The J. Paul Getty Museum

Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago

Object Details

Title:

Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago

Culture:

Spanish

Date:

1804

Medium:

Oil on canvas

Object Number:

83.PA.12

Dimensions:

209.9 × 126.7 cm (82 5/8 × 49 7/8 in.)

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Object Description

The Marquesa de Santiago strikes a commanding presence, confronting the viewer directly with her hand assertively on her hip. She stands in front of a landscape of gently sloping hills dotted with cottages made up of rough, tan brushstrokes. Her sheer white lace mantilla veil extends to her knees and she holds a closed fan in her left hand, both traditional accessories of Spanish women in the 1700s and 1800s. The Marquesa was known to wear bold makeup, enough that her acquaintances wrote about it, and here, heavily applied rouge, powder, and lipstick accentuate her features. While other portraitists of this time often flattered or idealized their sitters, Francisco Goya frankly captured the Marquesa’s appearance and confident personality.

The Marquesa, María de la Soledad Rodríguez de los Ríos Tauche, grew up the only child of a well-connected family in Madrid, eventually inheriting the three noble titles of her parents and the wealth that came with those. Married first in 1783 when she was eighteen, then again in 1790 after she was widowed, María was the one who brought greater wealth and status to her husbands. She had estates in Flanders and Spain, two million reales in capital (the Spanish currency used from the 1300s to 1860s), and two million more in silver, jewelry, and other possessions. This portrait, though painted as a pair to her second husband’s, unconventionally touts her own title, Santiago, in the inscription in the lower right, rather than his, San Adrían, which would have been typical for her to adopt as his wife. As the more elite of the couple, she may have decided to commission these portraits from Goya to add to her family’s substantial paintings collection.

Provenance
Provenance
1804 - 1807

José María Magallón y Armendáriz, marqués de San Adrián, 1763 - 1845 (Madrid, Spain) and María de la Soledad Rodríguez de los Ríos, marquesa de Santiago, 1764 - 1807 (Madrid, Spain), commissioned from the artist, 1804; by inheritance to her son (and his stepson) by her first marriage, Antonio María Bernaldo de Quirós Monreal, marqués de Santiago, 1807.

1807 - 1836

Antonio María Bernaldo de Quirós Monreal, marqués de Santiago, 1788 - 1836 (Madrid, Spain), by inheritance within the Santiago family.

1836 -

Santiago Family (Madrid, Spain)

by 1887 - 1917

José Mesia y Gayoso, 4th duke of Tamames, 1853 - 1917 (Biarritz, France), by inheritance to his wife, Maria de Galisteo, 1917.

1917 - about 1930

Maria de Galisteo, 18th Duchess of Tamames, 1851 - 1927 (Biarritz, France), sold to a private collector, about 1930.

about 1930 - by 1982

Private Collection (Switzerland), consigned to Harari and Johns, by 1982; half-share sold to Artemis Fine Arts Ltd., by 1982.

by 1982 - 1983

Private Collection (Switzerland) and Artemis Fine Arts Ltd. (London, England), sold, through Harari and Johns (London, England) and Eugene Thaw (New York, New York), to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
VI. Internationale Kunstaustellung (June to October, 1892)
  • Glaspalaste (Munich), June to October 1892
Goya: un regard libre (December 12, 1998 to July 11, 1999)
  • Palais des Beaux-Arts (Lille), December 12, 1998 to March 14, 1999
  • Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia), April 17 to July 11, 1999
Goya: La imagen de la mujer (October 30, 2001 to June 2, 2002)
  • Museo del Prado (Madrid), October 30, 2001 to February 10, 2002
Bibliography
Bibliography

Viñaza, Cipriano Muñoz y Manzano de la. Goya: Su tiempo, su vida, sus obras (Madrid: Tipografía de Manuel G. Hernández, 1887), p. 268, no. 134.

Illustrierter Katalog der VI. Internationalen Kunst-Ausstellung 1892 im Kgl. Glaspalaste, exh. cat. (Munich: Verlagsanstalt für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1892), p. 30, no. 646c.

Lafond, Paul. Goya (Paris: Librairie de l'art ancien et moderne, 1902), p. 137, no. 208.

Calvert, Albert F. Goya: An Account of His Life and Works (London and New York: John Lane, 1908), p. 140, no. 230.

Stokes, Hugh. Francisco Goya: A Study of the Work and Personality of the Eighteenth Century Spanish Painter and Satirist (London: H. Jenkins, 1914), p. 246.

Beruete y Moret, Aureliano de. Goya, pintor de retratos (Madrid: Blass, 1916), p. 176, no. 168.

Loga, Valerian von. Francisco de Goya (Berlin: G. Grote, 1921), p. 202, no. 330.

Beruete y Moret, Aureliano de. Goya as Portrait Painter. Selwyn Brinton, trans. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922), p. 210, no. 176.

Zapater y Gómez, Francisco. Colección de cuatrocientas cuarenta y nueve reproducciónes de cuadros, dibujos y aguafuertes de Don Francisco de Goya [...] (Madrid: Editorial "Saturnino Calleja," 1924), p. 476, no. 152, ill.

Mayer, August L. Francisco de Goya. Robert West, trans. (London and Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1924), p. 166, no. 417, pl. 155.

Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, Xavière. L'Oeuvre peint de Goya: Catalogue raisonné. 2 vols. (Paris: F. de Nobele, 1928-50), vol. 2, p. 180, no. 467, pl. 386.

Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, Xavière. L'Oeuvre peint de Goya: Catalogue raisonné. 2 vols. (Paris: F. de Nobele, 1928-50), vol. 1, p. 36.

Gassier, Pierre, and Juliet Wilson. Vie et oeuvre de Francisco Goya (Fribourg: Office du Livre, 1970), pp. 253, 261, no. 879, ill.

Gudiol, José. Goya, 1746-1838: Biography, Analytical Study and Catalogue of His Paintings. Kenneth Lyons, trans. 4 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Poligrafa, 1971), vol. 4, pp. 728, 730, figs. 886, 888.

Gudiol, José. Goya, 1746-1838: Biography, Analytical Study and Catalogue of His Paintings. Kenneth Lyons, trans. 4 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Poligrafa, 1971), vol. 1, pp. 141-42, 147, 314, no. 549.

Angelis, Rita de. L'Opera pittorica completa di Goya (Milan: Rizzoli, 1974), pp. 121-22, no. 480, ill.

Salas, Xavier de. Goya. G. T. Culverwell, trans. (London: Studio Vista, 1979), p. 193, no. 436, ill.

Gassier, Pierre, and Juliet Wilson. The Life and Complete Work of Francisco Goya, with a Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Drawings, and Engravings. 2nd ed. (1971; repr. New York: Harrison House, 1981), pp. 253, 261, no. 879, ill.

Camón Aznar, José. Fran. de Goya. 4 vols. (Zaragoza: Caja de Ahorros de Zaragoza, Aragón y Rioja, 1980-82), vol. 3, p. 171.

"Acquisitions/1983." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), pp. 315-16, no. 20, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B. "Goya's Portraits of the Marqueses de Santiago and de San Adrián." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 13 (1985), pp. 133-40, figs. 2a-c.

Glendinning, Nigel. "Goya's 'Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago'." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 13 (1985), pp. 141-46.

Sayre, Eleanor. "The 'Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago' and Ceán's Criticism of Goya." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 13 (1985), pp. 147-49.

Fredericksen, Burton B. "Goya's 'Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago': A Correction." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 14 (1986), p. 151.

Glendinning, Nigel. "A Footnote to Goya's 'Portrait of the Marquesa de Santiago'." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 14 (1986), pp. 149-50.

Hoving, Thomas. "Money and Masterpieces." Connoisseur 216, no. 899 (December 1986), p. 98.

Reinewald, Chris. "Musea en Galeries in Amerika: Het Getty Museum; Een Romeinse villa aan de Pacific Coast." Tableau 9, no. 4 (February 1987), pp. 65, 67.

Fredericksen, Burton B. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. Rev. ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988), unpaginated, no. 49, ill.

Glendinning, Nigel. Goya: La década de los caprichos; Retratos 1792-1804, exh. cat. (Madrid: Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, 1992), pp. 103, 125, no. 26, ill.

Fernández, Luis Alonso. "Dos retratos de Goya separados por la historia: El marqués en Pamplona y la marquesa en Malibú." Reseña 30, no. 236 (February 1993), pp. 44-45, ill.

Glendinning, Nigel. “Spanish Inventory References to Paintings by Goya, 1800-1850: originals, copies and valuations.” Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1091 (February 1994), pp. 107, 110.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 4th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 144, ill.

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 56, ill.

Brejon de Lavergnée, Arnauld, et al. Goya: un regard libre, exh. cat. (Lille: Palais des Beaux-Arts; Réunion des musées nationaux, 1998), pp. 193-95, no. 34, ill., entry by Jean-Louis Auge.

Gerard-Powell, Véronique. "Goya portraitiste." In Goya: un regard libre, exh. cat. Arnauld Brejon de Lavergnée, et al. (Lille: Palais des Beaux-Arts; Réunion des musées nationaux, 1998), p. 70.

Gerard-Powell, Véronique. "Goya: un regard libre." L'Estampille / L'Objet d'art, no. 331 (January 1999), pp. 22, 29, ill.

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Ribeiro, Aileen. "La moda femenina en los retratos de Goya." In Goya: la imagen de la mujer, exh. cat. Francisco Calvo Serraller, et al. (Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2001), pp. 112-13.

Ribeiro, Aileen. "Fashioning the Feminine: Dress in Goya's Portraits of Women." In Goya: Images of Women, exh. cat. Janis A. Tomlinson, ed. (Washington, D.C: National Gallery of Art, 2002), pp. 82-83.

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Education Resources
Education Resources

Education Resource

Subjects

Grades

Format

Picture a Character

Students write descriptions and use a variety of media to create portraits of characters from the fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts; History–Social Science

3-5

Three/Five-Part Lesson

Looking at Portraits Lesson 3: The Interview

Students spend more time looking at details and write an imagined interview with a sitter.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts; ESL (English as a Second Language)

Adult Learners

Short Activity