Statue of Jupiter (Marbury Hall Zeus)

Object Details

Title:

Statue of Jupiter (Marbury Hall Zeus)

Artist/Maker:

Unknown

Culture:

Roman

Place:

Italy (Place found)

Date:

1st century

Medium:

Marble

Dimensions:

207 × 100 × 62.5 cm (81 1/2 × 39 3/8 × 24 5/8 in.)

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Portrayed as a mature bearded man, Zeus sits enthroned in his role as king of the gods. Originally he would have held his attributes: a scepter and a thunderbolt. The colossal god towers over his mortal observers. Documented in the 1570s at Tivoli near Rome, the statue once decorated the gardens of the Villa d'Este. It is named for having been in the collection at Marbury Hall in England.

Although it was carved in a Roman workshop in the first century A.D., the inspiration for this image of Jupiter was a Greek sculpture of the 430s B.C., the monumental gold and ivory statue of Zeus created by the sculptor Pheidias (active 470-420 B.C.) for Zeus's temple at Olympia. Pheidias's Zeus was renowned in antiquity; as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, many ancient writers praised it and numerous sculptors copied it.

Provenance

Found: Italy

by 1572

Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, 1509 - 1572 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), the statue was displayed at the entrance to the garden at Villa d'Este. By inheritance to his nephew, Cardinal Luigi d'Este, 1572.

1572 - 1586

Cardinal Luigi d'Este, 1538 - 1586 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), Villa d'Este and its contents seized by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, 1586.

1586 - 1589

Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, Dean of the Sacred College, 1520 - 1589 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), by inheritance to successive deans of the Sacred College, 1589. Seized by Cardinal Alessandro d'Este, by 1605.

by 1605 - 1624

Cardinal Alessandro d'Este, 1568 - 1624 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy), by 1611 the statue had been relocated to the center niche of the Fontana dei Draghi in the gardens of the Villa d'Este where it remained until it was purchased by Henry Tresham (1778).

by 1632

Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio, 1610 - 1658 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy)

-

Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este, 1618 - 1672 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy)

-

Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio, 1655 - 1737

by 1675 - still in 1685

Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena, 1660 - 1694 (Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy)

- 1778

Henry Tresham, Irish, about 1751 - 1814, sold to Gavin Hamilton, 1778.

1778 - 1781

Gavin Hamilton, British, 1723 - 1798 (Rome, Italy), sold to James Hugh Smith Barry, 1781.

1781 -

James Hugh Smith Barry, British, 1746? - 1801 (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England), remained in the Smith Barry collection at Marbury Hall until the family sold the property in 1932. The statue was offered for sale in London in 1933 ("Remaining Contents of the Residence," Arber, Rutter, Waghorn and Brown, London, March 15-16, 1933, lot 751) but bought in and continued to be displayed at Marbury Hall.

by 1956

Miss E. Parsons (Marbury Hall, Cheshire, England)

- 1973

Michel Dumez-Onof (London, England), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum in partial exchange, 1973.

Exhibitions
Ancient Art from the Permanent Collection (March 16, 1999 to May 23, 2004)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), March 16, 1999 to May 23, 2004
Bibliography

del Re, Antonio. Dell'antichità tiburtine capitolo V (Rome: n.p., 1611), p. 65.

Venturini, Giovanni Francesco. Le Fontane del giardino estense in Tivoli (Rome: n.p., 1675), pl. II.

Falda, Giovanni Battista. Le fontane di Roma nelle piazze e lvoghi pvblici della città: Con li loro prospetti, come sono al presente (Rome: n.p., 1691).

Cartieri, Gaetano. Inventory of the Villa d'Este, 1752-53. Archivio di Stato at Modena, Busta 72, no. 20.

Clarac, Cte. Frédéric de. Musée de sculpture antique et moderne, ou description historique et graphique du Louvre et de toutes ses parties (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1841-53), III, 396D, 666A.

Overbeck, Johannes. Griechische Kunstmythologie II (Leipzig: Engelmann, 1871), p. 118.

Michaelis, Adolf. "Die Privatsammlungen antiker Bildwerke in England." Archaeologische Zeitung 32 (1875), pp. 1-70, p. 44, no. 1 (under Marbury Hall).

Fiorelli, Giuseppe. Documenti inediti per servire alla storia dei musei d'Italia II, vii (1879), (publication of the inventory of the Villa d'Este from December 3, 1572 from the Archivio di Stato, Rome, vol. 375 [now vol. 6039]) no. 9.

Michaelis, Adolf Theodor Friedrich. Ancient Marbles in Great Britain (Cambridge: University Press, 1882), p. 501, no. 1.

Arndt, Paul, and Walther Amelung. Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Sculpturen (Munich: Verlagsanstalt für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1893-1940), 3100.

Reinach, Salomon. Repertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine. 6 vols. (Paris: E. Leroux, 1897-1930), vol. 1 (1897), p. 184.

Ashby, Thomas. "The Villa d'Este at Tivoli and the Collection of Classical Sculptures which it contained." Archaeologia 61, no. 1 (1908), pp. 219-56; p. 230, with pl. 28 (Venturini's view of the Fontana dei Draghi), p. 230, p. 243.

Arber, Rutter, Waghorn and Brown. London. "Remaining Contents of the Residence." (March 15-16, 1933), lot 751.

Vermeule, Cornelius C., and Dietrich von Bothmer. "Notes on a New Edition of Michaelis: Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, II." American Journal of Archaeology 60 (1956), p. 321 ff, p. 336.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. "The Colossus of Porto Raphti: A Roman Female Personification." Hesperia 45, no. 1 (January-March 1976), pp. 67-76; p. 71; pl. 12c.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. "The Heroic Graeco-Roman Zeus from the Villa d'Este and Marbury Hall: A Cult Image Created after a Major Hellenistic (Pergamene) Prototype." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 5 (1977), pp. 43-44.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel, and Gillian Wilson. Guidebook: The J. Paul Getty Museum. 4th ed. Sandra Morgan, ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), p. 43.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. Greek Art: Socrates to Sulla; From the Peloponnesian Wars to the Rise of Julius Caesar. Art of Antiquity 2, pt. 2 (Boston: Dept. of Classical Art, Museum of Fine Art, 1980), pp. 132, 262; no. 110A, ill.

Podany, Jerry. "The Conservation of Two Marble Sculptures in the J. Paul Getty Museum." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 9 (1981), pp. 103-8; p. 103, n. 2.

Bogan, James. "Blake's Jupiter Olympius." Blake: An Illustrated Quarterly 15, no. 4 (Spring 1982), pp. 156-63; p. 159, fig. 4.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. Divinities and Mythological Scenes in Greek Imperial Art (Cambridge, MA: n.p., 1983), fig. 46.

Raeder, Joachim. Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli (Frankfurt am Main and Bern: Peter Lang, 1983), p. 197, no. V13.

Bianconi, G. "Tivoli e le sue rovine: Immagini dalla letteratura tedesca." In Atti e Memorie LVII (1984), pp. 179-81, pl. XXIII.

Vaughan, Gerard. "James Hugh Smith Barry as a Collector of Antiquities." Apollo 126, no. 305 (July 1987), pp. 4-11; pp. 10-11, figs. 8-9.

Martin, Hanz Günther. Römische Tempelkultbilder[...] (Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1987), p. 143.

Maderna, Catharina. Iuppiter Diomedes und Merkur als Vorbilder für römische Bildnisstatuen[...] (Heidelberg: Verlag Archäologie und Geschichte, 1988), p. 29.

Krause, B. "Trias Capitolina." Ph.D. diss. (Trier University, 1989), p. 37 n. 460, pl. 27.

Landwehr, Christa. "Die Sitzstatue eines bärtigen Gottes in Cherchel. Zur Originalität römischer Vatergottdarstellungen." In Phyromachos-Probleme (31. Ergh. RM), B. Andreae, ed. (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990), pp. 107, 112-13, cat. no. G1, pls. 68, 70.

Margolis, Stanley, and William Showers. "Ancient Greek and Roman Marble Sculpture: Authentication, Weathering, and Provenance Determination," Marble. Art Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Ancient Sculpture. Papers Delivered at a Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, April 28-30, 1988, pp. 283-299. Malibu: 1990, pp. 283-99; p. 267, table 1, no. 11.

Canciani, Fulvio. "Zeus/Iuppiter." In Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae VIII (1997), pp. 421-70; p. 427, no. 40; pl. 269.

Vlizos, Stavros. Der thronende Zeus: Eine Untersuchung zur statuarischen Ikonographie des Gottes in der spätklassischen und hellenistischen Kunst, Internationale Archäologie 62 (Rahden/Westf.: Leidorf, 1999), pp. 129-30, cat. M.1, pl. 14,1 (Flavian).

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection (Los Angeles: 2002), p. 150-51.

Scott, Jonathan. The Pleasures of Antiquity: British Collectors of Greece and Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 145, 146, fig. 106.

Musser, Jacob. "Apollo and Marbury Hall Zeus:Politics and Apotheosis in Roman Sculpture." In Building Bridges: 7th Annual Research Conference for Community Colleges, University of California at Irvine, March 2007 (Irvine: University of California, 2007), p. 11.

Coltman, Viccy. Classical Sculpture and the Culture of Collecting in Britain Since 1760 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p.130, fig. 43 (sketch by Gavin Hamilton).

Ferruti, Francesco. "La Villa d'Este a Tivoli e la collezione di sculture classiche che conteneva (di Thomas Ashby)." Atti e Memorie della Società Tiburtina di Storia e d'Arte [...] 82 (2009), (Italian translation of Ashby's 1908 article with commentary) pp. 234, 244, 246, 247, 274, no. 9.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection. Rev. ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010), p. 148.

Lapatin, K.D.S. "Representing Zeus." In The Statue of Zeus at Olympia. New Approaches, Janette McWilliam et al., eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011), 90, fig. 14.

Di Mauro, Alberto. Italy Art LA, educational brochure (Los Angeles: Italian Cultural Institute of Los Angeles, 2012), p. 23.

Education Resources

Education Resource

Subjects

Grades

Format

Giants of the Past

Students create paper sculptures based on Greek and Roman sculptures, and write stories told from the viewpoint of their sculptures.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts

3-5

Three/Five-Part Lesson

Ancient Greek & Roman Talk Show

Lesson in which students research and study artworks that depict Greek and Roman deities and present a mock TV talk show with the deities.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts; History–Social Science

6-8; 9-12

Three/Five-Part Lesson

Related Media
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    Audio: Marbury Hall Zeus (Descriptions)
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    Audio: The Marbury Hall Zeus (Family)