In the center of the canvas, Cupid, the god of love, subdues the god Pan by grabbing one of his ears. Pan personifies carnal lust, so their struggle represents the combat of divine and earthly love. The subject comes from a popular quotation from the Roman poet Virgil: "Love conquers all." The scene is set in Arcadia, a romantic paradise inhabited by nymphs and shepherds. Around Cupid and Pan, various figures gesture as they watch the two gods struggle. A winged allegorical figure soars above, catching the attention of several figures below.
This scene may derive from the central vault of the Sala d'Ercole (Room of Hercules) in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, which was painted by Federico Zuccaro.