Missal

Object Details

Title:

Missal

Artist/Maker:

Unknown

Culture:

German

Place:

Steinfeld, Germany (Place created)

Date:

about 1180

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold, silver, and ink on parchment bound between wood boards covered with brown calf

Object Number:

Ms. Ludwig V 4

Dimensions:

Leaf: 25.2 × 17.9 cm (9 15/16 × 7 1/16 in.)

See more

See less

This Romanesque missal was written and illuminated for the Premonstratensian abbey of Saint Mary and Potentius at Steinfeld, near Cologne. This type of manuscript was used by the priest to say the mass. Most illuminated missals, like this one, include a full-page image of the Crucifixion, which marks the beginning of the canon of the Mass, the prayers said by the priest as bread and wine are ritually transformed into the body and blood of Christ. This celebration commemorates his Crucifixion and the salvation it provided humankind.

This manuscript also displays large, gold initials filled with curling vines and hybrid animals that mark the texts used by the priest on major feast days during the Christian liturgical year. The book also includes mass chants accompanied by an early form of musical notation, known as neumes, written on a four-line staff with each line executed in a different color to indicate various pitches.

Related Works
Exhibitions
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (October 17 to December 30, 1984) (fols. 9v - 10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), October 17 to December 30, 1984
Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (January 22 to March 30, 1986) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 22 to March 30, 1986
Monasteries and Manuscripts (April 21 to July 5, 1987) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 21 to July 5, 1987
The Decorated Letter (July 21 to October 6, 1987) (fols. 9v - 10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 21 to October 6, 1987
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (January 19 to April 3, 1988) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 19 to April 3, 1988
Illuminated German and Central European Manuscripts (October 17 to December 31, 1989) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), October 17 to December 31, 1989
The Apocalypse and Other Visions in Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (April 16 to June 30, 1991) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 16 to June 30, 1991
Monasteries and Manuscripts (July 16 to September 29, 1991) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 16 to September 29, 1991
The Decorated Letter (January 14 to March 29, 1992) (fols. 9v - 10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 14 to March 29, 1992
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (July 19 to October 10, 1993) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), July 19 to October 10, 1993
Ten Centuries of Manuscript Illumination in Germany and Central Europe (July 21 to October 18, 1998) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), July 21 to October 18, 1998
Seeking Illumination: Monastic Manuscripts, 800 - 1200 (March 23 to June 13, 2004) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), March 23 to June 13, 2004
Byzantium and the West (September 14 to December 5, 2004) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), September 14 to December 5, 2004
Music for the Masses: Illuminated Choir Books (August 14 to October 28, 2007) (fols. 64v - 65)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), August 14 to October 28, 2007
The Decorated Letter (November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008) (fols. 9v -10)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008
German and Central European Manuscript Illumination (February 24 to May 24, 2009) (fols. 67v - 68)
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), February 24 to May 24, 2009
Bibliography

Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts, exh. cat. (London: The Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908), 37-38, no. 76.

Warner, George. Descriptive Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts in the Library of C. W. Dyson Perrins. 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1920), vol. 1, pp. 287-88, under no. 121, pl. CX.

Swarzenski, Hanns. Vorgotische Miniaturen: Die ersten Jahrhunderte deutscher Malerei. 2nd ed. (Königstein im Tanaus and Leipzig: Karl Robert Langewiesche, 1931), p. 95 (entry for pl. 74).

Swarzenski, Hanns. Die lateinischen illuminierten Handschriften des XIII. Jahrhunderts in den Ländern an Rhein, Main und Donau (Berlin: Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft, 1936), pp. 14-15.

Sotheby's, London. The Dyson Perrins Collection, Part II: Catalogue of Forty-Six Western and Oriental Illuminated Manuscripts. December 1, 1959.

Grosse Kunst des Mittelalters aus Privatbesitz, exh. cat. (Cologne: Schnütgen Museum, 1960), cat. no. 107.

Bloch, Peter. "Das Steinfeld Missale." Aachener Kunstblätter 22 (1961), pp. 37-60.

Grimme, Ernst Günther."Grosse Kunst aus Tausend Jahren: Kirchenschätze aus dem Bistum Aachen." Aachener Kunstblätter 36 (1968), pp. 1-335, p.52, no.95.

Plotzek, Joachim M. "Zur rheinischen Buchmalerei im 12. Jahrhundert." Rhein und Maas 2 (Cologne, 1973), pp. 318-320.

Euw, Anton von, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1979-1985), vol. 1 (1979), pp. 234-39.

Lammers, Joseph, ed. Köln, Westfalen 1180-1980: Landesgeschichte zwischen Rhein und Weser, exh. cat. (Cologne: Kölnisches Stadtmuseum, 1980-1981), pp. 402-7.

Legner, Anton. Deutsche Kunst der Romanik (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1982), no. 478.

"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), p. 288.

Kren, Thomas. Illuminated Manuscripts of Germany and Central Europe in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2009), pp. 31-33, 65-66.