The Milliners

Object Details

Title:

The Milliners

Artist/Maker(s):

Edgar Degas (French, 1834 - 1917)

Culture:

French

Date:

about 1882 - before 1905

Medium:

Oil on canvas

Dimensions:

59.1 x 72.4 cm (23 1/4 x 28 1/2 in.)

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Two milliners sit at a dramatically angled worktable, their bodies partly obscured by the shadowed hat stands that crowd their work space. Seen as little more than a silhouette, the figure at right works carefully on a hat. Her attentiveness is not shared by her older counterpart who, though grasping a swath of pink fabric, appears lost in thought, gazing beyond the frame with a disquieting expression. The brightly colored ribbons--pink, yellow, orange, and green--draw attention to the drabness of the room and its inhabitants.

Over the course of about thirty years, Edgar Degas produced more than twenty paintings, pastels, and drawings of millinery shops. Among modern painters, Degas alone depicted this subject matter with such frequency. His voyeuristic yet empathetic portrait of the milliner's private world focuses on the physical hardship of their work. The woman at the left embodies the painter's concern; even at rest, her wiry body and pallid skin registers a life of hard work and meager reward.

Provenance
- 1918

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917 [sold, Degas sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, May 6-8, 1918, lot 109, to Jacques Seligmann]

1918 - 1921

Jacques Seligmann, 1858 - 1923 [sold, Seligmann sale, American Art Association, New York, January 21, 1921, lot 28, to Josse Bernheim]

1921 -

Josse Bernheim, 1870 - 1941

by 1933 - 1939

Ambroise Vollard, 1867 - 1939, by inheritance to his mistress, Madame de Galea, 1939.

1939 - 1945

Madame de Galea, died 1945, by inheritance to her son, Robert de Galea, 1945.

1945 -

Robert de Galea, by inheritance to his son, Christian de Galea.

- 2004

Christian de Galea

2004 - 2005

Acquavella Galleries, Inc., sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005.

Exhibitions
Paintings from the Ambroise Vollard Collection, XIX-XX Centuries / Exhibition of French Art, XIX-XX Centuries: Paintings from the Ambroise Vollard Collection (1933 to 1934) (Cat. 18 / 17)
  • Knoedler & Company, (New York), 1933
  • Arts and Craft Club of Detroit, 1934
Degas at the Getty (March 7 to June 11, 2006) (no cat.)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 7 to June 11, 2006
Degas' Method (June 6, 2013 to September 1, 2013) (Cat. 64)
  • Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, (Copenhagen), June 6 to September 1, 2013
Bibliography

Galerie Georges Petit, Paris. Catalogue des tableaux, pastels et dessins par Edgar Degas et provenant de son atelier. May 6-8, 1918, p. 59, lot 109, ill.

American Art Association, New York. The Notable Private Collection of Paintings and Pastels by the Great French Master Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas, Formed by the Widely Known Antiquarian Jacques Seligmann of Paris. January 27, 1921, unpaginated, lot 28, ill.

Paintings from the Ambroise Vollard Collection, XIX-XX Centuries, exh. cat. (New York: Knoedler Galleries, 1933), unpaginated, no. 18.

Exhibition of French Art, XIX-XX Centuries: Paintings from the Ambroise Vollard Collection, exh. cat. (Detroit: The Arts and Craft Club of Detroit, 1934), unpaginated, no. 17.

Lemoisne, Paul A. Degas et son oeuvre. 4 vols. (Paris: Paul Brame et C. M. de Hauke, 1946; repr., New York and London: Garland, 1984), vol. 3, pp. 594-95, no. 1023, ill.

Russoli, Franco, and Fiorella Minervino. L'opera completa di Degas (Milan: Rizzoli, 1970), p. 117, no. 680, ill.

Boggs, Jean Sutherland, et al. Degas, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988), p. 400n1, under no. 235, entry by Gary Tinterow.

Iskin, Ruth E. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 107-11, figs. 43-44.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 7th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), pp. 138-39, ill.

Lehnert, Gertrud. Frauen mit Stil: Modeträume aus drei Jahrhunderten (Munich: Elisabeth Sandmann, 2012), p. 66, ill.

Groom, Gloria. "Edgar Degas, 'Chez la modiste.'" In L'impressionnisme et la mode, exh. cat. Gloria Groom, ed. (Paris: Musée d'Orsay, with Skira Flammarion, 2012), p. 239.

Groom, Gloria. "Edgar Degas: 'The Millinery Shop.'" In Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity, exh. cat. Gloria Groom, ed. (Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago, with Yale University Press, 2012), pp. 221, 222, fig. 4.

Pedersen, Line Clausen. "Degas' Method." In Degas' Method, exh. cat. James Manley, trans. (Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, 2013), pp. 99-100, fig. 52.

Pedersen, Line Clausen, et al. Degas' Method, exh. cat. James Manley and Neil Martin Stanford, trans. (Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, 2013), pp. 296-97, no. 64, ill.

Education Resources

Education Resource

Subjects

Grades

Format

What Can Art Tell Us about Ourselves?

Lesson in which students compare vocations in 19th-century French artworks with those they might encounter in 21st-century Los Angeles.

Visual Arts; English–Language Arts; History–Social Science

9-12

Three/Five-Part Lesson

Related Media
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    Audio: The Milliners, feat. Charlotte Eyerman