The J. Paul Getty Museum

Mummy Shroud with Painted Portrait of a Boy

Object Details

Title:

Mummy Shroud with Painted Portrait of a Boy

Artist/Maker:

Unknown

Culture:

Romano-Egyptian

Place:

Egypt (Place Created)

Date:

A.D. 150–250

Medium:

Tempera on linen

Object Number:

75.AP.87

Dimensions:

62 × 52.5 cm (24 7/16 × 20 11/16 in.)

Credit Line:

Gift of Lenore Barozzi

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Object Description

Shrouds of finely woven linen provided an alternative means of covering the head and face of the deceased in Roman Egypt, where the portrait followed traditional funerary iconography equivalent to those on wooden panels. Here, a young man on the cusp of adulthood stands out in his white tunic against a carbon black ground. A small falcon in yellow and red ochre stands on his proper left shoulder. Though lacking divine regalia, the bird is surely a simple rendition of the Egyptian god Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, or Harpocrates, the child of Isis and Serapis, who in bird form so often accompanies the deceased on his journey to the other world.

The subject wears a wreath of green leaves with berries painted in yellow.  Narrow purple clavi (woven stripes denoting Roman citizenship) extend down from his shoulders. The simple oval neckline and absence of a mantle differ markedly from the vast majority of male portraits, where a mantle is always draped over one shoulder (such as the Portrait of a Man, 74.AP.11). Here, a series of short red strokes creates a textile pattern extending outward from the neck across each shoulder.

The artist has added a few specific physical characteristics to animate the portrait and identify the approximate age and status of the deceased. A thin growth of facial hair is applied in tempera (pigment suspended in animal glue), a fast-drying medium used here to render the young man’s moustache and brittle beard with passages of short black brushstrokes. His eyebrows, eyelashes and locks of hair are carefully delineated in various thicknesses of carbon-black strokes: upper and lower eyelashes outline the eyelids; eyebrows are shaped by quick vertical movements, while longer strokes create the hairline bordering the brow and lap over the ears. Tempera can flatten the surface appearance of a painting, and when added to the linearity of the facial features, a stylistic date of AD 150-250 (probably later in that range) is probable and is supported by Carbon- 14 dates of AD 72-213.

Provenance
Provenance
1973

Private Dealer (Cairo, Egypt)

- 1975

Lenore Barozzi (Chicago, Illinois), donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1975.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
Fayum Portraits: Painted Portraits from Roman Egypt (March 24, 1981 to 1997)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), March 24, 1981 to December 1, 1997
Modern Antiquity: Picasso, de Chirico, Léger and Picabia in the Presence of the Antique (November 2, 2011 to May 20, 2012)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa (Malibu), November 2, 2011 to January 16, 2012
  • Musee Picasso (Antibes), February 16 to May 20, 2012
Bibliography
Bibliography

Frel, Jiří. Recent Acquisitions of Antiquities: The J. Paul Getty Museum. June 1 - September 3, 1976. Exhibition brochure. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976), p. 5, no. 26.

Thompson, David L. The Artists of the Mummy Portraits (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976), p. 4, cover ill.

Parlasca, Klaus. Ritratti di Mummie. Repertorio d'arte dell'Egitto greco-romano (A. Adriani, ed). 2 ser. Vol. III. (Roma : "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1980), p. 46, no. 592; pl. 141.5.

Thompson, David L. Mummy Portraits in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1982), pp. 54-55, no. 10, ill.

Lyttelton, Margaret. The Romans: Their Gods and Their Beliefs. (London: Orbis Publishing Limited, 1984), pp. 2-4, ill.

Richmond, Robin. Animals in Art. Nashville: 1993, p. 24. Cited without inventory no.

Doxiadis, Euphrosyne. The Mysterious Fayum Portraits: Faces from Ancient Egypt (London: Thames and Hudson, 1995), color. ill. no. 74; comments p. 209.

Geoffroy-Schneider, Berenice. Fayoum. (Paris: Editions Assouline, 1998), p. 79.

Green, Christopher, and Jens M. Daehner. Modern Antiquity: Picasso, de Chirico, Leger, and Picabia (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011), 46, 152, no. 15; pl. 10.

Robles, Jaime. "Burial and the Crossing of Boundaries." Psychological Perspectives 59, no. 1 (2016), pp. 82, ill.