Bible

Object Details

Title:

Bible

Artist/Maker:

Unknown

Culture:

Italian

Place:

Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, Europe (Place created)

Date:

about 1280–1290

Medium:

Tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with modern red velvet

Object Number:

Ms. Ludwig I 11

Dimensions:

Leaf: 37.5 × 24.8 cm (14 3/4 × 9 3/4 in.)

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Monks, angels, and musicians depicted within scrolling vines fill the margins of this Bible made in Bologna in the late 1200s. This city is the site of a thriving university founded in 1221, and the institution created a great demand for manuscript production. Representations of Dominican monks and saints important to the Dominican order appear throughout the pages of this manuscript, suggesting that it was probably made for a Dominican community. In the first half of the thirteenth century, the Dominicans undertook several revisions of the Vulgate--Saint Jerome's fifth-century Latin translation of the Bible--of which this is one edition. Corrections appear in the margins of this copy of the Bible indicating that it was carefully checked for accuracy after its completion.

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Bibliography

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Kraus, Hans P. Catalogue 100: Thirty-five Manuscripts (New York, 1962), no. 9.

May, Helmut, ed. Weltkunst aus Privatbesitz, exh. cat. (Cologne: Druckerei J. P. Bachem, 1968), no. D 63.

Nordenfalk, Carl, et al. Medieval and Renaissance Miniatures from the National Gallery of Art, exh. cat. (Washington: National Gallery, 1975), n. 12-14.

Euw, Anton von, and Joachim M. Plotzek. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig. 4 vols. (Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1979-1985), vol. 1 (1979), pp. 104-11.

Nordenfalk, Carl. Review of Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig, by Anton von Euw and Joachim M. Plotzek. Kunstchronik 33, no. 2 (February 1980), p. 66.

Conti, Alessandro. La miniatura bolognese: scuole e botteghe, 1270-1340 (Bologna: Edizioni ALFA, 1981), pp. 23 n. 17, 28 n. 32, 250.

"Manuscript Acquisitions: The Ludwig Collection." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), pp. 283-84, no. 13.

A Thousand Years of the Bible: An Exhibition of Manuscripts from The J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu [...], exh. cat. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum; Los Angeles: University of California, 1991), unpaginated, no. 8, fig. 9.

Norris, Michael Byron. "Early Gothic Illuminated Bibles at Bologna: the `prima maniera' Phase, 1250-1274." Ph.D. diss. (University of California, Santa Barbara, 1993), pp. 8, 118, 171n151, 251, 263, 275-76, 292, 294, 346-48n126, 715-727, figs. 15-16, 75-76, 79.

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Baroffio, Giacomo, ed. Iter Liturgicum Italicum (Padua: CLEUP Editrice, 1999), p. 109.

de Floriani, Anna. "Due codici bolognesi della Biblioteca Universitaria di Genova." Rara Volumina: Rivista di Studi Sull'Editoria di Pregio e il Libro Illustrato, n. 2 (1999), pp. 4-19, (esp. pp. 9-15).

Jussen, Bernhard. Der Name der Witwe: Erkundungen zur Semantik der mittelalterlichen Bußkultur. Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, 158 (Göttingen, 2000), pp. 246-47.

Lollini, Fabrizio. "Maestro di Imola." In Dizionario biografico dei miniatori Italiani. Secoli IX XVI. Milvia Bollati, ed. (Milan: Sylvestre Bonnard, 2004), p. 685.

Lollini, Fabrizio. "Maestro di Bagnacavallo." In Dizionario biografico dei miniatori Italiani. Secoli IX XVI. Milvia Bollati, ed. (Milan: Sylvestre Bonnard, 2004), p. 678.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005), pp. xii, 10-12, ill.

Zolotova, Ekaterina. "Bolognese Bible from Moscow: Iconography and Attribution." Sobranje 18 (2008) [see http://www.rizs.ru/ (11/20/2008)], pp. 8-17, esp. figs. on p. 15 (fols. 425 and 499).

Nishimura, Margot McIlwain. Images in the Margins (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum; London: The British Library, 2009), pp. 56, 58, 60-61, fig. 62.

Kren, Thomas, and Kurt Barstow. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts in the J. Paul Getty Museum. 2nd ed. (Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015), pp. 14-15, ill.

Kempf, Damien, and Maria L. Gilbert. Medieval Monsters (London: British Library, 2015), p. 36a, ill.