Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. To avoid potential data charges from your carrier, we recommend making sure your device is connected to a Wi-Fi network before downloading.
This image is available for download, without charge, under the Getty's Open Content Program.
Not currently on view
Attributed to Nivardus of Milan (Italian, active about 1000 - about 1025)
Beauvais (probably), France (Place created)
first quarter of 11th century
Tempera colors, gold, silver, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with greenish-brown morocco
Leaf: 23.2 x 17.9 cm (9 1/8 x 7 1/16 in.)
A sacramentary, the most important type of liturgical book used in the early medieval Church, contains the prayers recited by the priest at Mass. The book lay open on the church altar--the most sacred site within the building--where the priest celebrated the Mass while worshipers looked on. This Ottonian manuscript includes a full-page Crucifixion and beautiful illuminated initials executed in gold and silver ink. The quality of the decoration of this manuscript, of which only a fragment survives, suggests that it may have been made for the occasion of the consecration in 1017 of Hugh, the young son of Robert the Pious king of France, as Robert's co-ruler and successor. Since it includes prayers addressed to saints venerated at Beauvais, the book may have been presented by King Robert to the bishop of Beauvais, who was present at the consecration event. The writing and illumination have been attributed to Nivardus of Milan, who worked at the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, at Fleury, France. In addition to the gold and silver letters, the manuscript is decorated with elaborate interlace ornament and sprays of leaves that recall classical and ninth-century Carolingian models.
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (October 17 to December 30, 1984) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), October 17 to December 30, 1984
Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (January 22 to March 30, 1986) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 22 to March 30, 1986
Monasteries and Manuscripts (April 21 to July 5, 1987) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 21 to July 5, 1987
The Decorated Letter (July 21 to October 6, 1987) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 21 to October 6, 1987
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (January 19 to April 3, 1988) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 19 to April 3, 1988
Monasteries and Manuscripts (July 16 to September 29, 1991) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 16 to September 29, 1991
The Decorated Letter (January 14 to March 29, 1992) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 14 to March 29, 1992
Early Medieval and Romanesque Manuscripts (July 19 to October 10, 1993) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 19 to October 10, 1993
Ars et Ingenium: The Illuminator's Craft and Genius (July 26 to October 9, 1994) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), July 26 to October 9, 1994
The Crucifixion in Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts (January 30 to April 7, 1996) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), January 30 to April 7, 1996
Ten Centuries of French Illumination (April 23 to July 7, 1996) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum, (Malibu), April 23 to July 7, 1996
Masterpieces of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscript illumination (December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), December 16, 1997 to March 22, 1998
Out-of-Bounds: Marginal Imagery in Illuminated Manuscripts (April 7, 1998 to July 5, 1998) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), April 7 to July 5, 1998
Ritual Splendor: Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts (February 20 to May 6, 2001) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 20 to May 6, 2001
Otto the Great, Magdeburg and Europe (August 27 to December 2, 2001) (fols. 2v - 3)
- Kulturhistorisches Museum, (Magdeburg), August 27 to December 2, 2001
Five Hundred Years of Manuscript Illumination (February 11 to June 1, 2003) (fols. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), February 11 to June 1, 2003
Seeking Illumination: Monastic Manuscripts, 800 - 1200 (March 23 to June 13, 2004) (fols. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), March 23 to June 13, 2004
La France romane (March 7 to June 6, 2005) (fols. 2v - 3)
- Musée du Louvre, (Paris), March 7 to June 6, 2005
French Manuscript Illumination in the Middle Ages (January 23 to April 15, 2007) (fol. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), January 23 to April 15, 2007
The Decorated Letter (2007) (November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008) (fols. 1v - 2)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), November 13, 2007 to January 27, 2008
Imagining Christ (May 6 to July 27, 2008) (Fol. 2v - 3)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), May 6 to July 27, 2008
Out of Bounds: Images in the Margins of Illuminated Manuscripts (September 1 to November 8, 2009) (fol. 8v - 9)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, (Los Angeles), September 1 to November 8, 2009
Delettre, Charles. Histoire du diocèse de Beauvais depuis son établissment, au 3.me siècle, jusqu'au 2 septembre 1792. 3 vols. (Beauvais: Desjardins, 1843), vol. 1, pp. 68-71.
Phillipps, Thomas. Additional MSS in the Possession of the Rev. Walter Sneyd, of Denton House, Oxon. Acquired since the Prnting [sic] of His Former Catalogue by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. in 1837 (Middle Hill: Middle Hill Press, 1862/3), no. 14.
Renet, Pierre Rieul César. Saint Lucien et les autres saints du Beauvaisis: Études historiques, liturgiques, chronologiques. 3 vols. (Beauvais: Orphelinat Saint-Sauveur, 1892-95), pp. 445-48.
Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge. Catalogue of a Selected Portion of the Library of Valuable and Choice Illuminated & other Manuscripts and Rare Early Printed Books, the Property of the late Rev. Walter Sneyd, M. A. December 18, 1903, lot 516, ill.
Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts, exh. cat. (London: The Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908), p. 2, no. 4, figs. 1, 12.
Warner, George. Descriptive Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts in the Library of C. W. Dyson Perrins. 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1920), vol. 1, pp. 74-76, under no. 23, pl. XXXI; vol. 2, pl. XXXI.
Nordenfalk, Carl. "A Traveling Milanese Artist in France at the Beginning of the XI. Century." In Arte del primo millennio: [...]. Edoardo Arslan, ed. (Turin: Viglongo, 1950), pp. 374-80, figs. 230-31.
Bognetti, Gian Piero. "Gli arcivescovi interpreti della realtà et il crescere dei minori ordini [...]." In Storia di Milano. Vol. 2, Dall'Invasione dei Barbari all'apogeo del Governo Vescovile (493 1002) (Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1954), pp. 856-57, ill.
Bloch, Peter. "Das Hornbacher Sakramentar und seine Stellung innerhalb der frühen Reichenauer Buchmalerei." Ph.D. diss. (Universität Basel, 1956), pp. 108-12, pls. 12-16.
Paredi, Angelo. "Le Miniature de Sacramentario di Ariberto." In Studi in Onore di Carlo Castiglioni, Prefetto dell'Ambrosiana. Fontes Ambrosiana 32 (Milan: A. Giuffrè, 1957), p. 713.
Sotheby's, London. The Dyson Perrins Collection: Part III. November 29, 1960, pp. 9-11, lot 97, ill.
Turner, D. H. "The Prayer-Book of Archbishop Arnulph II of Milan." Revue Bénédictine 70 (1960), pp. 384-86.
Brown, T. J., G. M. Meredith-Owen, and D. H. Turner. "Manuscripts from the Dyson Perrins Collection." The British Museum Quarterly 23, no. 2 (January 1961), p. 33.
Nordenfalk, Carl. "Miniature ottonienne et Ateliers capétiens." Art de France 4 (1964), pp. 50-53.
Gutbrod, Jürgen. Die Initiale in Handschriften des achten bis dreizehnten Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1965), pp. 50-52, fig. 17.
May, Helmut, ed. Weltkunst aus Privatbesitz, exh. cat. (Cologne: Druckerei J. P. Bachem, 1968), no. D49.
Bautier, Robert-Henri. "Le monastère et les églises de Fleury-sur-Loire sous les abbatiats d'Abbon, de Gauzelin, et d'Arnaud, 988-1032." Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France, 9th series, vol. 4 (1969), p. 109 n. 1.
Bautier, Robert-Henri and Gillette Labory, eds. André de Fleury Vie de Gauzelin, Abbé de Fleury. Sources d'histoire médiéevale 2 (Paris: CNRS, 1969), pp. 132-34.
Munby, Alan Noel Latimer. Connoisseurs and Medieval Miniatures: 1750-1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), pp. 117-18.
Mütherich, Florentine, and Francis Wormald. "Malerei." In Die Zeit der Ottonen und Salier. Louis Grodecki et al., eds. (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1973), pp. 126, 196, figs. 187, 189.
Mütherich, Florentine, and Francis Wormald. "Peinture." In Le siècle de l'an mil: 950-1050. Louis Grodecki et al., eds. (Paris: Gallimard, 1973), pp. 126, 196, figs. 187, 189.
Nordenfalk, Carl. "A Tenth-Century Gospel Book in the Walters Art Gallery." Gatherings in Honor of Dorothy E. Miner. Ursula E. McCracken, Lilian M. C. Randall, and Richard H. Randall, Jr., eds. (Baltimore: The Walters Art Gallery, 1974), p. 170.
Kraus, Hans P. In Retrospect: A Catalogue of 100 Outstanding Manuscripts sold in the last four decades by H. P Kraus (New York: H. P. Kraus, 1978), no. 9, pp. 26-27.
Mazal, Otto. Buchkunst der Romanik (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1978), p. 69.
Euw, Anton von, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1979-1985), vol. 1 (1979), pp. 219-22.
Nordenfalk, Carl. Review of Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig, by Anton von Euw and Joachim M. Plotzek. Kunstchronik 33, no. 2 (February 1980), p. 58.
Suntrup, Rudolf. "Te Igitur-Initialen und Kanonbilder in Mittelalterlichen Sakramentarhandschriften." In Text und Bild: Aspekte des Zusammenwirkens zweier Künste in Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit. Christel Meier and Uwe Ruberg, eds. (Wiesbaden, 1980), pp. 281, 342, no. 87, fig. 10.
"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), pp. 281, 287.
Verdier, Philippe. Review of Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig, by Anton von Euw and Joachim M. Plotzek. Speculum 60, no. 1 (January 1985), pp. 203-7.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 1st ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986), pp. 65, 66, ill.
Fitzgerald, Wilma. "Ocelli nominum: Names and Shelf Marks of famous/familiar Manuscripts (II)." Mediaeval Studies 48 (1986), p. 335.
Hoffman, Hartmut. Buchkunst und Königtum im ottonischen und frühsalischen Reich (Stuttgart, 1986), vol. 1, p. 52.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 2nd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988), pp. 65, 66, ill.
Fitzgerald, Wilma. "Ocelli nominum: Names and Shelf Marks of famous/familiar Manuscripts (III)." Mediaeval Studies 50 (1988), p. 335.
Nordenfalk, Carl. "Milano e l'Arte Ottoniana: Problemi di Fondo Sinora Poco Osservati." In La Città del Vescovo dai Carolingi al Barbarossa. Carlo Bertelli, ed. (Milan, 1988), pp. 109-10.
Mostert, Marco. The Library of Fleury. A Provisional List of Manuscripts (Hilversum: Verloren Publishers, 1989), pp. 33, 108, no. BF 386.
Petrucci, Armando. "Mille anni di forme grafiche nell'area milanese." In La nuova città dal Comune alla Signoria. Carlo Bertelli, ed. (Milan: Electa, 1989), pp. 152, 155.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 3rd ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1991), p. 67, ill.
Alexander, Jonathan J. G. Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 12.
Fitzgerald, Wilma. Ocelli Nominum: Names and Shelf Marks of Famous/Familiar Manuscripts. Subsidia Mediaevalia 19 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1992), p. 19.
Brown, Elizabeth A. R. "'Franks, Burgundians, and Aquitanians' and the Royal Coronation Ceremony in France." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 82, no. 7 (January 1, 1992), p.17.
Salierno, Vito. "Manoscritti Italiani Miniati nel J. Paul Getty Museum." L'Esopo 59 (1993), pp. 53-56.
Franchi, Elisabetta, et al., Milano e la Lombardia in eta comunale: secoli XI-XIII (Milan: Silvana 1993), p. 178.
Lanoë, Guy. "Quelques manuscrits liturgiques de Beauvais (IX-XII siècles) d'après les anciens catalogues et les 'papiers' des érudits modernes." In Medieval Codicology, Iconography, Literature, and Translation. P. R. Monks, et al., eds. (Leiden, 1994), pp. 14, 16, 21, fig. 3.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 4th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 63, ill.
Brivio, Ernesto ed. Il Crocifisso di Ariberto: un mistero millenario intorno al simbolo della cristianità (Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana, 1997), pp. 70-72, fig. 18.
Watson, Andrew G. Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts C. 700-1600 in the Department of Manuscripts, the British Library (1979; repr., Munich: K.G. Saur, 1997), p.118.
Lanoë, Guy. "Une bibliothèque virtuelle au sevice des collections dispersees [sic] des manuscrits de Beauvais." In Passion(s) et collections: Actes du colloque (Chambery, 21 et 22 octobre 1998) (Paris: Chambery, 1999), p. 183n57.
The British Library Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts 1956-1965. 3 vols. (London: British Library, 2000), vol. 1, pp. 596-97 (in the D. H. Turner entry on Egerton 3763).
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 6th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001), pp. 61, 62, ill.
Puhle, Matthias, ed. Otto der Grosse: Magdeburg und Europa, exh. cat. (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2001) vol. 2, no. VI 41, entry by Fabrizio Crivello.
Hindman, Sandra, et al. Manuscript Illumination in the Modern Age: Recovery and Reconstruction, exh. cat. (Evanston: Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University, 2001), p. 183, pl. 25.
Bosc-Lauby, Aurélie and Annick Notter. "Bibliothèque, scriptorium et enseignement à Fleury." In Lumières de l'an mil en Orléanais: Autour du millenaire d'Abbon de Fleury. Aurélie Bosc-Lauby, and Annick Notter, eds. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 191-92.
Maggioni, Chiara. "Nivardo." In Dizionario Biografico dei miniatori Italiani. Secoli IX - XVI. Milvia Bollati, ed. (Milano: Sylvestre Bonnard, 2004), pp.834-835.
Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle, ed. La France romane au temps des premiers Capétiens (987-1152), exh. cat. (Paris: Musée du Louvre, 2005), cat. no. 192.
Crivello, Fabrizio. "Die Buchmalerei in Oberitalien unter den Karolingern und den Ottonen." Zeitschrift Des Deutschen Vereins Für Kunstwissenschaft 58 (2006), p. 189.
Denoël, Charlotte. "Sur les traces d'un livre d'e?vangiles du XIe sie?cle provenant de la bibliothe?que d'Antoine Loisiel, Paris, BNF, Latin 17228." Revue Mabillon, n. s. 17, 78 (2006), p. 47.
The J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 7th ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), pp. 55-56, ill.
Kren, Thomas. French Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007), pp. ix, xxix, 2-4, ill.
Bianchi, Ettore, et al., eds. Ariberto da Intimiano fede, potere e cultura a Milano nel secolo XI (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2007), pp. 15, 254, 264, 266, 300.
Nees, Lawrence. "Between Carolingian and Romanesque in France: Cambridge Fitzwilliam Museum, MS McClean 19 and Its Relatives." In The Cambridge Illuminations: The Conference Papers. Stella Panayotova, ed. (London: Harvey Miller, 2007), p. 38.
Schüppel, Katharina Christa. "Fede e iconografia: le croci di Ariberto." In Ariberto da Intimiano: fede, potere e cultura a Milano nel secolo XI. Ettore Bianchi, Martina Basile Weatherill, Miriam Rita Tessera and Manuela Beretta eds. (Cinisello Balsamo an p. 300.
Nishimura, Margot McIlwain. Images in the Margins (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum; London: The British Library, 2009), p. 7, fig. 4.
Fenton, Terry. About Pictures. Allan Safarik, ed. (Regina: Hagios Press, 2009), p. 21, ill.
Gameson, Richard. "An Itinerant English Master around the Millennium." In English and the Continent in the Tenth Century: Studies in Honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876-1947). David Rollason, Conrad Leyser and Hannah Williams eds. (Turnhout Brepols, 2010), p. 131.
Teviotdale, Elizabeth C. Das Sakramentar von Beauvais: vollstandige Faksimile-Ausgabe der Handschrift Ms. Ludwig V 1 aus dem J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles - Commentary. Komment. (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 2011), passim.
Lanoë, Guy. "Notes et matériaux: Deux reliures médiévales de Saint-Pierre de Beauvais (À propos de plaques provenant de reliures)." Scriptorium 66 (2012), pp. 334, 335n81.
Kennedy, Trinita, ed. Sanctity Pictured: The Art of the Dominican and Franciscan Orders in Renaissance Italy, exh. cat. (Nashville: Frist Center for the Visual Arts with Philip Wilson Publishers, 2014), pp. 15, 106-7, fig. 17, ill.