The J. Paul Getty Museum

Gospel Book

Object Details


Gospel Book






Ethiopia (Place Created)


about 1480–1520



Object Number:

Ms. 105 (2010.17)


Closed: 36.5 × 27 × 11.4 cm (14 3/8 × 10 5/8 × 4 1/2 in.)

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Object Description

The Gospel book, which contains the New Testaments texts of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, is the main liturgical book used in the Ethiopian liturgy, as it was in the early Middle Ages in Europe. This example belongs to a group of manuscripts executed in the so-called Gunda Gundé style. Named after a Stephanite monastery in the Christian highlands of Ethiopia, Gunda Gundé illumination is characterized by a bright palette of primary colors, and monumental figures with rounded outlines and prominent, almond-shaped eyes. Intricate interlace patterns frame miniatures and decorate canon tables.

Particularly extraordinary in this Gospel book is a lengthy and unusual cycle of prefatory images displaying seventy-two prophets arranged in two registers one above the other. The first miniature in this series is anchored by the figure of Abraham embracing the prophets Jacob and Isaac. This series of single figures fills four double-page spreads, creating a powerful and graphic expression of seminal biblical authors within the Christian faith. The serial imagery of the prophets in this manuscript was an important visual motif developed in Gunda Gundé manuscripts, and this Gospel book contains a particularly beautiful and lengthy example.

The cycle of miniatures at the beginning of the manuscript culminates with a depiction of the Virgin and Child flanked by the archangels Gabriel and Michael holding swords. Veneration of this iconic image was instituted by Emperor Zar'a Ya'eqob (1434-1468), and this miniature represents an early and distinctive manifestation of the iconography. In addition, each Gospel is prefaced by a portrait of the evangelist who composed the text that follows, and each author is shown in the act of writing. Both the image of the Virgin and Child and the evangelist portraits are typical features of Ethiopian Gospel books.

1940 - 1960

Mr. Vesecchi, given to his companion Mrs. Mitrano, 1960.
Note: Believed to have lived in Ethiopia until he returned to Italy in the 1960s.

1960's - 1997

Mrs. Mitrano, Italian, died 1997, by inheritence to her son Andre Mitrano, 1970.

1997 - 2000

Andre Mitrano, Italian, (Varese, Italy)

by 2000

Giuseppe Vimercati, Italian, , to Sam Fogg Ltd., London, 2005.

- 2005

Sam Fogg Rare Books & Manuscripts, English, sold to Paul Ruddock, 2005.

2005 -

Sir Paul Ruddock, to Sam Fogg Ltd., London.

- 2010

Sam Fogg Rare Books & Manuscripts, English, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010.

L'Arche Éthiopienne: Art Chrétien d'Éthiopie (September 27, 2000 to January 7, 2001) (fols. 21v-22)
  • Pavillon des Arts (Paris), September 27, 2000 to January 7, 2001
Art of Ethiopia (October 18 to October 29, 2005) (fols. unknown)
  • PaceWildenstein (New York), October 18 to October 29, 2005
The Old Testament in Medieval Manuscript Illumination (June 1 to August 8, 2010) (fols. 5v-6)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), June 1 to August 8, 2010
"In the Beginning was the Word": Medieval Gospel Illumination (August 30 to November 27, 2011) (fols. 9v-10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), August 30 to November 27, 2011
Heaven and Earth: Byzantine Illumination at the Cultural Crossroads (March 25 to June 22, 2014) (fols. 116v-117)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), March 25 to June 22, 2014
Traversing the Globe through Illuminated Manuscripts (January 22 to June 26, 2016) (fols. 9v-10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), January 22 to June 26, 2016
Things Unseen: Vision, Belief, and Experience in Medieval Manuscripts (July 12 to September 25, 2016) (fols. 5v-6)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), July 12 to September 25, 2016

Mordini, Antonio. "Il Convento Di Gunde Gundiè" Rassegna di studi etiopici XII (December 1953), pp. 29-81.

L'Arche Éthiopienne: Art Chrétien d'Éthiopie, exh. cat. (Paris: Pavillon des arts; Girona: Fundació Caixa, 2000), p. 87, ill.

Uhlig, Siegbert. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica. Vol. 1 A-C (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2003), pp. 680-1.

Mercier, Jacques. Vierges d'Éthiopie (Paris: L'Archange Minotaure, 2004), pp. 99, 102, ill.

Fletcher, Arcadia. Art of Ethiopia (London: Sam Fogg, 2005), pp. 84-89, no. 35, ill.

Morrison, Elizabeth, Mary Louise Hart, and Justine Andrews. "Splendori dal Bosforo: Arte bizantina a Los Angeles." Alumina: Pagine miniate 12, no. 45, Lucia Mariani, trans. (April-June 2014), p. 53, ill.

Keene, Bryan C. Toward a Global Middle Ages: Encountering the World through Illuminated Manuscripts. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2019, pp. 19–21, 19, 33n72.

Helleman, Wendy E., and Musa A.B. Gaiya. Early Christianity: A Textbook for African Students. S.l.: Langham Global Library, 2019, pp. 160.