The J. Paul Getty Museum

Il Fior di Battaglia

Object Details

Title:

Il Fior di Battaglia

Artists/Makers:

Unknown

Fiore Furlan dei Liberi da Premariacco (Italian, about 1340/1350 - before 1450)

Culture:

Italian

Place:

Venice, Italy; Padua (or), Italy (Place Created)

Date:

about 1410

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, silver leaf, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with light brown calf

Object Number:

Ms. Ludwig XV 13 (83.MR.183)

Dimensions:

Closed: 29 × 21.9 × 2.5 cm (11 7/16 × 8 5/8 × 1 in.)

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Object Description

Like people today, people of the medieval and Renaissance periods read how-to books. This manuscript by the greatest fencing-master of the late 1300s, Fiore Furlan dei Liberi da Premariacco, instructs the reader in the intricacies of combat. Lively illustrations of charging horses and armored knights accompany the text. Through words and pictures, the manuscript teaches a variety of fighting techniques including single combat on foot with sword, dagger, and ax, and also mounted combat in all its variations. Nicolò III d'Este, ruler of Ferrara, ordered at least three copies of this text, including this one. Nicolò's interest in such a manual was quite natural, since fighting played an important role in the education of young nobleman, and he himself was raising three sons.

Provenance
Provenance
mid early 15th century

Probably Niccolò III d'Este, Italian, 1383 - 1441
Source: Special emphasis in the dedication inscription.

mid 15th century

Niccolò Marcello, Italian, 1399 - 1474

- 1750

Apostolo Zeno, Italian, 1669 - 1750

- 1825

Abbot Luigi Celotti, Italian, 1765 - 1848 [sold, Sotheby's, London, March 14, 1825, lot 134, to Sir Thomas Payne.]

1825 - 1830

John Thomas Payne, English, 1801 - 1874, sold to Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1830.

1830 - 1872

Sir Thomas Phillipps, first Bart, British, 1792 - 1872

1872 - 1966

Estate of Sir Thomas Phillipps, first Bart, British, 1792 - 1872 [sold, Sotheby's, London, November 29, 1966, lot 61, to H.P. Kraus]
Note: MS. 4204

1966 - 1979

Hans P. Kraus, Sr., American, born Austria, 1907 - 1988, sold to Dr. Peter and Irene Ludwig, 1979.
Source: Bibliotheca Phillippica: Manuscripts on Vellum and Paper from the 6th to the 18th Centuries. From the Celebrated Collection formed by Sir Thomas Phillips. The Final Selection, Cat. 153 (New York, 1979), no. 52

1979 - 1983

Dr. Peter Ludwig, German, 1925 - 1996 and Irene Ludwig, German, 1927 - 2010, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
Secular Manuscripts (October 21, 1986 to January 4, 1987) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), October 21, 1986 to January 4, 1987
Illuminated Italian Manuscripts (April 19 to July 10, 1988) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 19 to July 10, 1988
The International Gothic Style (January 17 to April 1, 1989) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 17 to April 1, 1989
Vie a mon desir: Illuminated Manuscripts and Their Patrons (April 18 to July 2, 1989) (fols. 45v-46)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 18 to July 2, 1989
Illuminated Secular Manuscripts (July 17 to September 30, 1990) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 17 to September 30, 1990
Illuminated Secular Manuscripts (January 24 to April 9, 1995) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 24 to April 9, 1995
Italian Manuscript Illumination (May 9 to July 30, 2000) (fols. 44v-45)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), May 9 to July 30, 2000
The Making of a Medieval Book (2000) (August 15 to November 5, 2000) (fols. 9v-10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), August 15 to November 5, 2000
The Making of a Medieval Book (May 20 to September 28, 2003) (fols. 9v-10; fols. 41v-42)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), May 20 to September 28, 2003
Images of Violence in the Medieval World (December 21 2004 to March 13, 2005) (fols. 41v-42)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), December 21, 2004 to March 13, 2005
The Medieval Bookshelf: From Romance to Astronomy (January 24 to April 9, 2006) (fols. 36v-37)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), January 24 to April 9, 2006
Medieval Beasts (May 1 to July 29, 2007) (fols. 31v-32)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), May 1 to July 29, 2007
The Medieval Scriptorium (November 24, 2009 to February 14, 2010) (fols. 31v-32)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), November 24, 2009 to February 14, 2010
Chivalry in the Middle Ages (July 8 to November 30, 2014) (fols. 13v-14; fols. 20v-21)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), July 8 to November 30, 2014
Renaissance Splendors of the Northern Italian Courts (March 31 to June 21, 2015) (fols. 45v-46)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), March 31 to June 21, 2015
Truth and Beauty: The Pre-Raphaelites and the Old Masters (June 30 to September 30, 2018) (fols. 25v-26)
  • California Palace of the Legion of Honor (San Francisco), June 30 to September 30, 2018
The Book of Beasts: The Bestiary in the Medieval World (May 14 to August 18, 2019) (fols. 31v-32)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), May 14 to August 18, 2019
Bibliography
Bibliography

Mellini, Gian Lorenzo. "Disegni di Altichiero e della sua Scuola, 1." Critica d'arte 9, no. 51 (May-June 1962).

Mellini, Gian Lorenzo. "Disegni di Altichiero e della sua Scuola, 2." Critica d'arte 9, no. 53-54 (September-October, November-December, 1962).

"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12, 1984, p. 306.

von Euw, Anton, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1979-1985), vol. 4 (1985), pp. 282-88.

Touwaide, Alain. "Visions du monde médiéval à travers les manuscrits enluminées du J. P. Getty Museum (Malibu)." Scriptorium 45, no. 1 (1991), pp. 298-302.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005), pp. xiv, 33-35, ill.

Morrison, Elizabeth. Beasts: Factual & Fantastic (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum; London: The British Library, 2007), pp. 53-56, fig. 44.

Eze, Anne-Marie. "Abbe Luigi Celotti (1759-1843): Connoisseur, Dealer, and Collector of Illuminated Miniatures." Ph.D. diss. (The Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, 2010), p.108-9, p.108-9.

Mondschein, Ken. The Knightly Art of Battle (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011), passim.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 2nd ed. (Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015), pp. xvi, 37-39, ill.

Morrison, Elizabeth, and Larisa Grollemond. Book of Beasts. The Bestiary in the Medieval World, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2019), pp. 219.