The J. Paul Getty Museum

The Seven Churches of Asia Minor

Object Details


The Seven Churches of Asia Minor






London (probably), England (Place Created)


about 1255–1260


Tempera colors, gold leaf, colored washes, pen and ink on parchment

Object Number:

Ms. Ludwig III 1 (83.MC.72), fol. 2v


Leaf: 31.9 × 22.5 cm (12 9/16 × 8 7/8 in.)

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Object Description

I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, saying: What you see, write in a book, and send to the seven churches which are in Asia, to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. (Apocalypse 1:10-11)

Saint John stands at the far right looking at the churches within the framed miniature. The illuminator used the device of placing John either outside of the miniature's frame or within the miniature itself to suggest that the scenes are visions. In this miniature, a row of fanciful buildings with an angel perched on top of each one represents the seven churches.

As on other pages of the manuscript, copper-green pigment from the miniature on the reverse of the page has bled through to this page.