immediacy.

Wearing a white robe and holding a crucifix, Bernard and a fellow monk attend to plague victims in an open-air encampment outside the walls of Siena. On the left, a priest walks under an umbrella, accompanied by an acolyte. Several plague-stricken figures languish on the ground in various stages of death. Below Bernard, a woman slumps over while her small child desperately tries to pull her upright. At her feet, the foreshortened body of a dead infant falls in the area between the acolyte and bowing monk. A woman has perished in the right corner, her gray-skinned body lifeless, thus a man above her holds a cloth over his mouth to avoid smelling the stench. Contorted, highlighted figures emerge from the shadowy darkness to confront the viewer, accordingly heightening the emotion of the drama.

Provenance
by 1730s -

Abate Corsi (San Bartolommeo a Monte Oliveto, Florence, Italy), commissioned from the artist, about 1735.

by 1767 -

Marchese Gino Capponi (Florence, Italy)

- 1945

Private Collection [sold, Walter, Tabourdeau, Drouot, Paris, February 7, 1945, lot 19.]

-

Private Collection (Switzerland)

1985 - 1986

Piero Corsini Inc. (New York, New York), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986.

Exhibitions
Esposizione de'Quadri (January 1 to July 5, 1767)
  • Cloister of the Ss Annunziata (Florence), January 1 to July 5, 1767
Giuseppe Maria Crespi and the Emergence of Genre Painting in Italy (September 20 to December 7, 1986)
  • Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth), September 20 to December 7, 1986
Hope and Healing: Painting in Italy in a Time of Plague, 1500-1800 (April 2 to September 25, 2005)
  • Worcester Art Museum (Worcester), April 2 to September 25, 2005
Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna 1575-1725 (December 16, 2008 to May 3, 2009) (pl. 10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), December 16, 2008 to May 3, 2009
Bibliography

Zanotti, Giampietro. Storia dell'Accademia Clementina di Bologna, vol. II. (Bologna: 1739) p. 64.

Crespi, Luigi. Felsina Pittrice: Vite de' Pittura, Scultura, e Architettura, vol. XII (Florence: 1775) p. 217.

Serie degli Uomini i Più Illustri nella Pittura, Scultura, e Architettura, vol. XII. (Florence: 1775) p. 143, note 1.

Salvadori, Fabia Borroni. "Le esposizioni d'arte a Firenze dal 1674 al 1767." Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 18, no. 1 (Florence: 1974) pp. 78, 141.

Merriman, Mira Pajes. Giuseppe Maria Crespi. (Milan: 1980) pp. 265, 271-72.

Knox, George. "Fort Worth, Kimbell Art Museum. Giuseppe Maria Crespi." Burlington Magazine. (December 1986) pp. 972-78.

"Acquisitions/1986." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 15 (1987) p. 187, no. 52.

Spike, John T. "The Blessed Bernard Tolomei Interceding for the Cessation of the Plague in Siena: A Rediscovered Painting by Giuseppe Maria Crespi." J. Paul Getty Museum Journal, vol. 15. (1987) pp. 111-16.

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997) p. 30, ill.

Boeckl, Christine M. Images of Plague and Pestilence: Iconography and Iconology (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2000) pp. 120-21, 193n211.

Bailey, Gauvin Alexander, et al. Hope and Healing: Painting in Italy in a Time of Plague 1500-1800 (Worcester, 2005) pp. 180-81, fig. 2.

Schaefer, Scott. "The Bolognese Baroque in Los Angeles and Southern California." In Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna, 1575-1725, exh. cat. Andreas Henning and Scott Schaefer, eds. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2008) pp. 34, 112, pl. 10.

Henning, Andreas. "The New Technique of Painting on Copper." In Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna, 1575-1725, exh. cat. Andreas Henning and Scott Schaefer, eds. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2008) pp. 28, 34, pl. 10.

Dempsey, Charles. "Painting in Bologna from the Carracci to Crespi." In Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna, 1575-1725, exh. cat. Andreas Henning and Scott Schaefer, eds. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2008) pp. 13, 34, pl. 10.