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The Torment of Unbelievers and Heretics
Simon Marmion (Flemish, active 1450 - 1489)
Valenciennes France Europe Ghent Belgium Europe (Place created)
Tempera colors, gold leaf, gold paint, and ink on parchment
The angel leads Tondal's soul to a narrow pass at the foot of a mountain where demons torment unbelievers and heretics. The fiends first cast the sinners into great stinking fires of sulphur on one side of the pass. On the other side, the fiends haul the sinners out with red-hot hooks and drag them into abysses of cold, jagged ice. As the narrator describes the torture, "From bad to worse, the souls were treated without hope of ever leaving."
Illuminated Flemish Manuscripts of the Late Middle Ages (July 26 to October 16, 1988)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 26 to October 16, 1988
"The Visions of Tondal" and Manuscripts from the Time of Margaret of York (April 17 to July 1, 1990)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 17 to July 1, 1990
Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe (June 17, 2003 to February 22, 2004)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), June 17 to September 7, 2003
- Royal Academy of Arts (London), November 29, 2003 to February 22, 2004