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Nicaea Turkey Nicomedia (or) Turkey (Place created)
early 13th century - late 13th century
Tempera colors and gold leaf on parchment bound between wood boards covered with light brown velvet
Leaf: 20.6 × 14.9 cm (8 1/8 × 5 7/8 in.)
This Tetraevangelion, the Greek term for a Gospel book, was made in Byzantium around the time the Crusaders invaded Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1204. The manuscript is luxuriously adorned with nineteen full-page miniatures, including author portraits and narrative scenes; decorated canon tables; ornamental headpieces; and many decorated initials.
The illuminators of this manuscript probably prepared the pages for the miniatures by coating the parchment with egg white. This originally gave the page an admired slick and glossy appearance, but it also led to extensive paint flaking. The flaking was so severe that thirteen of the miniatures were replaced by new pictures in the late 1200s. These later miniatures were painted in the Palaeologan style of Byzantine illumination, noted for its intense emotionalism and drama.
Gothic Manuscript Illumination: 1250-1375 (January 16 to March 13, 1985) (fols. 129v - 130)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), January 16 to March 31, 1985
The Apocalypse and Other Visions in Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (April 16 to June 30, 1991) (fols. 45v - 46)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), April 16 to June 30, 1991
Manuscript Illumination of the 13th Century (January 21 to April 6, 1997) (fols. 124v - 125)
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Imagining Christ (May 6 to July 27, 2008) (Fol. 74v - 75)
- The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center (Los Angeles), May 6 to July 27, 2008
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