Book of Hours

Object Details

Title:

Book of Hours

Artist/Maker(s):

Masters of Dirc van Delf (Dutch, active about 1400 - about 1410)

Attributed to Johannes de Malborch

Culture:

Dutch

Place(s):

Utrecht (probably), Netherlands (Place created)

Date:

about 1405 - 1410

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between wood boards covered with purple velvet

Dimensions:

Leaf: 16.5 x 11.7 cm (6 1/2 x 4 5/8 in.)

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In the early 1400s in the northern Netherlands, a new dynamic cultural circle developed under the patronage of Albrecht of Bavaria, Count of Holland. In a workshop closely associated with the count, the anonymous artists known as the Masters of Dirc van Delf illuminated this book of hours, perhaps for a member of Albrecht's family or one of his courtiers. These artists, who worked in the International style that so appealed to aristocratic taste across Europe, formed one of the first important illuminators' workshops of fifteenth-century Holland.

While the Hours of the Virgin were most often illustrated with miniatures showing the Life of the Virgin, this book illustrates these services with scenes from the Passion of Christ. With their powerful dramatic style, the eight full-page miniatures provide visual meditations on the meaning of the story of Jesus, fostering the viewer's empathy for his supreme sacrifice. Historiated initials and decorated borders complete the decorative scheme.

Related Works
Exhibitions
The Passion of Christ in Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts (April 11 to July 5, 1992) (fols. 54v - 55)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 11 to July 5, 1992
The International Style: Courtly Art Around the Year 1400 (October 24, 1994 to January 8, 1995) (fols. 13v - 14)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), October 25, 1994 to January 8, 1995
Masterpieces of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscript illumination (December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998) (fols. 13v - 14)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998
Illuminating Color (May 22 to August 26, 2001) (fols. 13v - 14)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 22 to August 26, 2001
A Treasury of Fifteenth Century Manuscript Illumination (March 26 to June 16, 2002) (fols. 42v - 43)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 26 to June 16, 2002
The Medieval Best Seller: Illuminated Books of Hours (October 29, 2002 to January 19, 2003) (fols. 78v - 79)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), October 29, 2002 to January 19, 2003
Five Hundred Years of Manuscript Illumination (February 11 to June 1, 2003) (fols. 13v - 14 fols. 68v - 69)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 11 to June 1, 2003
Fit for a King: Courtly Manuscripts, 1380-1450 (June 29 to August 29, 2004) (fols. 79v - 80)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), June 29 to September 5, 2004
Imagining Christ (May 6 to July 27, 2008) (Fol. 68v - 69)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 6 to July 27, 2008
Illuminated Manuscripts from Belgium and the Netherlands (August 24, 2010 to February 6, 2011) (a: fol. 79v - 80 b: fol. 13v - 14)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), August 24, 2010 to February 6, 2011
Heaven and Earth: Byzantine Illumination at the Cultural Crossroads (March 25 to June 22, 2014) (fols. 54v - 55)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 25 to June 22, 2014
Bibliography

Plotzek, Joachim M. Andachtsbücher des Mittelalters aus Privatbesitz, exh. cat. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1987), pp. 163-67, no. 48, ill.

Proske-van Heerdt, Dorine. "In de marges van Utrechtse (?) handschriften uit het eerste kwart van de 15de eeuw." In Middeleeuwse handschriftenkunde in de Nederlanden 1988. Joseph M. M. Hermans, ed. (Grave: Uitgeverij Alfa, 1989), pp. 141-42, figs. 6-7.

Proske-van Heerdt, Dorine. "The Dirc van Delft-Style: Structure and Chronology." In Masters and Miniatures [...]. (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989). Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt, eds. (Ghent: Davaco Publishers, 1991), p. 247.

Renger, Marta O. "Some Distinctive Utrecht Workshop Procedures around 1400." In Masters and Miniatures [...] (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989). Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt, eds. (Ghent: Davaco Publishers, 1991), pp. 318-19, 326, fig. 18.

Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, Wilhelmina C. M. Wüstefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting, exh. cat. (New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library with George Braziller, Inc., 1990), pp. 39-40, no. 8, figs. 10-11.

Marrow, James H. "Johannes de Malborch: Dutch Scribe of the Early 15th Century." In Miscellanea Martin Wittek (Louvain: Editions Peeters, 1993), pp. 267, 273, figs. 12-13.

Marrow, James H. "The Place of Kings MS 5 in History and Art." In Biblia Pauperum: Kings MS5, British Library, London (Lucerne: Faksimile Verlag, 1994), pp. 119, 158, fig. 40.

Masterpieces of the J. Paul Getty Museum: Illuminated Manuscripts (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), pp. 64-66, no. 26, ill., entry by Thomas Kren.

Marrow, James H. "L'Enluminure dans les anciens Pays-Bas Septentrionaux." In L'art flammand et hollandais: Le siècle des Primitifs 1380-1520. Christian Heck, ed. (Paris: Citadelles and Mazenod, 2003), pp. 301, 306, fig. 368.

Kren, Thomas. Illuminated Manuscripts from Belgium and the Netherlands in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010), pp. 12-13, 48-49, ill., inner cover ills.

Bousmanne, Bernard, and Thierry Delcourt, eds. Miniatures flamandes 1404-1482, exh. cat. (Brussels: Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, 2011), p. 420, under no. 121, fig. 312, entry by Lieve De Kesel.