The J. Paul Getty Trust 2014 Report

The Getty Conservation Institute
Timothy P. Whalen, Director

The Getty Conservation Institute works to advance conservation practice in the visual arts, broadly interpreted to include objects, collections, architecture, and sites. It serves the conservation community through scientific research, education and training, model field projects, and the broad dissemination of the results of both its own work and the work of others in the field. In all its endeavors, the Conservation Institute focuses on the creation and dissemination of knowledge that will benefit the professionals and organizations responsible for the conservation of the world’s cultural heritage.

Church of Santiago Apóstol of KuñoTamboThe seventeenth-century Church of Santiago Apóstol of KuñoTambo, located in the Peruvian Andes, and the site of a collaborative GCI project on seismic retrofitting, supported by the GCI Council. The church, including the beautiful wall paintings that decorate the interior, are being conserved with support of Friends of Heritage Preservation.When the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) was formally established in 1985, the technological landscape for those working in the cultural heritage conservation field looked utterly different than today. Analog technology still dominated, while the digital revolution and the personal computer were in their nascent phases, and the Internet remained more in the realm of the specialist—a far cry from the ubiquitous worldwide highway of information that it has become. Real portability in analytical equipment for conservation was less than common, and while conservation professionals already had proven themselves creative at adopting technologies from other fields, much more of this technology transfer lay ahead. In short, the tools available to those engaged in conservation and conservation science in the mid-1980s would feel enormously constraining to someone entering the field today.

In the nearly thirty years since the GCI moved into temporary offices in a Los Angeles industrial park, conservation has benefited from the phenomenal advances in technology that the last few decades have delivered. In the area of objects and collections, the digitization of data has enabled the GCI to collect greater quantities of data in shorter periods of time, ultimately improving its ability to search and interpret data in ways not previously possible, leading to much more efficient analysis. It has made the sharing and comparison of information more efficient, which in turn has promoted greater collaboration, discussion, and review by a broad range of colleagues, advancing research in more collective, rapid, and effective ways. Organizations such as the Infrared and Raman Users Group—which provides a forum for the exchange of infrared and Raman spectroscopic information and reference spectra used in the study of cultural heritage—are now able to share data more extensively and richly, greatly improving the capability of the group's members to capitalize on this ever-expanding resource. Data from other analytical technologies used by conservation scientists, such as mass spectrometry, has also become easier to share, growing the body of knowledge available to conservation professionals rapidly and comprehensively. Digitization has also immensely improved imaging used in the conservation of works of art, allowing, for example, the direct comparison of images collected over a wide range of wavelengths, from the ultraviolet to the infrared. And, as the result of advancements in electronics and computing, instrumentation has increasingly shrunk in size, and new tools such as handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometers can be taken to the art, rather than the other way around.

Technological advancements have also strengthened conservation work with built heritage. Today, conservation professionals have a whole range of nondestructive and noninvasive techniques that can help the field to better understand the problems of immovable cultural heritage and to design measures to mitigate damage. These diagnostic techniques have become more accurate and less expensive, allowing for easier acquisition of more accurate documentation. With tools such as thermal imaging, ground-penetrating radar, and magnetometric instruments at their disposal, a conservation team can assess the condition of built or archaeological heritage far beyond what the eye can see. Digital innovation has led to better three-dimensional modeling and vastly improved data management and data integration, resulting in enhanced comprehension of the relationships between buildings and sites. It has also, as in conservation science, vastly improved accessibility to information.

As the GCI seeks, through its work, to advance conservation practice generally, it has endeavored to capitalize on new technology in carrying out projects, many of which are collaborative in nature. For instance, the GCI is working with institutions in Peru to develop more effective measures for the seismic strengthening of buildings through its Earthen Architecture Initiative, and has employed improved computer modeling to better understand the behavior of buildings and how they perform in a seismic event; this, in turn, provides guidance on how best to mitigate the effects of an earthquake. Hyperspectral imaging—utilized in medicine, mineralogy, and astronomy, among other things—was used by GCI scientists in collaboration with staff from the National Gallery of Art to examine the surface of Jackson Pollock's landmark painting Mural as part of the analysis and conservation of this monumental work. Laser scanning in the Valley of the Queens project—undertaken with cultural authorities in Egypt—has allowed for improved recording of the topography of the area surrounding the ancient royal tombs and to assess the threat posed to the tombs by flooding, guiding the development of a plan to mitigate that threat. Tablet computers used by GCI wall paintings conservation teams enhanced working capabilities at projects a world apart—at the Roman site of Herculaneum in Italy and at the 1932 David Alfaro Siqueiros mural, América Tropical, located in downtown Los Angeles.

During fiscal year 2014, the GCI engaged in two significant efforts to contribute to the technological advancement of the conservation field. One project, Arches, has been underway for a number of years, and is an open source, web- and geospatially based information system to inventory and manage immovable cultural heritage, which includes historic buildings, monuments, landscapes, and archaeological sites. The other project, Integrating Data for Conservation Science, was recently initiated, and seeks to develop new computer-assisted data integration tools that will facilitate the extraction and sharing of new information by a broad community of users. Both projects reflect the GCI's commitment to expanding the tools and resources available to conservation professionals through research and innovation.

THE ARCHES PROJECT

Whether to help guide construction of a highway, evaluate the condition of cultural heritage in the aftermath of a natural disaster, or determine if a demolition permit should be issued for a significant building, inventories are a necessary tool for heritage management. They inform authorities, scholars, and the public of essential information about heritage resources, including their size, location, and significance. They also enable comparison of sites, aiding in categorization, appraisal of authenticity and integrity, and determination of relative significance—assessments that can assist in prioritizing management interventions. Legislation in many jurisdictions mandates the use of inventories as a means of heritage protection. In addition to their role in public administration, inventories are valuable for research, heritage tourism, and general public interpretation and understanding, because they organize information about cultural heritage and make it publicly accessible.

A mock-up of ArchesA mock-up of Arches that depicts a user-defined polygon search for heritage resources in the area of a simulated construction project. Image: © 2013 Google Map DataIn recent decades, the development of new digital information technologies, particularly geographic information systems (GIS), has substantially improved the effectiveness of heritage inventories. Rapidly growing global access to the Internet has made possible broadly accessible, web-based information systems for the inventory and management of immovable heritage. However, the development of an effective system can be a costly and substantial undertaking beyond the reach of many heritage agencies.

To address this challenge, the GCI and World Monuments Fund (WMF) partnered to develop for the international heritage field a modern information system designed to create and manage heritage inventories. The result is Arches, an open source geospatial web application for cultural heritage inventory and management, which allows organizations to view, create, edit, and query data. As an open source product, the Arches software is available at no cost, and users may modify it to meet their needs. Incorporating internationally adopted inventory standards, Arches can give heritage organizations most of what they require to create high-quality inventory and management systems.

Arches grew out of GCI and WMF efforts, begun in 2004, to support the Iraq State Board of Antiquities and Heritage (SBAH) in its role as national steward of Iraq's archaeological and architectural heritage. The objective was to create a national heritage information system for the SBAH to help it protect Iraq's heritage from looting, development, and other threats. Unfortunately, political and security conditions in Iraq made progress slow and intermittent.

In response, the GCI and WMF collaborated with the Jordanian Department of Antiquities to establish a similar system in Jordan with the aim of adapting that system for use in Iraq when the situation there improved. In June 2010, the GCI and WMF completed the Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities (MEGA)-Jordan—a web-based, bilingual (Arabic and English), geospatial information system designed to serve as an archaeological site inventory and management system for the Department of Antiquities of Jordan. The system was deployed that year and the Department of Antiquities allows public access to the system for viewing and searching purposes.

In creating MEGA, the GCI and WMF discovered that the options for inventories available to heritage agencies left much to be desired. Proprietary software rarely fits the needs of the heritage field. As a result, cultural heritage organizations spend precious resources to create custom information systems from scratch, in addition to committing to high-priced proprietary software licenses and upgrades. The use of proprietary and nonstandard data formats often leads to the inability to combine or compare datasets or share data with other systems, frequently because of obsolescence. As a result, organizations can struggle to make the best use of the data they have.

The successful deployment of MEGA in Jordan prompted many institutions worldwide to express interest in a customized version of that system for their own inventories that would not only record archaeological sites, but also architecture, landscapes, and other places of historic or cultural significance. Based on this, the GCI and WMF pooled resources to create Arches, a purpose-built information system that would be ready for organizations to download, customize, and deploy independently. Arches is intended to reduce the necessity for heritage institutions to spend scarce resources on proprietary software and creating systems from the ground up, and also to alleviate the need for them to engage in the complex and constantly changing world of software development.

Aerial view of Ghent, capital of East Flanders in Belgium.Aerial view of Ghent, capital of East Flanders in Belgium. Early in the development of Arches, the Flanders Heritage Agency provided test data and valuable advice on a number of development issues. Photo: Edelseider, courtesy Wikimedia, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported licenseDeveloping the System
In summer 2011, the GCI and WMF began developing Arches, working with Farallon Geographics, which had proven its expertise and had worked effectively with the GCI-WMF team in the development of MEGA. The first step was to define the requirements of a generic system that would support the needs of heritage organizations internationally to create and maintain inventories of heritage resources and would help manage them. The GCI and WMF consulted international best practices and standards, engaging nearly twenty national, regional, and local government heritage authorities from the United States, England, Belgium, and France, as well as American and European information technology (IT) experts.

From these efforts—and from lessons learned during MEGA's development—the project team determined that Arches should serve several purposes fundamental to the understanding, appreciation, and protection of heritage places, including identification and inventory, research, condition assessment, determination of management priorities, and raising public awareness of these resources.

The development of Arches included: 1) incorporating international standards for heritage inventories, as well as international standards for heritage data and information technology, to promote data sharing and longevity; 2) making it web-based to allow broad access, with an elegant easy-to-learn interface, which doesn't burden the user with the system's complexity; 3) creating an open code for the system capable of being configured and extended to meet the needs of adopters; and 4) releasing it under an open source license, making Arches available at no cost; adopters may pool resources to pay for customizations and maintenance.

Because Arches was developed to serve a variety of organizations with different needs, the core version was designed to maximize flexibility. For example, adopters may control the degree of data privacy that their system contains. Arches allows each organization deploying it to implement an individual information access policy; organizations may choose to have their systems and data open to online access or to limit its accessibility. The system also promotes data standardization through validation and controlled vocabularies.

Data within Arches is structured into four theme categories. Heritage Resources includes all types of immovable heritage, such as archaeological, architectural, landscape, urban, and maritime heritage. The Activities category comprises historical events, as well as contemporary activities, such as those related to investigation, designation and protection, and management. The Actors category includes persons, as well as organizations, both historical and contemporary, and Documents contains all types of documents and images. Arches manages relationships among data organized under these themes, so that a particular Actor (for instance, Mahatma Gandhi) may be related to multiple Activities (e.g., historical events such as political protests), Heritage Resources (e.g., protest sites, judicial courts, and prisons), and Documents (such as letters written by Gandhi). This structure can aid in the discovery of previously unknown relationships among people, places, events, and documents, which can, in turn, lead to new knowledge.

Using International Standards
Growing out of documentation practices in a number of countries, international standards have been developed for the inventory of archaeological, architectural, and movable cultural heritage. These standards identify "core" or essential items of information that should be part of any heritage inventory. These standards were also created to facilitate data sharing across political boundaries and to serve as a reference for heritage organizations, which, as they create inventories, often grapple with identifying the optimal set of inventory data to meet the practical requirements of heritage stewardship.

One standard for inventory of architectural heritage—the Core Data Index to Historic Buildings and Monuments of the Architectural Heritage—was adopted by the Council of Europe in 1992. A second standard for inventory of archaeological heritage, the Core Data Standard for Archaeological Sites and Monuments, was adopted by the International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) of the International Council of Museums in 1995. CIDOC is now finalizing a combined standard for the inventory of both archaeological and architectural heritage known as the International Core Data Standard for Archaeological and Architectural Heritage. In Arches, this combined standard was used to identify the data fields of version 1.0. Organizations that deploy Arches can customize those data fields to meet their specific requirements.

A widespread problem with heritage data over the long term is that it loses its meaning if it is inadequately documented and the individuals who originally understood it are no longer available. To encode and preserve the meaning of information managed by the software, Arches uses the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM), adopted by the International Organization for Standardization. Use of the CRM keeps the data independent of conventions that are particular to the design of Arches. It also contributes to powerfully effective searches within, as well as across, data sets. It will facilitate data migration to newer systems and aid in data preservation over time.

The integration of the CRM into Arches reflects one of the most exciting recent developments in information technology—namely, semantic awareness and the potential to publish and disseminate information as Linked Open Data (LOD). This is significant because it can permit heritage agencies and others to share data and establish new relationships among that data. For example, a historian one place in the world might document the birthplace of an artist, which happens to be a building under the jurisdiction of a local heritage agency elsewhere in the world. If the heritage agency is unaware of this connection, a search using LOD will yield the historian's new information, and this knowledge may help to justify the building's legal protection. Because of this kind of capability, there is growing interest by libraries, museums, and archives in publishing structured data as LOD. Arches will greatly facilitate the publication of data on immovable cultural heritage in this format.

Arches employs open data standards and is designed to access and process geospatial data based on the standards and specifications published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Compliance with OGC standards makes Arches compatible with desktop GIS applications widely used in the heritage field, including Esri ArcGIS, Google Earth, and Quantum GIS, as well as with common web browsers and online satellite imagery and map services (e.g., OpenStreetMap, Google, and Microsoft). Arches implements application programming interfaces, providing modern and standards-based methods for integrating multiple information management systems.

Release and Implementation
Version 1.0 of Arches was released in September 2013. This initial version—unveiled during the 2013 symposium of the ICOMOS International Committee for Documentation of Cultural Heritage (CIPA) in Strasbourg, France—was only the beginning. An evolving software road map listed and prioritized many additional features that the Arches open source community is now beginning to address to enhance the initial version. These features include more advanced options to import and export data and to interact with other systems. Version 2.0 of the system was released in March 2014.

Arches was designed as a common platform for heritage data management that is easy to customize and extend, depending on users' existing or future needs. To meet this ambitious goal, it was important to nurture an environment of ongoing collaboration by a diverse community of heritage organizations and professionals, as well as IT specialists. During development of version 1.0, the contributions of heritage institutions played a critical role. Early on, the Flanders Heritage Agency gave test data and valuable advice on a number of development issues. English Heritage contributed substantially by providing additional data for system development, testing, and demonstration, by offering guidance on controlled vocabularies and the incorporation of the CIDOC CRM, and by leading the system documentation effort.

The community is open to everyone and can include a wide range of individuals with varied interests and expertise. Computer programmers may try to solve issues that have been posted publicly. Many participants are drawn from organizations with direct need for the software and an interest in seeing it updated and maintained. As the software gains adopters, development should become increasingly robust and collaborative. Under the open source license, any improvements must be made available to everyone. The success of the open source community is key to the initiative's success, and the GCI and WMF are providing resources to assist the community during its first years. Ultimately, it is the community's dedication to the evolving vision of Arches that will help it thrive and guarantee its long-term sustainability.

In parallel to the development of the core version of Arches for the international heritage field in 2013, the GCI began customizing the system for the City of Los Angeles. For several years the GCI has offered technical advice—and the Getty Foundation has provided financial support—to an ongoing citywide survey of historic resources in Los Angeles called SurveyLA (an effort that grew out of an earlier GCI assessment of the city's need for a survey). Arches will now be used to manage the records of properties documented through SurveyLA and other heritage site lists of Los Angeles, and to publish them online so that they are publicly accessible. Once implemented, it will serve as a tool for the city to help manage historic resources and as an aid to scholars and the public conducting research on the Los Angeles historic environment.

Arches represents a groundbreaking effort to create for the cultural heritage field a purpose-built system incorporating the latest information technologies in data structuring, geospatial software, and semantics. It is hoped that Arches will help break the cycle of heritage organizations for review and resolution; others may prefer to create or participate in conversations about Arches; yet others may help update the user manual, translate the user interface, or answer newcomers' questions. Many participants are drawn from organizations with direct need for the software and an interest in seeing it updated and maintained. As the software gains adopters, development should become increasingly robust and collaborative. Under the open source license, any improvements must be made available to everyone. The success of the open source community is key to the initiative's success, and the GCI and WMF are providing resources to assist the community during its first years. Ultimately, it is the community's dedication to the evolving vision of Arches that will help it thrive and guarantee its long-term sustainability.

In parallel to the development of the core version of Arches for the international heritage field in 2013, the GCI began customizing the system for the City of Los Angeles. For several years the GCI has offered technical advice—and the Getty Foundation has provided financial support—to an ongoing citywide survey of historic resources in Los Angeles called SurveyLA (an effort that grew out of an earlier GCI assessment of the city's need for a survey). Arches will now be used to manage the records of properties documented through SurveyLA and other heritage site lists of Los Angeles, and to publish them online so that they are publicly accessible. Once implemented, it will serve as a tool for the city to help manage historic resources and as an aid to scholars and the public conducting research on the Los Angeles historic environment.

Arches represents a groundbreaking effort to create for the cultural heritage field a purpose-built system incorporating the latest information technologies in data structuring, geospatial software, and semantics. It is hoped that Arches will help break the cycle of heritage organizations expending scarce funds to create their own custom-made systems from scratch—a pattern that has long characterized the heritage field. To that end, the GCI and WMF have invested substantial resources in the development of a system that will preclude multiple expenditures addressing identical needs.

Arches has the potential to become the profession's standard for the inventory of immovable heritage, with multiplying benefits for the entire field. Using Arches provides a way for organizations to benefit from customizations, upgrades, improvements, and maintenance undertaken by anyone within the community. The careful integration of standards into Arches encourages the creation and management of data using best practices. This capacity, in turn, facilitates the exchange and comparison of data among Arches and other information systems, within the heritage community and related fields, and it will ultimately support the longevity of data.

Technology advances relentlessly, and Arches must evolve through the support of the community or eventually become obsolete. However, it is most important that the heritage field address the challenge of ensuring that the body of knowledge painstakingly assembled in information systems over many decades is well protected and continues to advance heritage management and protection into the future.

INTEGRATING DATA FOR CONSERVATION SCIENCE

Data—images, text, or scientific (analytical) measurements—constitute the foundation for understanding the physical state of works of art. This understanding, in turn, informs conservation treatment programs, as well as fosters historic, artistic, technological, and cultural interpretations of these works of art.

GCI staffGCI staff conducting X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on Vincent van Gogh’s Irises (collection of The J. Paul Getty Museum) using a portable XRF.Researchers in the field of conservation—both conservation scientists and practicing conservators—gather or generate enormous amounts of data in the course of an analysis or treatment campaign on an object, artist, or site. The same is true for curators and art historians, who increasingly incorporate into their work technical data generated by conservators and conservation scientists. For example, in researching Florentine workshop practices at the Getty, thousands of individual spectra, images, and observations were collected on over thirty different paintings and manuscript illuminations. This illustrates a common problem throughout heritage research—the ability to collect data is rapidly surpassing the ability of single researchers to fully analyze, interpret, and synthesize this information. Consequently, subtle but important phenomena or relationships may be difficult to identify in an overwhelming data stream.

During the past fiscal year, the GCI began an initiative to address this challenge to the conservation field. The initiative—titled Integrating Data for Conservation Science—seeks to improve the contribution of scientific and technical studies to the conservation and understanding of works of art through the development of new computer-assisted data integration tools that will enhance both the extraction of data to address specific research questions and the sharing of new information by a broad community of users.

The integration of different types of data into a concise and accurate representation is a way to facilitate new insights and discoveries. Indeed, the need for data integration is increasingly recognized as a research necessity. In addition to building on existing data-related projects within the cultural heritage field, this initiative will leverage data integration efforts in other data-rich disciplines (such as astronomy, medicine, chemistry, finance, and gaming) in order to provide open source tools tailored to benefit and strengthen art conservation, conservation science, and art-historical scholarship.

Ultimately, multiple types of data, from both individual researchers and groups of researchers at different institutions, will be connected using new semantic technologies. The linkages will facilitate the interrogation, visualization, and interpretation of the data, helping researchers, for example, draw comparisons and correlations between different works of art, different studies, and different points in an object's history. The linking of data from multiple sources will add value to each individual data source, and the community of experts built around the shared data will improve the quality of data interpretation. In these ways, scientific and technical studies will more effectively advance cultural heritage research by creating a more open, collaborative, and global research community, bringing new insights to the understanding and conservation of cultural heritage.

The initial three-year phase of the Integrating Data for Conservation Science initiative includes several components:

  • determining the state of the field regarding data integration in interdisciplinary fields, open source data projects, metadata standards, and specialized vocabularies and ontologies for describing conservation and conservation science data;
  • developing and refining specialized vocabularies and ontologies as necessary;
  • specifying requirements for a data integration platform based on use cases from a variety of stakeholders in conservation and conservation science;
  • developing a tool that integrates scientific, imaging, and textual data for conservation projects; and
  • seeding and supporting a community of experts and stakeholders in the area of conservation science.

Experts Meeting
The first major step in the initiative was a September 2013 experts meeting—generously supported by Dan Greenberg and Susan Steinhauser—that the GCI convened to explore the extent to which computer-assisted technologies may help cultural heritage researchers integrate different types of data. Thirty experts participated in the meeting, representing the fields of conservation, conservation science, art history, imaging science, data visualization, data and information science, astronomy, computer science, medicine, and software development. Institutions represented included cultural heritage institutions (museums and research/teaching organizations), universities, government agencies, and corporations. Representatives of the British Museum, Harvard, Yale, Microsoft, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology participated, among many others.

The Tablinum of the Casa del Bicentenario at the archaeological site of HerculaneumThe Tablinum of the Casa del Bicentenario at the archaeological site of Herculaneum where GCI team members carried out written, graphic, and photographic documentation of the wall paintings prior to developing conservation treatments. The project has received GCI Council support.During two and a half days of animated discussion, meeting participants discussed the state of the field in both cultural heritage research practice and computer-assisted technologies, identified new avenues of research that would be made possible or enhanced by data integration, suggested measures for implementing and supporting computer-assisted solutions to data integration, and identified priorities for action.

The new paradigm envisioned during the meeting will better leverage scientific and technical studies to advance cultural heritage research. It will additionally create a more open, collaborative, global research community in which the valued intellectual product is not the data itself, but the scholarly distillation and interpretation of that data, which will bring new insights to the conservation and understanding of cultural heritage.

Foundational Research
The September 2013 experts meeting made evident the need and opportunity for advancement in the area of data integration for conservation science. Based upon the discussions at the meeting, a program of work, with support from the Seaver Institute, will be undertaken by the GCI. This work will include conducting a baseline study, developing specific use cases, and reviewing existing standards and software tools.

The need for data integration is not unique to cultural heritage, as demonstrated by the breadth of participants at the experts meeting. Other data-rich disciplines have begun developing resources attuned to the needs of their respective stakeholders. Individual aspects of data integration for cultural heritage, such as the building of research networks to exchange data or the visualization of conservation technical images, have also begun to be addressed in recent years.

To ensure that the initiative effectively capitalizes on this existing work—whether in cultural heritage or other relevant fields, such as analytical chemistry, forensics, or digital imaging—a baseline study will be performed. The study will summarize such projects' aims and scope, milestones, progress-to-date, pitfalls and limitations, and lessons learned during their development and execution. Additionally, models for open source and open data projects will be reviewed.

In order to ensure the data integration environment ultimately developed meets the research needs of the different potential users, comprehensive use cases will be prepared. Use case analysis is a technique commonly employed in software development; it identifies the necessary functional requirements through an analysis of the needs of each group of potential users. For the cultural heritage research community, end-user groups will include practicing conservators, scientists, and curators, as well as academic research partners and others active in cultural heritage research.

As with the Arches project, successful data integration also requires development of common metadata standards and standard ontologies, agreed upon by the international cultural heritage community. The GCI project team will undertake a review of existing relevant standards for the core data (i.e., technical conservation images and scientific data) and associated metadata, as well as existing relevant dedicated vocabularies and ontologies necessary to enable an LOD approach to data integration.

Framework and Tool Development
Following the research phase of the initiative will be framework development: reviewing and refining the standards identified as necessary for successful data integration, then identifying software requirements for the tools to be developed. Several relevant standards already exist for core data, metadata, ontologies, and vocabularies; however, refinement or further development will be necessary in order to sufficiently describe the breadth of scientific and imaging data routinely collected in cultural heritage research. Working groups of experts in scientific standards development and specialized ontology development will be organized to collectively refine existing standards and specify the requirements to relate individual data sources and to render them connectable and cross-searchable.

Using the results of the standards review, together with the use cases, a comprehensive set of software requirements will be created to guide software development. This final phase will encompass the development of a software tool that integrates conservation data in a way that enhances the ability of heritage professionals to better understand and to preserve the objects in their care. In the process, the initiative will begin to seed a community of users. The software tool will be developed using an open-source model, and the data structure will be designed to facilitate the publication of open and linked data, a model utilized by the GCI Arches Project.

SERVING THROUGH INNOVATION

Among the declared values of the GCI are service and innovation—service to the conservation community, and innovation in the broadest sense, meaning not strictly "invention" but also developing novel approaches, pushing boundaries, and creating knowledge. The GCI and its staff are dedicated to embodying these values in all its work and wherever it is done—from the scientific laboratories at the Getty Center in Los Angeles to Roman mosaic sites on the shores of the Mediterranean to historic earthen buildings in the mountains of Peru.

The Arches Project and the Integrating Data for Conservation Science initiative are manifestations of both service and innovation by the GCI. Characteristic of the Institute's work as a whole, each project seeks to serve the conservation community by innovating with new technologies to improve and enhance the passionate efforts of the GCI's conservation colleagues around the world who have taken on the critical responsibility of helping to preserve humanity's irreplaceable cultural heritage.