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Hugo of Fouilloy (French, about 1110 - about 1173/1174)
Thérouanne ?, France (formerly Flanders) (Place created)
Tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with brown morocco
Leaf: 19.1 x 14.3 cm (7 1/2 x 5 5/8 in.)
Bestiaries, collections of moralizing descriptions of animals both real and legendary, were among the most popular books of the 1100s and 1200s. A pseudo-scientific catalogue, bestiary texts were drawn from the Greek Physiologus. Originally composed in the first centuries of the Christian era, translated into Latin in the 300s, and augmented throughout the Middle Ages, a bestiary explained the natural world in terms of Christian symbolism and precepts. The Getty Museum's manuscript is a compilation that includes two rare treatises by Hugo de Fouilloy in addition to the Bestiary. The first text is the Aviary, which uses the characteristics of different types of birds to make moral points. The second, Treatise on Flocks and Shepherds, constructs a metaphorical discussion of Christ as an abbot, taking care of his flock, and the abbot and monks in a monastery caring for their charges. Both of Hugo's Latin texts were intended for teaching lay brothers, those who performed manual work in a monastery. This manuscript, though made around 1270 in Flanders, is stylistically close to contemporary elegant Parisian illuminations produced at the court of King Louis IX, which are characterized by gracefully gesturing figures, vigorous outlines, and gold-patterned backgrounds.
Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts (July 1 to September 30, 1984) (fols. 46v - 47)
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Gothic Manuscript Illumination: 1250-1375 (January 16 to March 13, 1985) (fols. 89v - 90)
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French Illuminated Manuscripts (July 17 to October 6, 1985) (fols. 77v - 78)
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Secular Manuscripts (October 21, 1986 to January 4, 1987) (fols. 91v - 92)
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Illuminated Gothic Manuscripts (January 20 to April 5, 1987) (fols. 82v - 83)
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Illuminated Secular Manuscripts (July 17 to September 30, 1990) (fols. 91v - 92)
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Ludwigslust: Die Sammlung Irene und Peter Ludwig (June 19 to October 10, 1993) (fols. 46v - 47 and 89v - 90)
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Harmonies of Heaven and Earth: Musicians and Instruments in Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts (January 25 to April 10, 1994) (fols. 82v - 83)
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Ars et Ingenium: The Illuminator's Craft and Genius (July 26 to October 9, 1994) (fols. 41v - 42)
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Illuminated Secular Manuscripts (January 24 to April 9, 1995) (fols. 89v - 90)
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Ten Centuries of French Illumination (April 23 to July 7, 1996) (fols. 77v - 78)
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Illuminating the Mind's Eye: Memory and Medieval Book Arts (July 23 to October 6, 1996) (fols. 92v - 93)
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Manuscript Illumination of the 13th Century (January 21 to April 6, 1997) (fols. 89v - 90)
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Masterpieces of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscript illumination (December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998) (fols. 89v - 90)
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The Book of Kings: Art, War, and the Morgan Library's Medieval Picture Bible (October 27 to December 29, 2002) (fols. 88v - 89: A Dragon Flying over a Panther; A Dragon)
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Transforming Tradition: Ancient Motifs in Medieval Manuscripts (September 23 to November 30, 2003) (fol. 77v - 78)
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The Glory of the Gothic Page (December 16, 2003 to March 7, 2004) (fols. 82v - 83)
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Landscape in the Renaissance (August 1 to October 15, 2006) (fols. 89v - 90)
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Medieval Beasts (May 1 to July 29, 2007) (fols. 88v - 89)
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The Old Testament in Medieval Manuscript Illumination (June 1 to August 8, 2010) (fol. 66v - 67)
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Illuminated Manuscripts from Belgium and the Netherlands (August 24, 2010 to February 6, 2011) (a. 77v - 78 b. 46v - 47)
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Stories to Watch: Narrative in Medieval Manuscripts (February 22 to May 15, 2011) (fols. 89v - 90)
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Sotheby’s, London. Collection of Manuscripts [...] of the Rt. Hon. The Earl of Ashburnham known as The Barrois Collection. June 10, 1901 lot 288, unpaginated.
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Mazal, Otto. Buchkunst der Romanik (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1978) p. 92.
Carlvant, Kerstin Birgitta Elisabet. "Thirteenth-Century Illumination in Bruges and Ghent.” Ph.D. diss. (New York, Columbia University, 1978) pp. 74, 76, 77.
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"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984) p. 304.
von Euw, Anton, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum der Stadt Köln, 1979-1985), vol. 4 (1985) pp. 172-87.
Camille, Michael. "Seeing and Reading: Some Visual Implications of Medieval Literacy and Illiteracy." Art History 8, no. 1 (March 1985) pp. 26-49, fig. 5.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 1st ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986) p. 72, ill.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 2nd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988) p. 72, ill.
Clark, Willene B., and Meradith T. McMunn, eds. Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages: The Bestiary and Its Legacy. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989) p. 197.
Mermier, Guy. "The Phoenix: Its Nature and Its Place in the Tradition of the Physiologus." In Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages: The Bestiary and Its Legacy. Willene B. Clark and Meradith T. McMunn, eds.(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Pres pp. 69-85, fig. 4.1.
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