In the late 500s B.C., the Phineus Painter decorated pottery in a style that scholars call "Chalkidian." In the mid-500s B.C., a Greek vase-painter, probably from Chalkis on the island of Euboea, established a pottery workshop somewhere in Italy, either in one of the Greek colonies in the south or perhaps in Etruria. Eventually a second generation led by the Phineus Painter took over this workshop. The Phineus Painter produced a variety of shapes including hydriai and amphorae, but the characteristic output of his workshop was a cup with a characteristically tall, angular foot, and eye decoration on the exterior. The Chalkidian workshop tradition ended with the Phineus Painter.
As with most ancient artists, the real name of the Phineus Painter is unknown, and he is identified only by the stylistic traits of his work. Scholars named him after a cup depicting the myth of Phineus, the blind king plagued by Harpies and saved by Jason and the Argonauts.