Breviary

Object Details

Title:

Breviary

Artist/Maker(s):

Sigenulfus

Unknown

Culture:

Italian

Place(s):

Montecassino, Italy (Place created)

Date:

1153

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, gold paint, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with marbled calf

Dimensions:

Leaf: 19.2 x 13.2 cm (7 9/16 x 5 3/16 in.)

See more

See less

From the early Middle Ages on, clergy, monks, and nuns celebrated the Divine Office of prayers, hymns, psalms, and readings at eight different times throughout the day, using the texts in a breviary. This breviary was made at the monastery of Montecassino in southern Italy, the cradle of Benedictine monasticism and an important center for book production in the Middle Ages. The book's small size suggests that it was designed for a monk's private use rather than for community use.

A prayer in the manuscript mentions the scribe Sigenulfus, who wrote the text of this book and may also have painted its many decorated initials. The manuscript's bright colors, especially the blue and yellow, and the familiar motif of biting dogs twisting amidst spiraling tendrils are characteristic of works produced at the scriptorium at Montecassino.

Related Works
Exhibitions
Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts (July 1 to September 30, 1984) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 1 to September 30, 1984
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (October 17 to December 30, 1984) (fols. 216v - 217)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), October 17 to December 30, 1984
Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (January 22 to March 30, 1986) (fols. 138v - 139)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 22 to March 30, 1986
Monasteries and Manuscripts (April 21 to July 5, 1987) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 21 to July 5, 1987
The Decorated Letter (July 21 to October 6, 1987) (fols. 138v - 139)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 21 to October 6, 1987
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (January 19 to April 3, 1988) (fols. 259v - 260)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 19 to April 3, 1988
Illuminated Italian Manuscripts (April 19 to July 10, 1988) (fols. 138v - 139)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 19 to July 10, 1988
Vie a mon desir: Illuminated Manuscripts and Their Patrons (April 18 to July 2, 1989) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 18 to July 2, 1989
The Art of the Written Word: Medieval and Renaissance Calligraphy in Illuminated Manuscripts (January 16 to April 1, 1990) (fols. 158v - 159)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 16 to April 1, 1990
Illuminated Devotional Manuscripts (October 16 to December 30, 1990) (fols. 138v - 139)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), October 16 to December 30, 1990
Monasteries and Manuscripts (July 16 to September 29, 1991) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 16 to September 29, 1991
The Decorated Letter (January 14 to March 29, 1992) (fols. 138v - 139)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 14 to March 29, 1992
The Psalms and Their Illustration (April 27 to July 3, 1993) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 27 to July 3, 1993
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (July 19 to October 10, 1993) (fols. 288v - 289)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 19 to October 10, 1993
Masterpieces of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscript illumination (December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998) (fols. 259v - 260)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998
The Psalms and Their Illustration (February 1 to April 23, 2000) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 1 to April 23, 2000
Italian Manuscript Illumination (May 9 to July 30, 2000) (fols. 259v - 260)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 9 to July 30, 2000
Ritual Splendor: Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (February 20 to May 6, 2001) (fols. 294v - 295)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 20 to May 6, 2001
Illuminating Color (May 22 to August 26, 2001) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 22 to August 26, 2001
Artful Reading in Medieval and Renaissance Europe (December 18, 2001 to March 10, 2002) (fol. 331v - 332)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), December 18, 2001 to March 10, 2002
The Medieval Best Seller: Illuminated Books of Hours (October 29, 2002 to January 19, 2003) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), October 29, 2002 to January 19, 2003
Five Hundred Years of Manuscript Illumination (February 11 to June 1, 2003) (fols. 259v - 260)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 11 to June 1, 2003
Seeking Illumination: Monastic Manuscripts, 800 - 1200 (March 23 to June 13, 2004) (fols. 288v - 289)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 23 to June 13, 2004
Masterpieces in Miniature: Italian Manuscript Illumination from the J. Paul Getty Museum (September 25, 2005 to January 2, 2006) (fols. 140v - 141)
  • National Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.), September 25, 2005 to January 2, 2006
The Decorated Letter (2007) (November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008) (fols. 288v - 289)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008
Out of Bounds: Images in the Margins of Illuminated Manuscripts (September 1 to November 8, 2009) (fol. 294v - 295)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), September 1 to November 8, 2009
The Art of Devotion in the Middle Ages (August 28, 2012 to February 5, 2013) (fols. 152v - 153)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), August 28, 2012 to February 5, 2013
Untold Stories: Collecting and Transforming Medieval Manuscripts (February 26 to May 12, 2013) (fols. 261 v - 262)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 26 to May 12, 2013