Private Dealer (Turin, Italy)
1951 - 1984
Emile E. Wolf (New York, New York), sold through Hoogsteder-Naumann, Ltd. (New York, New York) to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984.
This image is available for download, without charge, under the Getty's Open Content Program.
Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. To avoid potential data charges from your carrier, we recommend making sure your device is connected to a Wi-Fi network before downloading.
Currently on view at: Getty Center, Museum East Pavilion, Gallery E205
Solon before Croesus
Nikolaus Knüpfer (Dutch, about 1603 - 1655)
Oil on panel
61 × 89.9 cm (24 × 35 3/8 in.)
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
The sage Solon stands in the foreground at the base of the stairs leading to the dais. His humble dress, long beard, and admonishing gesture contrasts with the extravagantly dressed figure of the king who points dramatically at the riches before him. In this moralizing scene from Greek legend, the wealthy King Croesus calls an audience with Solon, an Athenian lawmaker and philosopher. After proudly displaying his immense wealth, the king asks Solon to name the happiest man he has ever met. Solon does not name Croesus, instead responding that he could call no man happy until his life was so judged at its end and that humble people were often more content than the wealthiest kings. This moralistic tale, extremely popular in 1600s Holland, reflected the culture's ambivalent attitudes toward wealth and consumption.
Nikolaus Knüpfer used light to draw attention to the confrontation between the two figures. King Croesus and his queen are bathed in a bright light that illuminates their exquisite finery, the white satin and gold tablecloth, and the succulent delicacies and gold wares on the table. Light also falls upon the solitary figure of Solon, accentuating his isolated position below in the stage-like setting. This composition's carefully planned design and lighting reveal Knüpfer's interest in contemporary Dutch theater.
Plietzsch, Eduard. Holländische und flämische Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig: E. A. Seemann Verlag, 1960), pp. 33-34, fig. 32.
Kuznetzov, Juri. "Nicolaus Knüpfer (Biographie, themes et sources de la création artistique, catalogue des oeuvres)." Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Ermitage 8 (1965), p. 221, no. 113.
Gilbert, Creighton, ed. 17th Century Paintings from the Low Countries, exh. cat. (Waltham: Poses Institute of Fine Arts, with Rose Art Museum, 1966), pp. 18-19, ill.
Kuznetzow, Juri. "Nikolaus Knupfer (1603?-1655)." Oud Holland 88, no. 3 (1974), p. 199-200, fig. 17, no. 112.
Blankert, Albert, et al., eds. Gods, Saints and Heroes: Dutch Painting in the Age of Rembrandt, exh. cat. (Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art, 1980), pp. 276-77, no. 82, ill.
Robinson, Franklin W., ed. The Discovery of the Everyday: Seventeenth Century Dutch Paintings from the Wolf Collection, exh. cat. (Norfolk: The Chrysler Museum, 1982), unpaginated, no. 25, ill.
"Acquisitions/1984." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 13 (1985), p. 208, no. 133, ill.
Sutton, Peter C. A Guide to Dutch Art in America (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1986), p. 140, fig. 202.
Inaugural Exhibition of Old Master Paintings, exh. cat. (New York: Otto Naumann, Ltd., 1995), p. 148, ill.