The J. Paul Getty Museum

The Shade of Samuel Invoked by Saul

Object Details


The Shade of Samuel Invoked by Saul


Bernardo Cavallino (Italian (Neapolitan), 1616 - 1656)




about 1650–1656


Oil on copper

Object Number:



61 × 86.4 cm (24 × 34 in.)

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Object Description

Bernardo Cavallino depicts an episode from the Bible in which King Saul, about to enter into battle with the Philistines, asked the Witch of Endor to summon the spirit of the recently deceased prophet Samuel, the last Judge of the Israelites. Silhouetted against a bright light emanating from a nearby doorway, Samuel's skin appears suitably ashen and gray. He engages the kneeling king with a penetrating stare, and delivers news that the next day the Philistines will defeat Israel and that Saul and his sons will die in battle. Cavallino eloquently conveys the emotional interaction among the three figures as Samuel relays this news.

The smooth, uniform surface of the painting’s copper support facilitated the application of paint in fine brushstrokes, as evidenced by carefully delineated contours and minute details, like the individual wisps of hair in Saul’s beard. Little is known about the artist’s life and work, but he is recognized for small-scale narrative compositions on copper and canvas, such as this one. Cavallino’s initials are included on a stone step to the left of the composition, making it one of only eight signed works by the Neapolitan artist.

This painting is said to be one of a group of four copper panels which were perhaps commissioned for a single recipient, which include Cavallino’s Mucius Scaevola Confronting King Porsenna in the Kimbell Museum, Forth Worth, and Andrea Vaccaro’s (1604–1670) Jonah Preaching at Nineveh, Museo de Bellas Artes, Seville. The fourth work, of unknown subject and authorship, is now considered lost, but the group may have included The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

about 1650 -

Possibly Don Virrey Pedro Antonio de Aragón (Naples, Italy; Madrid, Spain), commissioned from the artist, about 1650.


Private Collection (Madrid, Spain)


Fernando Dúran (Madrid, Spain)
Source: JPGM, Paintings Department, curatorial files, letter from Michael Simpson (January 8, 2001)


Private Dealer (Switzerland), sold to Somerville and Simpson, Ltd.
Source: JPGM, Paintings Department, curatorial files, letter from Michael Simpson (January 8, 2001)

- 1981

Somerville and Simpson, Ltd. (London, England), sold to Charles Atkins, 1981.

1981 - 1983

Charles Atkins (New York, New York), sold through through J. Barry Donahue Fine Arts Inc. (New York, New York) to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983.

Bernardo Cavallino of Naples, 1616-1656 (November 14, 1984 to March 24, 1985)
  • The Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland), November 14 to December 30, 1984
  • Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth), January 26 to March 24, 1985

Whitfield, Clovis, and Jane Martineau, eds. Painting in Naples 1606-1705: From Caravaggio to Giordano, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy of Arts, with Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982), p. 146, under no. 35; p. 147, under no. 37, entries by Nicola Spinosa.

La Pittura napoletana dal Caravaggio a Luca Giordano, exh. cat. (Turin: Fondazione Agnelli, 1982), pp. 167-68, under no. 37.

Bordeaux, Jean-Luc. "Le Défi Getty." Connaissance des Arts 394 (December 1984), p. 41, ill.

"Acquisitions/1983." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), p. 308, no. 4, ill.

Spinosa, Nicola, ed. La pittura napoletana del '600 (Milan: Longanesi, 1984), unpaginated, no. 159, ill., pl. II.

"Calendar." Burlington Magazine 126, no. 977 (August 1984), p. 535, fig. 78.

Percy, Ann, et al., eds. Bernardo Cavallino of Naples, 1616-1656, exh. cat. (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1984), p. 218, under no. 83; pp. 220, 222, 223, under no. 84; pp. 226-27, no. 85, ill., entries by Ann T. Lurie; pl. XXIV.

Percy, Ann. "Introduction." In Bernardo Cavallino of Naples, 1616-1656, exh. cat. Ann Percy et al., eds. (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1984), pp. 6, 20, 24.

Fredericksen, Burton B. "Recent Acquisitions of Paintings: The J. Paul Getty Museum." Burlington Magazine 127, no. 985 (April 1985), p. 265.

Gilbert, Creighton. "The Small-Scale Paintings of Cavallino." The New Criterion 3, no. 6 (February 1985), p. 69.

Stoughton, Michael. Review of Bernardo Cavallino of Naples, 1616-1656. Cleveland, Fort Worth, Naples. Burlington Magazine 127, no. 984 (March 1985), p. 194.

Spinosa, Nicola, et al., eds. Bernardo Cavallino (1616-1656), exh. cat. (Naples: Museo Pignatelli, 1985), pp. 169-72, under no. A.48; p. 223, no. C.39, ill.

Pillsbury, William P., et al. In Pursuit of Quality: The Kimbell Art Museum; An Illustrated History of the Art and Architecture (Fort Worth: The Kimbell Art Museum, 1987), p. 205, ill.

Spinosa, Nicola. "La pittura del Seicento nell'Italia meridionale." In La pittura in Italia: Il Seicento. Mina Gregori and Erich Schleier, eds. 2 vols. (Milan: Electa, 1989), vol. 2, p. 486.

Ferrari, Oreste. "La pittura e la scultura del Seicento: Classicismo, Barocco, Rococò." In Il Rinascimento e l'età barocca. Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, ed. (Naples: Electa, 1994), p. 284.

Schütze, Sebastian. "Exemplum Romanitatis: Poussin e la pittura napoletana del Seicento." In Poussin et Rome: Actes du colloque de l'Académie de France à Rome, 16-18 novembre 1994. Olivier Bonfait et al., eds. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1996), pp. 185-86, fig. 6.

Percy, Ann. "Cavallino, Bernardo." In The Dictionary of Art. Jane Turner, ed. Vol. 6 (New York: Grove, 1996), p. 109.

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 24, ill.

Battistini, Matilde. Astrology, Magic, and Alchemy in Art. Rosanna M. Giammanco Frongia, trans. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), pp. 184-85, ill.

Spinosa, Nicola. Pittura del Seicento a Napoli: Da Caravaggio a Massimo Stanzione (Naples: Arte'm, 2010), p. 199, no. 72, ill.

Spinosa, Nicola. Grazia e tenerezza "in posa": Bernardo Cavallino e il suo tempo 1616-1656 (Rome: Bozzi, 2013), p. 374, no. 107.1, ill.