The J. Paul Getty Museum

Gradual

Object Details

Title:

Gradual

Artist/Maker:

Unknown

Culture:

Italian

Place:

Northern Italy, Italy (Place Created)

Date:

about 1460–1480

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between wood boards covered with brown morocco

Object Number:

Ms. Ludwig VI 2 (83.MH.85)

Dimensions:

Leaf: 60.3 × 44 cm (23 3/4 × 17 5/16 in.)

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Object Description

This manuscript is from a six-volume gradual, a choir book containing the sung portions of the mass. Graduals were often large in size so that many people could sing from them at once. The illuminator filled the first letter of many of the chants in this particular volume with scenes from Christ's life that correspond to the events celebrated with the hymns, as well as compositions drawn from daily life and fanciful depictions of animals, fruits, and vegetables.

Provenance
Provenance
- 1983

Dr. Peter Ludwig, German, 1925 - 1996 and Irene Ludwig, German, 1927 - 2010, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1983.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
The Decorated Letter (July 21 to October 6, 1987) (fols. 160v - 161)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 21 to October 6, 1987
The Decorated Letter (January 14 to March 29, 1992) (fols. 160v - 161)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 14 to March 29, 1992
Ars et Ingenium: The Illuminator's Craft and Genius (July 26 to October 9, 1994) (fols. 54v - 55)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 26 to October 9, 1994
Illuminated Choir Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance 1995 (April 25 to July 9, 1995) (fols. 63v - 64)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 25 to July 9, 1995
Ritual Splendor: Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (February 20 to May 6, 2001) (fols. 63v - 64)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), February 20 to May 6, 2001
Songs of Praise: Illuminated Choir Books (July 23 to October 13, 2002) (fols. 160v - 161)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), July 23 to October 13, 2002
Music for the Masses: Illuminated Choir Books (August 14 to October 28, 2007) (fols. 128v - 129)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), August 14 to October 28, 2007
The Decorated Letter (November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008) (fols. 160v - 161)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008
The Art of Devotion in the Middle Ages (August 28, 2012 to February 5, 2013) (fols. 54v - 55)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), August 28, 2012 to February 5, 2013
The Art of Music (September 26, 2015 to May 29, 2016) (fols. 128v - 129)
  • San Diego Museum of Art (San Diego), September 26, 2015 to February 7, 2016
The Wondrous Cosmos in the Medieval World (April 30 to July 21, 2019) (fols. 145v-146)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), April 30 to July 21, 2019
Bibliography
Bibliography

Euw, Anton von, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1979-1985), vol. 1 (1979), pp. 266-69.

"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12, 1984, pp. 288-89.

Derolez, Albert. "Observations on the Aesthetics of the Gothic Manuscripts." Sciptorium 50 (1996), pp. 3-21 , pls. 1-5, 13-17 esp. pl. 156.

Baroffio, Giacomo, ed. Iter Liturgicum Italicum (Padua: CLEUP Editrice, 1999), p. 109.

Gnaccolini, Laura Paola. "Un'aggiunta al catalogo di Giovan Pietro Birago." In Arte Lombardia del Secondo Millennio. D'Arcais, Francesa Flores, Mariolina Olivari and Luisa Tognoli Bardin, eds. (Milan: Federico Motta Editore, 2000), pp. 97-105.

Melograni, Anna. "Quattro artisti all opera nei corali inediti di S. Domenico e gli escordi bresciani del giovane Birago." In Linri e lettori a Brescia tra Medioevo ed eta'moderna. Valentina Grohovaz, ed. (Brescia: Universita' Cattolica, 2002), pp. 39-71, figs. 4-5, 12.

Zanichelli, Giuseppa. "Maestro di Ippolita Sforza." In Dizionario Biografico dei miniatori Italiani. Secoli IX XVI. Milvia Bollati, ed. (Milano: Sylvestre Bonnard, 2004), p. 689.

Gnaccolini, Laura Paola. "Birago, Giovan Pietro." In Dizionario Biografico dei miniatori Italiani. Secoli IX XVI. Milvia Bollati, ed. (Milano: Sylvestre Bonnard, 2004), p. 106.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005), pp. 67-70, ill.

Harkins, Dan. Early Music Exploration: Sumer Canon Rhythm and Tonality (unpublished essay), November 24, 2013, San Pedro, CA.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 2nd ed. (Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015), pp. 80-81, ill.

Alexander, Jonathan J.G. The Painted Book in Renaissance Italy, 1450-1600 (New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2016), p. 128, 329.