St. Bartholomew

Object Details

Title:

St. Bartholomew

Artist/Maker(s):

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606 - 1669)

Culture:

Dutch

Place(s):

Netherlands (Place created)

Date:

1661

Medium:

Oil on canvas

Dimensions:

86.7 x 75.6 cm (34 1/8 x 29 3/4 in.)

Credit Line:

Gift of J. Paul Getty

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Made just eight years before Rembrandt's death, this painting depicts Saint Bartholomew holding a knife in his right hand, a reference to the fact that he was skinned alive when martyred. One of Rembrandt's neighbors may have posed as the model for the saint. By showing the apostle as a common man, Rembrandt gave the revered holy figure a tangible human quality, suggesting perhaps that holiness is part of daily life, a view in keeping with the religious atmosphere of mid-1600s Amsterdam.

Saint Bartholomew appears pensive, almost melancholy in mood. He holds his chin as if lost in thought and his eyes seem to see beyond time. Rembrandt used a broader, freely-brushed technique typical of his late mature style. Applied with a palette knife, thick areas of paint called impasto are visible on the saint's forehead, nose, ears, and hands. The overall handling of paint is much more expressive and contrasts with the smoother, more precise style of his earlier works.

Provenance
by 1757 - 1777

John Blackwood, 1698 - 1777 (London, England; Charlton, Kent)

- 1824

Richard Payne Knight, 1750 - 1824 (London, England; Downton Castle, Hereford and Worcester, England), by inheritance to his brother, Thomas Andrew Knight, 1824.

1824 - 1838

Thomas Andrew Knight, 1759 - 1838 (Downton Castle, Herefordshire, England), by inheritance to his daughter, Charlotte (Knight) Rouse-Boughton, 1838.

1838 - 1842

Charlotte (Knight) Rouse-Boughton, 1801 - 1842 (Downton Castle, Herefordshire, England), by inheritance to her son, Andrew Johnes Rouse Boughton-Knight, probably 1842.

probably 1842 - 1909

Andrew Johnes Rouse-Boughton-Knight, 1826 - 1909 (Downton Castle, Herefordshire, England), by inheritance to his son, Charles Andrew Rouse-Boughton-Knight, 1909.

1909 - still in 1946

Charles Andrew Rouse-Boughton-Knight, 1859 - 1947 (Downton Castle, Herefordshire, England), by inheritance to his grandson, William Mandeville Peareth Kincaid-Lennox.

- 1962

Maj. William Mandeville Peareth Kincaid-Lennox, born 1892 (Downton Castle, Hereford and Worcester, England) [sold, Kincaid-Lennox sale, Sotheby's, London, June 27, 1962, lot 10, to J. Paul Getty.]

1962 - 1971

J. Paul Getty, American, 1892 - 1976 (Malibu, California; Sutton Place, Surrey, England), donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1971.

Exhibitions
Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters, and by Deceased Masters of the British School (1880) (Cat. 234)
  • Royal Academy of Arts (London), 1880
Exhibition of Works by Rembrandt (1899) (Cat. 99)
  • Royal Academy of Arts (London), 1899
Exhibition of Modern Works in Painting and Sculpture Forming the Collections of the Late George McCulloch, Esq. (January 4, 1909 - March 13, 1909) (Cat. 52)
  • Royal Academy of Arts (London), 1909
Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters, and by Deceased Masters of the British School, including a Collection of Pictures and Drawings by Edwin Austin Abbey, R.A. (January 1 to March 9, 1912) (Cat. 52)
  • Royal Academy of Arts (London), January 1 to March 9, 1912
Exhibition of Dutch Art 1450 - 1900 (January 4 to March 9, 1929) (Cat. 86)
  • Royal Academy of Arts (London), January 4 to March 9, 1929
Commemorative Exhibition of the Art Treasures of the Midlands (1934) (Cat. 152)
  • Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery, (Birmingham), 1934
Exhibition of Fine Paintings by Old Masters (1948) (Cat. 3)
  • Leger Galleries, (London), 1948
Rembrandt Tentoonstelling ter herdenking van de Geboorte van - Rembrandt op 15 July 1606 (May 18 to October 12, 1956) (Cat. 87)
  • Rijksmuseum, (Amsterdam), May 18 to August 5, 1956
  • Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, (Rotterdam), August 8 to October 12, 1956
The J. Paul Getty Collection (June 29 to September 3, 1972) (Cat. 43)
  • The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, (Minneapolis), June 29 to September 3, 1972
Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits (January 30 to August 28, 2005) (Cat. 8)
  • National Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.), January 30 to May 1, 2005
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), June 7 to August 28, 2005
Rembrandt: Saint Bartholomew (October 1, 2005 to January 22, 2006) (Cat. 8)
  • Timken Museum of Art, (San Diego), October 1, 2005 to January 22, 2006
Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship (October 30, 2011 to September 16, 2012) (Cat. 48)
  • The Cleveland Museum of Art, (Cleveland), February 19 to May 28, 2012
  • The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, (Minneapolis), June 24 to September 16, 2012
Rembrandt: The Final Years (October 15, 2014 to May 17, 2015) (109)
  • The National Gallery (London), October 15, 2014 to January 18, 2015
  • Rijksmuseum, (Amsterdam), February 12 to May 17, 2015
Bibliography

Groot, Cornelis Hofstede de. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century, based on the Work of John Smith. Edward G. Hawke, ed. and trans. 8 vols. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1908-1927), vol. 6 (1916), pp. 119-20, no. 168.

Getty, J. Paul. The Joys of Collecting (New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1965), pp. 31, 113, 119, ill.

The J. Paul Getty Collection, exh. cat. (Minneapolis: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1972), unpaginated, no. 43, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B., ed. The J. Paul Getty Museum: Greek and Roman Antiquities, Western European Paintings, French Decorative Arts of the Eighteenth Century (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1975), pp. 71, 118-19, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B., et al. Guidebook: The J. Paul Getty Museum. 3rd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976), pp. 54, 56, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B., et al. The J. Paul Getty Museum Guidebook. 5th ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1980), pp. 52-53, ill.

Sutton, Peter C. A Guide to Dutch Art in America (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1986), p. 140, fig. 203.

Reinewald, Chris. "Musea en Galeries in Amerika. Het Getty Museum: Een Romeinse villa aan de Pacific Coast." Tableau 9, no. 4 (February 1987), p. 65.

Fredericksen, Burton B. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. Rev. ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988), unpaginated, no. 25, ill.

Koch-Hillebrecht, Manfred. Museen in den USA: Gemälde (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1992), pp. 278-79.

Fredericksen, Burton B., et al. Masterpieces of Painting in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 3rd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1995), unpaginated, no. 25, ill., entry by Burton B. Fredericksen.

Jaffé, David. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 103, ill.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 6th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001), pp. 120-21, ill.

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