Gradual

Object Details

Title:

Gradual

Artist/Maker(s):

Antonio da Monza (Italian, active about 1480 - 1505)

Culture:

Italian

Place(s):

Rome, Lazio, Italy (Place created)

Date:

late 15th or early 16th century

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between original wood boards covered with brown leather

Dimensions:

Leaf: 64.3 x 43.5 cm (25 5/16 x 17 1/8 in.)

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This gradual, measuring over two feet tall, contains the sung parts of the Mass. The large size was deliberate: it enabled a group of singers standing before it to read the notes and words. The saints invoked in the litany suggest that the gradual was made for the Franciscan church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli in Rome. The illuminator Antonio da Monza enlivened the border of the manuscript's most elaborate large page with luxurious small-scale decoration that encourages close examination. The antique motifs he used in the border reveal the profound influence of antiquities upon Renaissance artists. After artists rediscovered the Golden House built by the emperor Nero in Rome, and its Fourth Style wall painting, they adopted its grotesques and candelabra motifs.

Related Works
Exhibitions
Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (January 22 to March 30, 1986)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 22 to March 30, 1986, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
The Decorated Letter (July 21 to October 6, 1987)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 21 to October 6, 1987, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Illuminated Italian Manuscripts (April 19 to July 10, 1988)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 19 to July 10, 1988, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16 16)
The Decorated Letter (January 14 to March 29, 1992)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 14 to March 29, 1992, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
The Painted Page: Italian Renaissance Book Illumination, 1450-1550 (February 15 to May 7, 1995)
  • Pierpont Morgan Library, (New York), February 15 to May 7, 1995, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16 126)
Illuminated Choir Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance 1995 (April 25 to July 9, 1995)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 25 to July 9, 1995, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16 4)
Out-of-Bounds: Marginal Imagery in Illuminated Manuscripts (April 7, 1998 to July 5, 1998)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), April 7 to July 5, 1998, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Italian Manuscript Illumination (May 9 to July 30, 2000)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 9 to July 30, 2000, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Ritual Splendor: Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (February 20 to May 6, 2001)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 20 to May 6, 2001, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Songs of Praise: Illuminated Choir Books (July 23 to October 13, 2002)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), July 23 to October 13, 2002, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Masterpieces in Miniature: Italian Manuscripts from the Middle Ages and Renaissance (March 29 to June 12, 2005)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 29 to June 12, 2005, (Cat. fol. 15v - 16)
Masterpieces in Miniature: Italian Manuscript Illumination from the J. Paul Getty Museum (September 25, 2005 to January 2, 2006)
  • National Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.), September 25, 2005 to January 2, 2006, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Music for the Masses: Illuminated Choir Books (August 14 to October 28, 2007)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), August 14 to October 28, 2007, (Cat. fols. 15v - 16)
Bibliography

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de Hamel, Christopher. Les Rothschild collectionneurs de manuscrits. Conférences Léopold Delisle (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004), no. 26.

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Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005), pp. vii, xvi-xvii, 72-73, ill.

Barstow, Kurt, and Thomas Kren. Masterpieces in Miniature: Italian Manuscript Illumination from the J. Paul Getty Museum (Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2005), unpaginated, no. 42, ill. cover ill.

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